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Part One The Greatest Story Ever Told,DIRECTOR S NOTE. Zeitgeist The Movie Part 1 The Greatest Story Ever Told presents historical data relating to the astronomi. cal astrological origins of the Judeo Christian theology which can be extended to Islam as well along with. the understanding that these respective stories beliefs traditions are really an adaptation extension of prior. Pagan beliefs In other words evidence shows that these modern religions are really composites of earlier. religions with their stories and symbolisms borrowed as the new traditions evolved Of course believers of. theistic religions have a inherent self preserving interest to disagree with such a notion for it brings their reli. gion out of the context of the supernatural and novel and into the context of a singular serial intellectual evo. lution of information where many religions begin to share a common symbolic and literary basis From such a. perspective naturally the idea that Jesus or Osiris or Dionysus were real supernatural figures of a larger. order metaphysic becomes a distant reality Regardless this section isn t really about whether God exists or. any such issue it is about the firm reality that religions have been borrowing and building upon each other. while the central origin of these theologies almost always comes back to stellar and solar fascination in part. When we track these literary ritual characteristics we find that most religions of the world have been spawned. from the interpretation misinterpretation of the natural world and its dynamic phenomena Of this phenomena. it is found that the sun the stars and the general stellar array have been a powerful source of allegorical and. hence mythological meaning since the dawn of humanity The term to describe this is Astrotheology and it will. be explained in the pages that follow, I want to thank D M Murdock aka Acharya S for her profound and deeply brave commitment to this complex. issue She has been very kind to review and update the following data presented here I would like to point out. that many who disagree with the following material often work to condemn the messenger as the originator. Of course this is a common tactic of those in denial or those who simply don t have the interest to investigate. thoroughly While Acharya is an expert in her field and does generate conclusions which are extrapolated from. the sources she researches just as any good scholar should for the sake of progress her work is also a pow. erful collection of scholar historian documentation which has occurred for the past 2000 years In other words. the idea that all of these ideas about comparative religion are Acharya s ideas is beyond incorrect Again. this is a tactic used by some to avoid actually reviewing sources Another common accusation is that all these. ideas are from an esoteric egyptologist names Gerald Massey This is also nonsense Massey is simply one. of many Egyptologists who recognized the obvious relationship of Christianity to earlier religions specifically. the Egyptian, At end of this section is the Bibliography for Part 1 Everyone is encouraged to examine the sources denoted. and research the nature of those scholars The fact is while this topic has been very controversial and taboo. for a very long period of time it doesn t change the facts apparent as inconvenient as they may be to the cur. rent prevailing assumptions about the origins of modern religious beliefs. A MESSAGE FROM DM MURDOCK, When Peter Joseph asked me to help out on this lengthy project I readily agreed even though the material. contained herein had already been validated repeatedly in my other efforts In this day and age it is obvious. that many people are not inclined or available timewise to read large tomes of scholarly writings in order to fig. ure it all out This fact of time constraint as well as difficulty in subject matter is the major reason ZEITGEIST. was so successful in the first place as it provided a short and easily digestible summary of the issue at hand. To wit the origins of some of our most cherished religious ideas So here we have put together a resource. that is hopefully more readily available to all who are interested but find it difficult and time consuming to wade. through huge chunks of information, When Peter first asked me to pitch in on this specific project he was not aware of how much work it would turn. out to be because as many who have read my work will know I am very diligent and meticulous in not only. my writing style but also the subject matter, In any event as I try to do I have put my all into this work so I hope you will benefit from it greatly This effort. includes new source material drawn from primary sources as well the works from credentialed authorities in a. variety of relevant subjects D M Murdock aka Acharya S. The Greatest Story Ever Told, 1 This is the sun As far back as 10 000 B C history is abundant with carvings and. writings reflecting people s respect and adoration for this object. Numerous artifacts prove these points such as from the sun worshipping cultures of the Egyptians. Indians Babylonians and Greeks among many others including the peoples of the Levant and ancient. Israel Concerning the antiquity of sun worship UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador Dr Madanjeet Singh. The tool making hominids as anthropologists call them emerged about one and a half million. years ago But the sun s identification with the animals they hunted became evident much later as. in the striking circular engravings representing the sun discovered in the Central Asian regions. thirteenth millennium BC in Siberia and western Turkistan They seem to have eventually. influenced the earliest artifacts made in Iran and Mesopotamia Apart from the animals depicted. in the Lascaux caves in France at Altamira in Spain at Adduara in Sicily 15 000 to 10 000 BC. and at the prehistoric Tassili N Ajjer in the Sahara region 7000 to 4000 BC are also strange. human figures such as the dancing man with horns on his head and a stallion tail as in the cave. paintings at Trois Fr res in Ari ge These are comparable to similar figures seen on the third. millennium BC Mohenjo daro seals found in the Indus Valley symbols that are identified with the. Describing this ubiquitous of sun worship professor of Archaeology at Cardiff University Dr Miranda J. Aldhouse Green remarks, The evidence for the sun cult manifests itself in Europe from as long ago as the fourth millennium. BC when Neolithic farmers recognized the divine power of the solar disc. Solar religion manifested itself not only in acknowledgement of the overt functions of the sun. as a provider of heat and light but also in recognition of influences that were more wide. Singh 12 13, To early communities the sun was an enigma with its nightly disappearance from the sky and. the withdrawal of its heat for half the year The sun s value as a life force was revered. This solar religion continued for millennia well into the common or Christian era As stated by Dr Lee. I A Levine a professor at the Jewish Theological Seminary. On the religious plane belief in the supremacy of the sun god was widespread The cult of Mithra. as well as other Oriental cults in the late Roman era identified the supreme deity with the sun In. fact the tendency in Late Antiquity to unify the creeds allowed the Greek sun god Helios to be. identified in many circles as the highest deity On an intellectual level Neoplatonic thought. throughout these centuries likewise addressed the centrality of the sun Closer to Palestine sun. worship is amply attested in Palmyra among the Essenes in Nabataea as well as on a plethora. of coins statuettes altars busts and inscriptions from the first centuries of our era. Dr Levine also says, In the late Roman era the figure of Helios or Sol Invictus occupied a central role in a variety of. settings from the Imperial circles of Rome to the eastern provinces Throughout the Greco. Roman period generally and especially in the first centuries of the Common Era the cult of this. sun god enjoyed enormous popularity, Sun worship persists to this day as described in Dr Singh s The Sun Symbol of Power and Life an. extensive survey with many images of solar religious traditions and iconography from the earliest periods. into the modern era For more information on the Astrotheology of the Ages and The God Sun see. also Suns of God Krishna Buddha and Christ Unveiled by Acharya S D M Murdock. Irish Sun Disc, Anthropomorphized sun god images in Babylonian King before the Sun God c 2000 BCE. Saimaly Tash rock drawings Shamash N Museum of Ireland Dublin. Bronze Age c 3000 600 BCE c 2000 BCE,Tien Mountains Kyrgyzstan Mus e du Louvre Paris. 2 And it is simple to understand why as every morning the sun would rise bringing. vision warmth and security saving man from the cold blind predator filled. darkness of night Without it the cultures understood the crops would not grow and. life on the planet would not survive These realities made the sun the most adored. object of all time, Concerning the ancient reverence for the sun UNESCO Director General Dr Federico Mayor remarks. As the bestower of light and life ancient cultures generally identified the sun as the symbol of. Truth the all seeing one eye of justice and equality the fountainhead of wisdom compassion. and enlightenment the healer of physical and spiritual maladies and above all the fundamental. source of fecundity growth and fruition as well as of death and the renewal of life. Kalmin 106,Kalmin 103, An Egyptian hymn from the era of the pharaoh Akhenaten d c 1336 BCE expresses the intense ancient. reverence for the sun,You appear beautiful,You living sun lord of Endless Time. are sparkling beautiful and strong,Love of you is great and powerful. Your rays touch every face,Your radiant skin animates hearts. You have filled the Two Lands of the horizons with love of yourself. Pharaoh Akhenaten and wife Nefertiri worshipping the sun. c 14th century BCE,3 Likewise they were also very aware of the stars. Naturally the ancient practice of astrotheology incorporated reverence for not only the sun but also the. moon planets stars and constellations In Prehistoric Lunar Astronomy Indian scholar Dr S B Roy. To the ancients heaven was the land of gods and mystery The sky was itself living The stars. were the abode of the gods The shining stars were indeed themselves luminous gods. Astronomy was the knowledge not of heavenly bodies but of heavenly beings It was the. heavenly celestial cosmic or divine knowledge knowledge of devas the bright luminous gods. Ancient stellar symbols and star maps have been found dating to many thousands of years ago including. in cave paintings and carvings As the BBC reports in Ice Age star map discovered. A prehistoric map of the night sky has been discovered on the walls of the famous painted caves. at Lascaux in central France, The map which is thought to date back 16 500 years shows three bright stars known today as. the summer Triangle, According to German researcher Dr Michael Rappenglueck of the University of Munich the. maps show that our ancestors were more sophisticated than many believe. In Oldest Star Chart Found astronomer Dr David Whitehouse states. The oldest image of a star pattern that of the famous constellation of Orion has been recognised. on an ivory tablet some 32 500 years old,Assman ESRNK 94. Ice Age star map discovered news bbc co uk 2 hi 871930 stm. The tiny sliver of mammoth tusk contains a carving of a man like figure with arms and legs. outstretched in the same pose as the stars of Orion. Ancient star map Ivory star chart,c 16 500 years old c 32 500 to 38 000 years old. Lascaux France Ach Valley Alb Danuba Germany, 4 The tracking of the stars allowed them to recognize and anticipate events which. occurred over long periods of time such as eclipses and full moons They in turn. catalogued celestial groups into what we know today as constellations. In his book In Search of Ancient Astronomies astronomer Dr Edwin C Krupp remarks. At Stonehenge in England and Carnac in France in Egypt and Yucatan across the whole face of. the earth are found mysterious ruins of ancient monuments monuments with astronomical. significance Some of them built according to celestial alignments others were actually precision. astronomical observatories Careful observations of the celestial rhythms was compellingly. important to early peoples and their expertise in some respects was not equaled in Europe until. three thousand years later, One of these ancient observatories one of the world s oldest yet discovered is found in Goseck. A vast shadowy circle sits in a flat wheat field near Goseck Germany The circle represents the. remains of the world s oldest observatory dating back 7 000 years Coupled with an etched disk. recovered last year the observatory suggests that Neolithic and Bronze Age people measured. the heavens far earlier and more accurately than scientists had imagined. In Oldest solar Observatory in Americas Found in Peru NPR reports. Archeologists may have uncovered what they say is by far the oldest astronomical observatory in. the America a series of towers near a temple in coastal Peru built in the fourth century B C. The towers at Chankillo mark the sun s progress across the sky This suggests the sun may. have played an important role in religious and political life long before the appearance of the. famous Inca sun cult, Archeologist Ivan Ghezzi says The Inca claimed to be the offspring of the sun But now we. have a society that is 1 800 years before the Inca that is clearly using the sun as a way to make a. political social and ideological statement, Many more such discoveries have occurred over the past several decades. Oldest Star Chart Found news bbc co uk 2 hi science nature 2679675 stm. Krupp ISAA xiii, Mukerjee Circles for Space Mukerjee mentions here what is called the Nebra Disk. Solar circle observatory, Astronomically aligned stones c 7 000 years old The Thirteen Towers. 6 000 to 8 500 years old Goseck Germany c 14th century BCE. Nabta Playa Egypt Ralf Beutragel Chankillo Peru,Ivan Ghezzi. 5 This is the cross of the Zodiac one of the oldest conceptual images in human history. It reflects the sun as it figuratively passes through the 12 major constellations over. the course of a year It also reflects the 12 months of the year the four seasons and. the solstices and equinoxes The term Zodiac relates to the fact that constellations. were anthropomorphized or personified as figures or animals. The antiquity of the idea of a zodiac is disputed but it may have been formulated as early as 4 000 or. more years ago As D M Murdock says in Christ in Egypt The Horus Jesus Connection. the zodiac certainly existed in Mesopotamia millennia ago worked over by the famed Chaldean. astronomers with the Greeks further polishing it In this regard several sources such as royal. astronomer Dr Edward Walter Maunder the devout Christian author of The Astronomy of the. Bible have indicated an origin of the zodiac including the popular signs to some 4 000 or more. years ago We also possess the relatively recent find of the Karanovo Zodiac from Bulgaria. which has been dated to around 6 000 years ago and which seems to bear rudimentary. renditions of the constellations found in the Western zodiac. The zodiac as it appears to us today was refined by the Greeks several centuries prior to the common. Karanovo Tablet,c 6 000 years old Hieroglyphic Plan by. Nova Zagora Bulgaria Hermes of the Ancient,Dendera zodiac Zodiac. 1st century BCE Kirchner OEdipus,Dendera Egypt AEgyptiacus. 6 In other words the early civilizations did not just follow the sun and stars they. personified them with elaborate myths involving their movements and relationships. The meanings of many myths can be traced to a number of origins the most prominent of which is nature. worship and astrotheology whereby the gods and goddesses are essentially personifications of earthly. forces and celestial bodies As concerns the anthropomorphization of the celestial bodies in Suns of. God Krishna Buddha and Christ Unveiled Murdock relates. Murdock CIE 265 266 The Karanovo Tablet has also been interpreted to be crude Egyptian hieroglyphs See. The Sacred Tablet from the village of Karanovo www institutet science com en karanovoe php. Ancient peoples abundantly acknowledged that their religions dating back centuries and. millennia before the common era were largely based on astrotheology with their gods. representing the sun moon stars and planets One of their focuses was the sun and the story of. the sun became highly developed over a period of thousands of years possibly tens of thousands. or more The observations of the sun and its daily monthly annual and precessional movements. have led to complex myths in which it was personified as a god. We can see this astrotheological and nature worshipping religion in the writings of ancient historians such. as Herodotus Berossus and Diodorus as well as in the Bible both overtly and covertly and in Jewish. apocryphal texts The writings of the Church fathers also discussed the Pagan astrotheology. sometimes fairly extensively, One ancient source for the true nature worshipping and astrotheological meaning of many Greek gods. and goddesses is the writer Porphyry c 235 c 305 AD CE who according to early Catholic Church. father historian Eusebius related, The whole power productive of water the Greeks called Oceanus the drinking water produced. is called Achelous and the sea water Poseidon, the power of fire they called Hephaestus the fire brought down from heaven to earth is less. intense wherefore he is lame, Also they supposed a power of this kind to belong to the sun and called it Apollo There are also. nine Muses singing to his lyre which are the sublunar sphere and seven spheres of the planets. and one of the fixed stars, But inasmuch as the sun wards off the evils of the earth they called him Heracles Hercules. And they invented fables of his performing twelve labours as the symbol of the division of the. signs of the zodiac in heaven and they arrayed him with a club and a lion s skin the one as an. indication of his uneven motion and the other representative of his strength in Leo the sign of. the zodiac, Of the sun s healing power Asclepius is the symbol. But the fiery power of his revolving and circling motion whereby he ripens the crops is called. Dionysus And whereas he revolves round the cosmical seasons Grk horas and is the maker. of times and tides the sun is on this account called Horus. Of his power over agriculture whereon depend the gifts of wealth Plutus the symbol is Pluto. Cerberus is represented with three heads because the positions of the sun above the earth are. three rising midday and setting, The moon conceived according to her brightness they called Artemis. What Apollo is to the sun that Athena is to the moon for the moon is a symbol of wisdom and so. a kind of Athena, But again the moon is Hecate the symbol of her varying phases. They made Pan the symbol of the universe and gave him his horns as symbols of sun and moon. and the fawn skin as emblem of the stars in heaven or of the variety of the universe. Porphyry s explanations include many other divine figures relating them to additional nature worshipping. elements such as air wind fruits and seeds and he names the earth as a virgin and mother. In all these ways then the power of the earth finds an interpretation and is worshipped as a. virgin and Hestia she holds the centre as a mother she nourishes. Acharya SOG 60, For more on these subjects see Murdock Acharya s Suns of God. Eusebius Evangelicae Praeparationis The Preparation for the Gospel III XI 112d 115a Eusebius Gifford 122. Here is clearly one source in antiquity of the virgin mother concept which was so obviously adopted into. Christianity from Paganism As can be seen the Greek religion was perceived in ancient times to be. highly astrotheological and reflective of nature worship The same can be said of many others such as. the Babylonian Egyptian Indian and Roman, Hercules and the Hydra Disk with Dionysus and 11 signs of the. Roman mosaic zodiac Sun god Apollo riding in his chariot. Valencia Spain 4th cent BCE pulled by four horses,Photo Zaqarbal Brindisi Italy Mosaic. Kerenyi fig 146 17, 7 The sun with its life giving and saving qualities was personified as a representative. of the unseen creator or god God s Sun, We have already seen that the ancient cultures have considered the sun as divine hence it is either. God a god or a son of God a god Indeed this sun of God as son of God motif is common in the. mythology of India Greece Rome and Egypt to name a few of the more well known nations In Egypt. this son of the sun is the god Horus among others while in Greece it is Apollo son of Zeus whose. name means God This same tradition was discussed by Plato as related in The Book of the Sun. 1494 by Neoplatonic Christian philosopher Marsillio Ficino. According to Plato Republic VI 508c he called the Sun not God himself but the son of God. And I say not the first son of God but a second and moreover visible son For the first son of. God is not this visible Sun but another far superior intellect namely the first one which only the. intellect can contemplate Therefore Socrates having been awakened by the celestial Sun. surmised a super celestial Sun and he contemplated attentively its majesty and inspired would. admire the incomprehensible bounty of the Father, In a chapter 2 entitled How the light of the Sun is similar to Goodness itself namely God Ficino. summarizes the god characteristics projected upon the solar orb by ancient cultures extending into. modern times, Above all the Sun is most able to signify to you God himself The Sun offers you signs and who. dare to call the Sun false Finally the invisible things of God that is to say the angelic spirits. can be most powerfully seen by the intellect through the stars and indeed even eternal things. the virtue and divinity of God can be seen through the Sun. Concerning the son sun play on words which is not a cognate but a mere happy coincidence in. English that reflects the mythological reality in Jesus as the Sun throughout History Murdock states. Eusebius Praep III XI 110c Eusebius Gifford 120 121. Concerning this disk Dr Kerenyi 386 states The Brindisi disk includes the earliest known representation of the. zodiac on Greek or Italian soil To the artisan who fashioned it the zodiac was still new He inscribed it on the edge of. the disk but did not understand its figures He also changed the order of the constellations but surely followed a. very early model for like the original Babylonian zodiac his has only eleven signs and a double length Scorpio. See Plato Ferrari 215 See also Pico della Mirandola 163 when Plato in the Republic calls the sun the visible. son of God why may we not understand it as the image of the invisible Son. this sun son word play has been noted many times previously in history by a variety of. individuals including English priest and poet Robert Southwell in the 16 century and English. poet Richard Crashaw in the 17 century English poet and preacher John Donne 1572 1631. and Welsh poet and priest George Herbert 1593 1633 likewise engaged in the son sun pun as. applied to Christ In discussing Donne Dr Arthur L Clements a professor at Binghamton. University remarks that the Son sun pun is familiar enough Comparing Christ to the day. star famous English poet John Milton 1608 1674 was aware of the sun son of God analogy. and revel ed in the sun son pun Puritan minister Edward Taylor 1642 1729 engaged in the. same punning by describing Christ as the onely sic begotten Sun that is in the bosom of the. Furthermore in describing the actions of the Church fathers in adapting sun myths to Christianity. Thomas Ellwood Longshore declared in 1881 They merely changed the visible Sun of God for. the invisible Son of God or for this personage they called the Son of God. Obviously this devotional pun was widely recognized centuries ago by the English speaking. intelligentsia and educated elite, To reiterate while the mythical truth is that in antiquity the sun was perceived as the son of God the. claim is not being made that the words sun and son are related or cognates Or that the NT writers. knew English or that this phonic coincidence in itself provides any evidence whatsoever of the thesis it. illustrates As we can see however great English writers have happily glommed onto the notion that the. Sun of Righteousness is the Son of God and have utilized the son sun pun or play on words with. 8 the light of the world the savior of human kind Likewise the 12 constellations. represented places of travel for God s Sun and were identified by names usually. representing elements of nature that happened during that period of time For. example Aquarius the water bearer who brings the Spring rains. The notions of the sun as the savior and the light of the world are understandably common in ancient. religious history, The Sun was looked up to as the grand omnipotent nucleus whose all vivifying power is the. vital and sole source of animative and vegetative existence upon the globe the glorious. foundation out of which springs all that man ever has or ever can call good and as such the only. proper object of the homage and adoration of mankind hence the Sun as we are informed by. Pausanias was worshipped at Eleusis under the name of The Saviour. In his description of a sacred precinct in Arkadia that apparently practiced the Eleusinian mysteries. famous Greek historian of the second century AD CE Pausanias 8 31 remarks. There are these square shaped statues of other gods inside the enclosure Hermes the Leader. Apollo Athene Poseidon the Saviour Sun and Herakles. To describe the sun as savior Pausanias uses the word Soter a title commonly applied to many gods. and goddesses at different places, The sun s role as savior and light is exemplified in the following ancient Egyptian solar. You are the light which rises for humankind,the sun which brings clarity. so that gods and humans be recognised and distinguished. when you reveal yourself,Every face lives from seeing your beauty. all seed germinates when touched by your rays,and there is no one who can live without you. Mitchell 62,Pausanias Levi 451, You lead everyone because they have a duty to their work. You have given form to their life by becoming visible. With regard to the 12 places of travel for God s Sun The New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. In Russian Folklore the Sun possessed twelve kingdoms the twelve months or signs of the. Zodiac He lived in the solar disk and his children on the stars The daily movement of the Sun. across the celestial sphere was represented in certain Slavonic myths as a change in his age the. sun was born every morning, The notion of the sun moving passing or traveling through the zodiacal circle was expressed by the. Greek philosophers Pythagoras Plato and Aristotle Neoplatonist Ficino may be echoing their. sentiment when he says, The Sun in that it is clearly lord of the sky rules and moderates all truly celestial things Firstly. it infuses light into all the stars whether they have a tiny light of their own as some people. suspect or no light at all as very many think Next through the twelve signs of the zodiac it is. called living and that sign which the Sun invigorates actually appears to be alive. This idea of the sun or moon traveling through the signs of the zodiac was common among several. peoples including the Anglo Saxons as demonstrated in the De temporibus anni of lfric Puttoc d. 1051 who personifies the moon old and tired and relates. Truly the moon year has twenty seven days and eight hours This is the moon year but its. month is more which is when the moon travels new from the sun until it returns to the sun again. old and tired and is displayed again through the sun i e new moon In the moon month are. counted twenty nine days and twelve hours this is the moon month and its year is when it travels. through all twelve star signs, So too is this knowledge of the sun passing or traveling through the signs included in the highly. astrological work by famed Jewish philosopher Abraham Ibn Ezra 1089 1167 in The Book of Reasons. Sefer ha Te amim in which he writes The six signs were designed northern because the Sun travels. through them when it is on the northern side of the equator and the opposite applies to the southern. The meanings of the signs of the zodiac have been interpreted variously over the centuries ranging from. constellations to seasonal qualities such as Virgo and Aquarius In The Christ Conspiracy Murdock. summarizes these astrotheological meanings of the zodiacal signs as we currently have them and as they. would have been during the several centuries before the common era. Aries is represented as the Ram Lamb because March April is the time of the year when lambs. are born Taurus is the Bull because April May is the time for ploughing and tilling Gemini is the. Twins so called for Castor and Pollux the twin stars in its constellation as well as because. May June is the time of increasing or doubling of the sun when it reached its greatest. strength Virgo originally the Great Mother Earth is the Gleaning Virgin who holds a sheath of. wheat symbolizing August September the time of the harvest Aquarius is the Water Bearer. because January February is the time of winter rains. Assman ESRNK 78,Larousse 285,Mansfield 701,Chardonnens 395. Acharya CC 152 as paraphrased from Hazelrigg s The Sun Book 43. Zodiac with sun god Helios in the center,6th century AD CE. Mosaic synagogue,Beit Alpha Israel, In order to understand how the ancients personified the celestial elements and told stories about them. we can turn to the myth of Hercules which has been recognized to be both astronomical and. astrotheological, The Labors of Hercules which chiefly interest us are 1 The capture of the Bull 2 the. slaughter of the Lion 3 the destruction of the Hydra 4 of the Boar 5 the cleansing of the. stables of Augeas 6 the descent into Hades and the taming of Cerberus The first of these is in. line with the Mithraic conquest of the Bull the Lion is of course one of the most prominent. constellations of the Zodiac and its conquest is obviously the work of a Saviour of mankind while. the last four labors connect themselves very naturally with the Solar conflict in winter against the. powers of darkness The Boar 4 we have seen already as the image of Typhon the prince of. darkness the Hydra 3 was said to be the offspring of Typhon the descent into Hades 6. generally associated with Hercules struggle with and victory over Death links on to the descent. of the Sun into the underworld and its long and doubtful strife with the forces of winter and the. cleansing of the stables of Augeas 5 has the same signification It appears in fact that the. stables of Augeas was another name for the sign of Capricorn through which the Sun passes at. the Winter solstice the stable of course being an underground chamber and the myth was that. there in this lowest tract and backwater of the Ecliptic all the malarious and evil influences of the. sky were collected and the Sungod came to wash them away December was the height of the. rainy season in Jud a and cleanse the year towards its rebirth. It should not be forgotten too that even as a child in the cradle Hercules slew two serpents sent. for his destruction the serpent and the scorpion as autumnal constellations figuring always as. enemies of the Sungod to which may be compared the power given to his disciples by Jesus to. tread on serpents and scorpions Hercules also as a Sungod compares curiously with. Samson but we need not dwell on all the elaborate analogies that have been traced between. these two heroes, 9 This is Horus He is the Sun God of Egypt of around 3000 BC. Concerning the antiquity of Horus Egyptologist Dr Edmund S Meltzer remarks. Horus is one of the earliest attested of the major ancient Egyptian deities becoming known to us. at least as early as the late Predynastic period Naqada III Dynasty 0 c 3200 3000 BCE he was. still prominent in the latest temples of the Greco Roman period 332 BCE 640 AD CE especially at. Philae and Edfu as well as in the Old Coptic and Greco Egyptian ritual power or magical texts. As is the case with many gods in other parts of the world several Egyptian gods and goddesses. possess solar attributes essentially making them sun gods These Egyptian sun gods included not only. Carpenter 48 50,Redford 165, the commonly known Ra or Re but also Osiris and Horus among others In the first century BCE the. Greek writer Diodorus Siculus described Osiris as the sun while his sister wife Isis is the moon. Now when the ancient Egyptians awestruck and wondering turned their eyes to the heavens. they concluded that two gods the sun and the moon were primeval and eternal they called the. former Osiris the latter Isis, Concerning the nature of certain Egyptian gods Dr James P Allen Curator of Egyptian Art at the. Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York remarks, Ruling over the universe by day the Sun was identified with Horus the god of kingship at. sunset he was seen as Atum the oldest of all gods The Sun s daily movement through the sky. was viewed as a journey from birth to death and his rebirth at dawn was made possible through. Osiris the force of new life, In the middle of the night the Sun merged with Osiris s body through this union the Sun. received the power of new life while Osiris was reborn in the Sun. These gods are often interchangeable and their attributes and stories may overlap As stated by. Egyptologist Dr Erik Hornung, Many Egyptian gods can be the sun god especially Re Atum Amun and manifestations of. Horus Even Osiris appears as the night form of the sun god in the New Kingdom It is often not. defined which particular sun god is meant in a given instance. Hieroglyph representing either Horus or Ra in his Sun Disk. Budge An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary cxiv, These gods interchangeability is evident from Egyptian texts such as chapter or spell 69 of the Book of. I am Horus the Elder on the Day of Accession I am Anubis of Sepa I am the Lord of All I am. Moreover there were several Horuses including Horus the Elder whose eyes are the sun and the moon. as well as also Horus the Child a number of whose attributes may be found in the gospel story and. Christian tradition Eventually these various Horuses blended together until there were only two left. Horus the Sun God and Horus the son of Osiris and Isis. Concerning these different Horuses Egyptologist Dr Henri Frankfort says. It is therefore a mistake to separate Horus the Great God Lord of Heaven from Horus son of. Osiris or to explain their identity as due to syncretism in comparatively late times The two gods. Horus whose titles we have set side by side are in reality one and the same. Diodorus Murphy 14,Allen AEPT 8,Hornung CGAE 283,Faulkner EBD 1967 107. Jackson J 112,Frankfort 41,Horus the Elder Horus the Child with sidelock. Magical Stela 360 343 BCE, 10 He is the sun anthropomorphized and his life is a series of allegorical myths. involving the sun s movement in the sky, We have already seen that Horus is a sun god a fact confirmed five centuries. before the common era by the Greek historian Herodotus 2 144 156 when he. equated Osiris with Dionysus and Horus with the Greek sun god Apollo In. Egyptian Apollo is Horus Demeter is Isis Artemis is Bubastis. Regarding Horus as the sun god Murdock says, In ancient Egyptian writings such as the Pyramid Texts in which he is called. the Lord of the Sky along with other solar epithets such as He Whose Face. is Seen He Whose Hair is Parted and He Whose Two Plumes are Long. Horus s function as a sun god or aspect of the sun is repeatedly emphasized. although this singularly pertinent fact is seldom found in encyclopedias and. textbooks leaving us to wonder why he would be thus diminished In the Coffin. Texts as well is Horus s role as morning sun god made clear such as in the. following elegantly rendered scripture from CT Sp 255. I will appear as Horus who ascends in gold from upon the lips of the. 39 The Sun Springing from an Opening, In CT Sp 326 Horus is even called Lord of the sunlight Lotus Flower in the Form of the Child. Egyptologist James Allen also discusses Horus s solar attributes Maspero 193. Horus was the power of kingship To the Egyptians this was as much a. force of nature as those embodied in the other gods It was manifest in two natural phenomena. the sun the most powerful force in nature and the pharaoh the most powerful force in human. society Horus s role as the king of nature is probably the origin of his name hrw seems to mean. the one above or the one far off This is apparently a reference to the sun which is above. and far off in the sky like the falcon with which Horus is regularly associated. Illustrating certain motifs including the sun god s movement through the night and day Sir Dr E A Wallis. Budge 1857 1934 noted English Egyptologist Orientalist and philologist who worked for the British. Museum and published numerous works remarks, The Sun has countless names Ptah Tmu Ra Horus Khnemu Sebek Amen etc and some of. them such as Osiris and Seker are names of the Sun after he has set or in mythological. language has died and been buried All gods as such were absolutely equal in their might and. Herodotus de Selincourt 145,Murdock CIE 47,Allen J ME 144. in their divinity but mythologically Osiris might be said to be slain by his brother Set the. personification of Night who in his turn was overthrown by Horus the rising sun the heir of. As we can see both Osiris and Horus are essentially sun gods who both also battle with the Prince of. Darkness the god Set or Seth, Horus emerging from the corpse of Osiris the sun disk behind him. Burial chamber of Ramesses VI 1145 1137 BCE,Hornung Valley of the Kings 116. 11 From the ancient hieroglyphics in Egypt we know much about this solar messiah. For instance Horus being the sun or the light had an enemy known as Set and Set. was the personification of the darkness or night And metaphorically speaking every. morning Horus would win the battle against Set while in the evening Set would. conquer Horus and send him into the underworld It is important to note that dark vs. light or good vs evil is one of the most ubiquitous mythological dualities ever. known and is still expressed on many levels to this day. Like his father Osiris battling Set Seth on a nightly basis so too does Horus fight Seth as related by. Egyptologist Dr Jan Assman, First Horus and Seth battle one another in the form of hippopotami Isis seizes a harpoon but is. unable to kill Seth because he addresses her as sister Horus is furious at this act of mercy and. decapitates Isis He flees into the desert where Seth finds him and rips his eyes out But the. wounds are immediately healed and the plot continues. Horus s conflict with Set is also recounted by the director of the Antiquities Museum at the Bibliotheca. Alexandrina in Egypt Dr Badrya Serry, It is known that the child Harpocrates struggled with his uncle Seth to revenge his father and. attain victory upon him Since he overcame the powers of darkness Seth he was likened to the. Greek hero Heracles who battled the powers of evilness. For more information see the chapter Horus versus Set pp 67 78 in Murdock s Christ in Egypt. Set as represented in the tomb of Horus versus Set. pharaoh Thutmose III fl 1479 1425,Budge GFSER 2 3,Assman SGAE 140.