Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Why Closing The Word Gap Matters Oup Com Cn
Jane Harley is Strategy Director UK Education Oxford University Press 1Oxford University Press 2018 Oxford Language Thought Leadership Report Available on request 2 Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 44 of primary school teachers in the survey of 473 primary teachers who took part and 43 of secondary school
Foreword by Jane Harley 2,The word gap what does the research tell us 3. The word gap in secondary schools by Lionel Bolton 8. Mind the word gap by Geoff Barton 9, Case study Handsworth Grange Community Sports College 10. The impact of the word gap in primary schools by Andrea Quincey 11. Vocabulary caught or taught by Jean Gross CBE 12, Case study Ideas for developing vocabulary by Janine Wooldridge 13. The importance of developing a rich vocabulary by David Reedy 14. The importance of learning language in the context of use 15. by Professor Teresa Cremin, Reading and language acquisition by James Clements 16. Vocabulary development and reading comprehension a reciprocal 17. relationship by Professor Kate Cain and Professor Jane V Oakhill. Aspects of vocabulary development by Professor Jane V Oakhill 18. and Professor Kate Cain, Edging across a crocodile s back by Joseph Coelho 19. Why reading for pleasure is a social justice issue 20. by Dr Ian Thompson and Nicole Dingwall,The Oxford Children s Corpus by Vineeta Gupta 21. How are schools reducing the word gap 22,Jane Harley. Language opens doors It unlocks the world of reading and the imagination the. excitement of writing the capacity to explore new subjects and releases our potential to. learn and grow as an individual In schools it underpins progress impacts on attainment. throughout primary and secondary years affects self esteem and behaviour and plays. a huge role in a child s future life chances Without enough language a word gap a. child is seriously limited in their enjoyment of school and success beyond. Oxford University Press OUP monitors children s language in an. ongoing way through the Oxford Children s Corpus the biggest living. database of children s reading and writing in English We track the Over half the teachers surveyed. development of new vocabulary the fascinating and often creative reported that at least 40. uses of words and the power of children s ability to distil new ideas and of their pupils lacked the. express them in novel and exciting ways We also conduct research in. vocabulary to access their, schools to better understand the needs of pupils of all abilities and the. challenges facing teachers learning, For our Oxford Language Report we carried out market research with. more than 1 000 teachers Over half of those surveyed reported that at. least 40 of their pupils lacked the vocabulary to access their learning. 69 of primary school teachers and over 60 of secondary school. teachers believe the word gap is increasing1 While certain pupil. groups may be more likely to have a limited vocabulary for example. those with special educational needs SEND or children learning. English as an additional language EAL in reality the word gap is. an issue that affects all pupils2 We know from other research3 that. the size of a child s vocabulary is the best predictor of success. on future tests and children with a poor vocabulary at five are. four times more likely to struggle with reading in adulthood and. three times more likely to have mental health issues There is a. government focus to do something about this in the Early Years. but what of the primary and secondary school children who are. falling ever further behind as they progress through school How. can they best be helped, Language is at the heart of education We believe that more needs to. be done to address the word gap throughout school and give teachers. the support to make a difference to these children s lives We invited. academics and practitioners to offer their thoughts in this report There. is evidence of great practice in many of the schools we contacted and. in the suggestions from our experts how can this be shared to help all. children have access to the best quality conversations books and ideas. We are calling on policy makers and all those involved in education to. find ways to close the word gap Too much is at stake for us to ignore. this complex issue,69 of primary teachers, Jane Harley is Strategy Director UK Education Oxford University Press. 60 of secondary teachers,believe the word gap is increasing. Oxford University Press 2018 Oxford Language Thought Leadership Report Available on request. Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 44 of primary school teachers in the survey of 473 primary teachers who took part and 43 of secondary school. teachers in the survey of 840 secondary teachers who took part reported that this is a general problem not specific to any one group of students. Law J Charlton J Asmussen K 2017 Language as a Child Wellbeing Indicator Early Intervention Foundation Newcastle University. The word gap what does,the research tell us,Background to the OUP research into the word gap. The term word gap is typically used to refer to children in Early Years settings or pupils. entering primary school with a vocabulary far below age related expectations However. we know that this issue affects a wider range of children and not just those starting. school This word gap can be present throughout a child s education and beyond. To better understand this complex issue we conducted an online survey with teachers. Our objective was to answer the following questions. What proportion of children are affected by the word gap in UK. 1 primary and secondary schools,2 What are the root causes of the word gap. How does the word gap impact on pupils academic achievement. 3 as well as their wider life chances, What successful strategies have schools put in place to close the. 4 word gap, By answering these important questions OUP hopes to be able to better support schools to. narrow and ultimately close the word gap,Participants in the OUP research. The survey was met with an enthusiastic response We received. over 1 300 completed surveys from teachers across the UK. including responses from 840 secondary school teachers and. 473 primary school teachers We collected a diverse range of. teacher perspectives as participants had a range of job titles. taught various subjects and were from different education. phases The survey was live between December 2017 and. January 2018,Over 1 300 primary,and secondary,school teachers. took part in the,OUP research, What is the proportion of The word gap persists across age groups. children affected by the word Teachers reported that despite implementing a wide. range of programmes the proportion of pupils with a. gap limited vocabulary remains stubbornly high across all. Our research found that the word gap represents a age groups. significant and widespread challenge to both primary. and secondary schools,of primary school teachers, On average primary school teachers who took part in OUP. who took part in the survey reported research reported that the. that 49 of Year 1 pupils have a limited proportion of children. with a low vocabulary in,49 vocabulary to the extent that it affects. their learning their school between Year,1 and Year 6 had either. remained the same or,increased 4,On average secondary school teachers. who took part in the survey reported 60, that 43 of Year 7 pupils have a limited of secondary school. vocabulary to the extent that it affects,their learning. 43 teachers who took part in,OUP research reported that. the proportion of children,with a low vocabulary in. their school between Year,7 and Year 11 had either. remained the same or,increased 5,The number of pupils who have a limited. vocabulary is increasing, Although the word gap is already large both primary and. secondary school teachers report that they feel the word. gap is increasing, 69 of the primary school teachers who took part in. the survey said that they think the number of pupils. with limited vocabulary is either increasing or, significantly increasing in their schools compared to a. few years ago A similarly high proportion of secondary. school teachers believe the word gap has increased in. recent years 60 6, Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 24 of primary teachers surveyed of 400 who took part saw no change to the proportion of pupils with a. limited vocabulary to the extent it affects their learning in their time at school between Year 1 and Year 6 19 of primary teachers surveyed have. seen an increase in the proportion of pupils with limited vocabulary in their school between Year 1 and Year 6 in their school. Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 27 of secondary teachers surveyed of 703 who took part saw no change to the proportion of pupils with. a limited vocabulary to the extent it affects their learning in their time at school between Year 7 and Year 11 33 of secondary teachers surveyed. have seen an increase in the proportion of pupils with limited vocabulary between Year 7 and Year 11 in their school. Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 50 of primary teachers surveyed of 473 who took part felt the proportion of pupils with a limited. vocabulary is increasing 19 felt it is significantly increasing 48 of secondary teachers of 840 who took part felt the number of pupils with a. limited vocabulary is increasing 12 felt it is significantly increasing. What are the root causes of the, word gap Language variation in children is complex. Language variation in children is a complex issue and and difficult to attribute to a single. it is therefore impossible to attribute it to one specific cause Regardless of the causes low. levels of vocabulary set limits on literacy, Numerous studies have been conducted to better understanding learning the curriculum. understand the root cause of the word gap and and can create a downward spiral of poor. corroborate what teachers have told us in this study. language which begins to affect all aspects,There is abundant evidence that the rate at which. children develop language is sensitive to the amount of of life The prospects for children entering. input that they receive from parents and primary carers school with low levels of vocabulary are. A strong correlation can be made between the number a compelling reason for us to work to. of words a child comes in contact with on a daily basis. understand the way children learn in order, and the breadth of their vocabulary Hart and Risley. best demonstrated this in their ground breaking study to try and find solutions. in the 1990s 7,Kate Nation Professor of Experimental Psychology. University of Oxford,Alongside quantity the quality of parent child. interactions is also an important factor High quality. interactions include talking about the child s focus. of interest varying vocabulary and using words in,different contexts. These interactions give children a stronger grasp of. language by the time they start school an advantage. which stays with them throughout their education If. it is not dealt with in the early years the word gap is. shown to widen as the child gets older While quantity. and quality of parent child communication interactions. are vital research indicates that there are underlying 93 95. variables that have a role in language development of primary of secondary. One such study is Hart and Risley s research into the school school. importance of socio economic factors in this context 8 teachers teachers. believe a lack of time spent,reading for pleasure is a root. cause of the word gap, Hart B and Risley T 2003 The Early Catastrophe The 30 Million Word Gap by Age 3 American Educator 27 pp 4 9. Hart B and Risley T 2003 op cit, What does the word gap mean for a child s academic achievement. and wider life chances, The word gap has a significant impact on a child s academic potential. Almost all primary school teachers surveyed by OUP felt that the word gap resulted in weaker. comprehension skills and slower than expected progress in reading and writing Secondary school. teachers overwhelmingly stated that a low vocabulary affects a child s progress through secondary school. across a wide range of subjects The vast majority of those surveyed 86 of primary teachers and. 80 of secondary teachers responded that they thought it was very or extremely challenging for pupils. with a limited vocabulary to read national test papers Consequently 82 primary teachers and 79 of. secondary teachers noted that these pupils are likely to get worse results in national tests. The diagram below illustrates the proportion of secondary teachers surveyed who believe the word. gap is impacting on pupils academic achievement in the following ways9. Difficulty working independently 75,Difficulty following what is going on in class 77. Worse results in National Tests, eg SATs GCSEs and Scottish national qualifications 79. Slower than expected progress in English 91, Slower than expected progress in other subjects 85 10. Language is the foundation of education and is vital. for social and emotional development Children with. poor oral language are at high risk of poor literacy and. hence educational failure They can also experience. difficulty in communicating to make friends to join in. activities and to express their feelings While there is no. quick fix there is robust evidence that interventions. which target oral language skills do have significant. potential for improving educational outcomes by, strengthening children s understanding speaking and. reading comprehension skills,Professor Maggie Snowling CBE. President of St John s College Oxford, xford University Press 2018 op cit 840 secondary teachers were asked In what ways does vocabulary deficiency impact on a pupil s academic. achievement, Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 85 is an aggregated figure teachers reported slower than expected progress in Geography 86 History. 90 and Religious Studies 78, Besides the effect on academic work both primary and secondary. teachers observed that low levels of vocabulary also impede pupils. wider life chances and mental health, Self esteem behaviour and a child s ability to make friends were all felt to be negatively. affected by low levels of vocabulary The diagram below illustrates the proportion of. teachers surveyed who believe the word gap is impacting on pupils in the following ways11. Lower self,Lower self esteem 80,Less likely to stay. Primary Less likely to stay Secondary in education 82. in education 74,Negative impact,Negative impact on behaviour 65. on behaviour 56,More difficulty,More difficulty making friends 15. making friends 25,Worse school,Worse school attendance rates 34. attendance rates 22,Greater difficulty getting,work after leaving school 58. Leading academics have made similarly stark conclusions about the impact the word gap has on a child s. academic performance and wider life chances,A child who is In 2016 just 12 of. not at the expected pupils with language,standard in language difficulties achieved. at the age of five is at least the expected,11 times less likely to standard in reading. achieve the expected writing and mathematics,level in maths at at the end of primary. Research from the Early school compared to 53,age 11 12 Children with. Intervention Foundation of all pupils 14,showed that children with better language. language difficulties at age five will tend to develop. were four times more likely better reasoning,to have reading difficulties inferencing and. in adulthood three times as pragmatic skills 15,likely to have mental health. problems and twice as likely to,be unemployed when they. reached adulthood 13, Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 473 primary teachers and 840 secondary teachers were asked Do you think vocabulary deficiency has any. impact on a child s wider life chances with regards to the following. Department for Education 2017 https www gov uk government speeches justine greening our ambition is to leave no community behind. Law J Charlton J Asmussen K 2017 op cit,Law J Charlton J Asmussen K 2017 op cit. Law J Charlton J Dockrell J Gascoigne M McKean C and Theakston A 2017 Early Language Development Needs provision and intervention. for preschool children from socioeconomically disadvantage backgrounds Education Endowment Foundation. The word gap in,secondary schools,Lionel Bolton, The limits of my language means the limits of my world wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein. in 1921 Nearly 100 years later not only does this appear to ring true for many secondary. school age children but secondary school teachers are telling us that the word gap is. getting wider16 with worryingly significant consequences17. Whether a child is 11 years old and in Year 7 or 16 years old and in Year 11 if. there are words in a task that they do not understand they will struggle to. complete the task The 11 year old is likely to be able to ask for help or. access a dictionary a 16 year old in their GCSE exam cannot And if. they do understand all the words in the task if their vocabulary is. lower than their age their written response may be less articulate. less effective and ultimately achieve a lower mark. This of course is not new it has ever been thus But with the. changes that have been brought in by the new GCSE exams. increased rigour removal of controlled assessment and. tiering in most subjects the vocabulary challenges posed. are even more pronounced The wider consequences are also. significant with teachers reporting lower self esteem amongst. their students affecting their studies their well being and their. engagement with education18 Despite these consequences 38 of. secondary school teachers surveyed said that they were unable to. provide specific vocabulary support Most cited insufficient time and. not enough additional teaching support as the main challenges19. Without the necessary vocabulary the word gap will always be a major. barrier for students striving to make progress and achieve their best All of us. who work in education are acutely aware of the importance of words the power. they contain and the worlds they unlock So whether the support is through teaching. educational resources or encouragement at home our duty is to ensure that all students. are equipped with all the words they need for a lifetime of opportunities. Lionel Bolton is the Head of Secondary English and Languages at Oxford University Press. Our duty is to ensure that all students are equipped with. all the words they need for a lifetime of opportunities. Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 60 of secondary teachers surveyed of 840 secondary teachers who took part reported that the number. of students who have a limited vocabulary is either increasing or significantly increasing. Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 80 of secondary teachers surveyed reported that students who have a limited vocabulary find reading. national test papers very or extremely challenging and 79 felt that they achieved worse results in national tests. Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 80 of secondary teachers surveyed reported that the word gap leads to lower self esteem 65 report. that this has a negative impact on behaviour and 82 report that students are less likely to stay on in education. Oxford University Press 2018 op cit 75 of secondary teachers surveyed cited insufficient time to dedicate to teaching of vocabulary as a. main challenge when trying to improve the vocabulary breadth of pupils 59 cited not enough additional staff support e g TAs. Mind the word gap,Geoff Barton,Let s start with what we know language matters. There That s it, Vocabulary is a huge predictor of how far children from any background will succeed at. school and beyond The words they know will help them to read understand gain new. perspectives and change or confirm their world view The words they use will give them. precision clarity nuance as well as being used to judge them in exams in life. We the word rich know this First headteachers and principals need to act as leaders. of learning Whatever the other distractions learning. Thus the Year 10 pupil who says At the start of the play must be our core business We set the tone for it We. Macbeth is a hero but at the end he is a villain will make it happen in our schools Thus we all need to know. be judged as less intelligent than the one who writes why literacy matters and to ensure that someone in our. Although he begins the play a hero Macbeth ends as leadership team relentlessly moves the literacy agenda. a villain forward translating good intentions into action. Yet this isn t a matter of Second middle and senior leaders need to frame. literacy in their schools as not really being a matter of. intelligence It s about vocabulary literacy It s about teaching and learning That means a. And that s why I think we should welcome an emphasis teacher of Design Technology DT should see that his or. on closing the word gap In reality the word gap will her responsibility includes helping pupils to speak read. depend upon your circumstances rather than your and write like a designer. choices your home your family the richness of,Which brings us to our third ingredient for every. language and relationships the presence of books and. teacher to know the key vocabulary of their subject For. conversations the habits you form as you grow up,example in DT construct proximity and alignment. These are things largely beyond our control, and the key vocabulary beyond their subject despite. And the problem with all of this for secondary teachers imply however. in particular is that such a context can render us. This collective mission around vocabulary really isn t. vaguely helpless Because if so much of the word gap is. so difficult And the rewards are significant Because. established so early what does that leave for us to do in. when we talk of closing the word gap we actually mean. our classrooms across our subjects with classes hurtling. something much bigger than that unassuming phrase,towards make or break examinations. That s why I continue to believe that whole school. We mean welcoming a child into a world of new ideas. literacy remains the final frontier in our schools Instead. insights and emotions into a world that we the word. of feeling on the collective back foot there are things we. rich take for granted and which we will routinely,can each do to empower children and young people. guarantee for our own children That empowerment that. comes through vocabulary should be the birthright of. every child whatever their background, Vocabulary is a huge predictor of how far Geoff Barton is General Secretary of the Association of School. children from any background will succeed at and College Leaders He was an English teacher for 32 years. school and beyond,Case study Handsworth Grange Community. Sports College, Handsworth Grange Community Sports College is a secondary school for ages. 11 16 with 1 012 pupils on roll 38 of pupils are entitled to the Pupil Premium and. 42 speak English as additional language EAL In October 2017 Ofsted found the. school to be outstanding in all areas,The word gap at Handsworth Focus on reading. Grange Negative attitudes to reading can be a barrier to. overcoming the word gap As such staff recognise, The word gap poses a significant challenge for staff. the importance of fostering an enjoyment of reading. at Handsworth Grange A large proportion of pupils,throughout the school. start Year 7 with vocabulary that is limited to an extent. that it could potentially affect academic achievement Pupils are read to twice a week in tutor time Hearing. Low levels of vocabulary can also impact on pupils an adult who understands the text reading aloud can. confidence resulting in some becoming disengaged help to build vocabulary Through these tutor group. sessions pupils encounter around 15 additional texts. Closing the word gap by Year 11,In light of the increased demands of the reformed. GCSEs in English Language and Literature the,Signs of progress. English Department implemented a targeted It is not yet possible for staff at Handsworth Grange. programme For one hour per week all Year 7 pupils to undertake a detailed analysis of the impact of. participate in an additional English lesson focusing strategies designed to close the word gap However. on teachers have already observed a number of,improvements. l an increased exposure to a range of unseen texts. l An increase in reading ages especially among,l exploring thinking about texts. pupils eligible for the Pupil Premium,l building language for discussion of texts. l An improvement in the quality and fluency of,written work. Whole school strategies,l Increased confidence and engagement. Concerns about low levels of vocabulary raised by, the English Department were shared by the school as. a whole As a result in September 2017 Handsworth,Grange implemented a whole school programme. focusing on vocabulary reading and comprehension,Literacy is developed extremely well across. l Vocabulary is explicitly taught in all subjects New the curriculum The teachers consistent. words are introduced and revisited a number of approach is clearly focused on improving. times in a lesson ideally in different ways,pupils vocabulary comprehension and. l Pupils are encouraged to read aloud across all,reading skills Consequently teachers. subject areas Staff use brief comprehension, questions to determine what pupils have and have actively increase the range of language that. not understood pupils can use including subject specific. l Staff develop pupils oral language by terms As a result of this effective practice. expecting answers in full sentences pupils gain confidence understand more. scaffolding pupils answers complex texts and respond more fully to. allowing pupils time to rehearse their thoughts examination questions. encouraging pupils to think about their use of,fillers such as innit Ofsted Report October 2017. repeating pupils answers using synonyms,especially more academic ones. The impact of the word,gap in primary schools,Andrea Quincey. It has been evident to me for many years that one of the key challenges facing primary. teachers is the growing number of children coming into our schools with a limited. vocabulary and poor communication skills Talk to anyone involved in primary education. and most will tell you this is the number one issue The reasons for this are many and. complex but one thing is clear this word gap affects EVERYTHING. A child without words will often Let s just think about what that means for the child. Struggle to understand and follow Is this child disobedient Badly behaved Or just confused. verbal never mind written, How might such a child feel when faced with a task or a test. instructions, Struggle to articulate their own needs How does this child get help. and feelings including things they, Does he or she slip into silence or find other ways of getting. don t understand,the teacher s attention, Only ever learn the mechanical That s right this poor child may never choose to do the one. process of reading decoding words thing guaranteed to increase the breadth and depth of their. without finding meaning and never vocabulary,really getting to the pleasure bit of. The word you re looking for isn t irony it s TRAGEDY. reading at all, Lack ideas and imagination for talk We all know that the playground can be a harsh and lonely. and creative play with their peers environment for the child that has trouble joining in. Struggle with both verbal Never mind the fronted adverbials what on earth is this child. communication and writing beyond going to write about. the basic or functional, Suffer from a lack of self esteem Children are smart even if they are struggling and will. confidence and motivation quickly identify themselves as weak learners falling behind. their peers, Some might decide to try harder most will resign themselves. to failure and stop trying, It is relatively easy to assume a link between the word gap and the rise of. the EAL population with parents who themselves had poor educational. outcomes with economic disadvantage or perhaps even with gender. differences The research carried out by OUP highlights that sadly this. is a much wider problem, It is therefore more important than ever that primary teachers in all. year groups are given time across the curriculum to close the word. gap so that our young children can succeed in primary school and. beyond both academically and socially, Andrea Quincey is the Head of English Primary at Oxford University Press. Vocabulary caught,Jean Gross CBE, Most teachers research20 tells us develop children s vocabulary by explaining a new word. once For some that is enough but not for all, A football net analogy helps explain why Luckier There is no shortage of ideas on how to choose the right. children have lots of words in their heads all connected words then teach them I ve collected hundreds in my. in a web of phonological semantic and grammatical book Time to Talk like having a shared set of What it. associations when we explain a new word this tight sounds like means links to mindmap slides on the. football net can catch and hold it Other children have school s network There are also many fantastic small. many fewer words in their net not well connected to group intervention programmes available But what I ve. each other Their football net has holes in it So when also learned is the importance of providing children with. a new word is introduced it goes straight through a language rich environment the caught as well as. the holes and is forgotten For these children a quick the taught Whether this is a topic related role play area. explanation won t do the trick Words will need to be in key stage 2 drama in a secondary setting or simply. explicitly taught and repeatedly practised plenty of opportunities for purposeful talk in everyday. lessons it s vital for every school, Andrew Biemiller21 estimates that if a child is in the. lowest 20 in vocabulary knowledge at age five and, Jean Gross CBE was formerly the government s Communication. you want them to move to an average level within three. Champion for children and young people She is the author of. years they would have to learn 20 new words a day, numerous articles and best selling books on children s issues. every day Might this suggest to government perhaps. including Beating Bureaucracy in Special Educational Needs. that some of the time we currently devote to punctuation 2013 David Fulton and Time to Talk 2017 Routledge. and grammar in the primary years might usefully be. diverted to vocabulary learning And that secondary. schools might want to develop a strategy for teaching a. core corpus of useful vocabulary across the curriculum. After all vocabulary skills at age 13 strongly predict both. Vocabulary skills at age 13, Maths and English Literature GCSE results more strongly strongly predict both Maths and. than socio economic background22,English Literature GCSE results. We should never assume that children know the more strongly than. meaning of even simple words As an educational, psychologist I assessed children of all ages and abilities. socio economic, using a test that asked them to say what on purpose background23. meant Very few could do this despite often hearing. You did that on purpose at home and in school, Similarly work with young offenders has shown that. they often don t understand very basic words like,victim punishment and appointment So always. check for understanding, Scott J Jamieson Noel D and Asselin M 2003 Vocabulary instruction throughout the day in 23 Canadian upper elementary classrooms. Elementary School Journal 103 269 286, Biemiller A 2011 Vocabulary what words should we teach Better Evidence Based Education Winter 10 11. Spencer S Clegg J Stackhouse J and Robert Rush R 2017 Contribution of spoken language and socio economic background to adolescents. educational achievement at age 16 years International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders 52 2. Spencer S Clegg J Stackhouse J and Robert Rush R 2017 op cit. Case study Ideas for developing,vocabulary, Janine Wooldridge spent 13 years as a classroom teacher in Manchester London. and Liverpool teaching from Reception to Year 5 before moving into one to. one teaching She currently teaches at the Unicorn School in Abingdon a school. for children with dyslexia and other language difficulties Below she shares some. practical ideas to help children build their vocabulary. Tier 1 words are basic words used often in everyday conversation e g go play. Tier 2 words are complex words that are more likely to occur in academic settings e g compare. Tier 3 words are highly specialised subject specific words e g isosceles 24. Tier 2 vocabulary activities l Create an excitement about discovering new. words Talk about how everyone continues to, l Discover and explore words in the context of learn new words throughout life from reading. books stories and common or current events in television conversations It is OK not to know. pupils lives rather than in isolation Involve pupils what a word means we can find out Sometimes. in working out the meaning of a word from the we have heard a word but we are not sure how to. context or in developing a definition use it, l Poorer readers will only have access to more l Synonyms can rarely be used in exactly the same. advanced vocabulary if they are exposed to good way Explore shades of meaning and the most. quality texts above their reading age So plan for suitable word for a particular context Discuss. plenty of shared reading with the class Specifically precise meaning and differences for example. explore vocabulary a few times a week staggered walked wandered. l When sharing a book with a pupil or the class, select words they may be unfamiliar with Talk Tier 3 vocabulary activities. about them display them sort them is it a noun,l When planning a science or history topic make. or an adjective act them out discuss synonyms, a list of vocabulary that pupils will need to know. and antonyms Use the words in vocabulary games, Display refer to and revisit this list often Share. for pairs or groups of children,pictures for as many of the words as possible. l Show video clips or pictures to illustrate words or. l Send the list of words home Ask pupils to carry,phrases that occur in the book you re reading for. out an orientation project before the topic starts. example The dog snarled viciously,They should produce a video photos a picture. l Provide a cardboard bookmark for each or a performance to illustrate a few of. pupil to record unfamiliar words as they read the words Pupils can then present. independently Share frequently to discuss their project to the class. meanings and consider how to use them,l Provide opportunities for. l Build a depth of knowledge of new words by pupils to act out draw and. revisiting them often in different ways and in watch videos of the focus. different contexts for example for bitterly cold vocabulary. watch a video of a snowstorm handle some ice,l Try to share fiction with. cubes act out being bitterly cold draw a picture,the class that links with. of people on a bitterly cold day What are they,the science or history. wearing How can we show the wind,topics drawing attention. to subject specific,vocabulary, Beck I L McKeown M G 1985 Teaching vocabulary Making the instruction fit the goal Educational Perspectives 23 1 11 15. The importance of,developing a rich,vocabulary,David Reedy. Many teachers report that increasing numbers of children enter educational settings. with limited development of their spoken language particularly vocabulary Research. identifies this word gap as a key strand in the range of areas identified as being the. components of speech and language development expressive and receptive language. rather than the phonological articulatory or pragmatic facets 25. In my view more limited vocabulary development is a Research found frequent use of pronouns and the. product of less experience of rich conversations within same very common words in the adults For example. engaging shared activity Therefore such children Pick that up and bring it to me from over there. could be termed less experienced language users rather than richer language Walk slowly to the home. rather than having complex or clinical language and corner and pick up the red triangle carefully and. communication difficulties This limited vocabulary return it to me Richer vocabulary was introduced in. means that these children will be at a disadvantage in these everyday contexts and the quality of observed. areas of the school curriculum particularly reading language use in the children increased dramatically. When children are deeply engaged in tasks with us, However the good news is that research and practice we should challenge ourselves to use rich vocabulary. have identified effective classroom strategies that can. help children to develop a wider vocabulary and close 2 Introduce children to lots of vocabulary through. the gap with their peers reading aloud Again challenge yourselves are your. teachers and your Early Years educators reading to. A good place to start is the research synthesis on every child every day. vocabulary instruction by the US National Reading, Technical Assistance Center26 It focuses on the Although teachers can influence home vocabulary and. relationship between vocabulary and reading language use through working with parents it is much. development and provides a range of specific practical more within the control of schools to use the practical. strategies that teachers and Early Years professionals can methods outlined above and in the research summaries. use for vocabulary instruction It found that children will to introduce children to more extensive vocabulary. most effectively learn to see the relationship between Educators should always reflect on the quality of the. vocabulary and the real or fictional world when language and conversations they have with children. that vocabulary is introduced in practical contexts focusing this effort on engaging contexts which will. and conversations But the adults must be constantly enable those children to develop a richer vocabulary. conscious of the vocabulary they are using, David Reedy is General Secretary and Immediate Past. Two starting points to consider when reflecting on the President of the United Kingdom Literacy Association and was. vocabulary in Early Years settings Co Director of the Cambridge Primary Review Trust 2013 17. 1 Plan to use practical meaningful contexts such as Until 2014 he was Principal Adviser for primary schools in the. London Borough of Barking and Dagenham,everyday classroom routines to expand vocabulary. For example say Could you help me to distribute, the fruit rather than Give out the fruit In Barking. and Dagenham a small scale unpublished piece of, research looked at the language adults used in Early. Years settings when they were talking with children. Department of Education Northern Ireland 2017 Speech Language and Communication Difficulties is an excellent summary. https www education ni gov uk sites default files publications de speech language and communication difficulties pdf. National Reading Technical Assistance Center RMC Research Corporation 2010. A Research Synthesis A review of the current research on vocabulary instruction https www2 ed gov programs readingfirst support rmcfinal1 pdf.