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Viewpoints Vol 11 Improving Student Achievement and Teacher Effectiveness Through Scientifically Based Practices Introduction 1 Essay The Challenge and Hope of Scientifically Based Research 3 by Margaret A Trybus Ed D A comprehensive introduction to the topic of scientifically based research and some of the challenges educators face in its implementation The 11 Components of a
Acknowledgments,Gina Burkhardt CEO, Sabrina Laine Chief Officer Research and Development. Ginger Reynolds Project Manager,Ed Janus Audio Production. Linda Schuch Editor,Lindsey Jones Graphic Designer. Barney Berlin Ph D Loyola University, Donald Kachur Ph D Illinois Association for Supervision. and Curriculum Development, Beverly Showers Ph D Consultant to the Iowa Department of Education. Paul Kimmelman Ed D Learning Point Associates,Ray Legler Ph D Learning Point Associates. Barb Youngren Learning Point Associates,1120 East Diehl Road Suite 200. Naperville Illinois 60563,Phone 800 356 2735,Fax 630 649 6700. www ncrel org, Copyright 2004 by the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory All rights reserved. This work was produced in whole or in part with funds from the Institute of Education Sciences IES U S. Department of Education under contract number ED 01 CO 0011 The content does not necessarily. reflect the position or policy of IES or the Department of Education nor does mention or visual repre. sentation of trade names commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the federal. government, Learning Point Associates was founded as the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory NCREL. in 1984 NCREL continues its research and development work as a wholly owned subsidiary of. Learning Point Associates,Viewpoints Vol 11,Improving Student Achievement. and Teacher Effectiveness Through,Scientifically Based Practices. Introduction 1,Essay The Challenge and Hope of,Scientifically Based Research 3. by Margaret A Trybus Ed D, A comprehensive introduction to the topic of scientifically based. research and some of the challenges educators face in its. implementation,The 11 Components of a Comprehensive. School Reform Program 5, Specific requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. Practically Speaking How Might Practitioners,Put Scientifically Based Research to Work 15. Guidelines for education leaders working toward school. improvement,References 19,CD Contents 22,Improving Student Achievement. and Teacher Effectiveness Through,Scientifically Based Practices. INTRODUCTION, Viewpoints is a multimedia package containing two audio CDs and a short. informative booklet This volume of Viewpoints focuses on using scientifically. based practices to improve student achievement and teacher effectiveness. The audio CDs provide the voices or viewpoints of various leaders from the. education field who have worked closely with scientifically based research ini. tiatives Their voices represent perspectives on the elements of scientifically. based research in education and provide a general overview of the movement. This booklet presents information about the recent increased emphasis on. NCREL Viewpoints, using scientifically based research to improve student achievement and. teacher effectiveness It explains new vocabulary discusses research chal. lenges and describes how scientifically based research can be turned into. effective practice The booklet also provides an overview of the What Works. Clearinghouse and offers resources and tools for using data to make decisions. in schools,1 THE ISSUE, Teachers and administrators alike are challenged by the No Child Left. Behind legislation to incorporate scientifically based research into their deci. sion making for programs and practices that will improve student achieve. ment Education researchers also are challenged to produce studies that are. faithful to scientifically based principles Now more than ever practitioners. and researchers need to link their efforts to address student learning Finding. new opportunities for educators policymakers and researchers to work. together on behalf of schools affected by the new legislation is a challenge. and it instills hope that scientifically based research will provide better direc. tion and evidence that student achievement can improve. THE BOOKLET A GUIDE TO CONTENTS, The essay The Challenge and Hope of Scientifically Based Research serves. as a companion to the CDs This essay outlines the elements of scientifically. based research and some of the challenges educators face in its implemen. tation There are guides to understanding the levels of research and. resources to investigate the topic further You may find it helpful to read the. booklet as an introduction to the topic before listening to the interviews pre. sented on the CDs,NCREL Viewpoints,The Challenge and Hope of. Scientifically Based Research,By Margaret A Trybus Ed D. Assistant Superintendent Curriculum and Instruction. Thornton Fractional Township High School District 215. Teachers and administrators alike are challenged by the No Child Left. Behind Act of 2001 to incorporate scientifically based research SBR into. their decision making for programs and practices that will improve student. achievement Educational researchers also are challenged to produce stud. ies that are faithful to scientifically based principles Now more than ever. before practitioners and researchers need to link their efforts to address. student learning as a result of the No Child Left Behind legislation The chal. lenge is to base practice on rigorous evidence that specific programs will. NCREL Viewpoints, work to guide teaching and learning and at the same time to understand. the reality that this type of research is not readily available or understood by. most administrators and classroom teachers Finding new opportunities for. educators policymakers and researchers to work together on behalf of. schools affected by the new legislation is a challenge and it instills hope that. SBR will provide better direction and evidence that student achievement. can improve, This essay outlines the place of SBR in the No Child Left Behind Act of. 2001 provides details about the mandate for SBR in the Comprehensive. School Reform legislation and explains the rationale and challenges for. using SBR in making education decisions It also provides important defini. tions and outlines tools for translating research into practice. Prioritizing SBR, The No Child Left Behind Act redefines the federal role in K 12 education by. stipulating that federally funded programs and practices must be grounded in. SBR Funding is determined in part by whether programs and practices have. a basis in scientific research Beghetto 2003 The No Child Left Behind. NCLB Act mentions the term scientifically based research 111 times and. SBR is mentioned extensively in Title I to promote school wide reform and. ensure the access of children to effective scientifically based instructional. strategies and challenging academic content NCLB Act 2002 Title I. Section 1001 9 Title I the largest federally funded program for education. ally disadvantaged children requires both state and local education agencies. to use SBR for targeted assistance schools to strengthen the core academ. ic program It also calls for school improvement efforts that seek to identi. fy and implement professional development instructional strategies and. methods of instruction that are based on scientifically based research and. that have proven effective in addressing the specific instructional issues that. caused the school to be identified for school improvement NCLB Act. 2002 Title I Part A Section 1116 4 B ii, All technical assistance whether provided by a state agency higher edu. cation or a state approved professional development provider also must. comply with the SBR mandate by guaranteeing that new curriculum. instructional strategies or specific initiatives that promise to improve the. learning of low achieving students meet SBR requirements Subparts of Title I. also cite SBR under Reading First Early Reading First Even Start Literacy. Program Improving Literacy through School Libraries and Comprehensive. NCREL Viewpoints, School Reform NCLB Act 2002 Whether funds are used for procuring. instructional materials such as software or reading programs or funds are. used for establishing partnerships between professional development. providers and local school agencies all efforts need to be screened through. the SBR mandate,SBR in Comprehensive School Reform. The SBR legislation has posed a challenge to schools seeking to implement. reform strategies through the Comprehensive School Reform CSR. Program With the availability of additional funding schools can make a. commitment to work with an outside provider who must demonstrate that a. particular reform program has proven SBR results and is replicable to the. school using CSR This initiative has far reaching implications since it. addresses every aspect of the school all grades and key subjects primari. ly English and mathematics curricula and instructional practices school. management parental involvement community involvement and school. organization Herman 2002, CSR is usually initiated when individual school improvement efforts are not. successful and assessment of data indicates that students are not meeting. standards Making Good Choices A Guide for Schools and Districts Hassel. 1998 offers a process for selecting a CSR model that requires identifying. two or three models to find the best match between the model provider and. the local school needs Since 2001 and the reauthorization of the. Elementary and Secondary Education Act the standard for being an. The 11 Components of a Comprehensive School,Reform Program. According to the NCLB Act 2002 a Comprehensive School Reform school must. implement a program that, 1 employs proven strategies and proven methods for student learning teaching and. school management that are based on scientifically based research and effective prac. tices and have been replicated successfully in schools. 2 integrates a comprehensive design for effective school functioning including. instruction assessment classroom management professional development parental. involvement and school management that aligns the school s curriculum technology. and professional development into a comprehensive school reform plan for school. wide change designed to enable all students to meet challenging State content and stu. dent academic achievement standards and addresses needs identified through a. school needs assessment,NCREL Viewpoints, 3 provides high quality and continuous teacher and staff professional development. 4 includes measurable goals for student academic achievement and benchmarks for. meeting such goals, 5 is supported by teachers principals administrators school personnel staff and. other professional staff, 6 provides support for teachers principals administrators and other school staff. 7 provides for the meaningful involvement of parents and the local community in. planning implementing and evaluating school improvement activities consistent with. section 1118, 8 uses high quality external technical support and assistance from an entity that has. experience and expertise in schoolwide reform and improvement which may include. an institution of higher education, 9 includes a plan for the annual evaluation of the implementation of school reforms. and the student results achieved, 10 identifies other resources including Federal State local and private resources. that shall be used to coordinate services that will support and sustain the comprehen. sive school reform effort and, 11 A has been found through scientifically based research to significantly improve. the academic achievement of students participating in such program as compared to. students in schools who have not participated in such program or. B has been found to have strong evidence that such program will significantly. improve the academic achievement of participating children Title 1 Part F Section. approved CSR model however has been changed from using innovative. strategies and proven methods for student learning teaching and school. management based on reliable research and effective practices to a call for. comprehensive reform programs that employ proven strategies and proven. methods for student learning teaching and school management that are. based on scientifically based research and effective practices and have. been replicated successfully in schools Comprehensive School Reform. CSR Program Office Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. Of the 11 components schools must implement to receive CSR funding two. specifically require a high standard of SBR One component that requires a. high standard is the selection of a model that uses proven strategies and. methods for learning teaching and school management based on SBR and. effective practices and that has been used successfully in multiple schools. NCREL Viewpoints, Another component requires that an approved CSR model has been found. through scientifically based research to significantly improve the academic. achievement of students or has been found to have strong evidence that. it will CSR Program Office Office of Elementary and Secondary. Education 2002 p 2 For the other nine components see page 5 the. U S Department of Education recognizes school leaders will need to rely. on the best available empirical evidence and some degree of professional. judgment in creating their programs CSR Program Office Office of. Elementary and Secondary Education 2002 p 3, In 2000 the American Institutes for Research AIR 2000 published the. Educators Guide to School Reform reviewing the research on 24 of the. most promising CSR models in the country Even though the research was. limited each model was analyzed against criteria including the research. design controls validity sample size measures outcomes and duration of. the study Herman 2002 The American Association of School. Administrators AASA 2003 has provided an online summary of the guide. for the 24 whole school comprehensive or schoolwide approaches. reviewed by AIR This guide at www aasa org issues and insights. district organization Reform overview htm provides a review of the relative. strengths of each approach in three areas, Evidence of positive effects on student achievement. Support provided to schools as they adopt the approaches. First year adoption costs AASA 2003, This guide will help decision makers determine areas of strength and weak. ness as well as the amount of evidence available to assess the effects of a. model on student achievement,The Logic of SBR, Traditionally relying on anecdotal evidence and professional judgment has. been the approach many schools have taken with respect to school. improvement initiatives especially those schools not engaged in CSR Since. the passage of the NCLB Act schools must be more diligent in their use of. research and alter their decision making practices accordingly According to. Assistant Secretary Grover Whitehurst we have to create a culture and prac. tice that demands more from our educational system by using evidence. based practices in order to transform education in the same order of mag. nitude as in medicine and agriculture U S Department of Education. NCREL Viewpoints, The sense that education is moving to evidence based practices poses. some concerns for school leaders who are skeptical that they will have. access to appropriate research that is replicable and solid Beghetto 2003. Some fear that the heart and soul of education may be lost and along with. it the interpersonal relationships between administrators teachers and stu. dents Not so according to Valerie Reyna 2002 former deputy of the Office. of Educational Research and Improvement now the Institute for Education. Sciences who emphatically believes that there is no dichotomy between. science and values or science and emotion, Evidence does not determine our decision solely It is not just the facts. It s the facts plus values But without the facts we might make the. wrong decision even based on our values Because we don t know. what s true and what s not true The facts the evidence is necessary to. make decisions that affect students lives but it s not sufficient But it is. necessary That is what we re promulgating that at least it be part of. the discussion so that we can base practice on it So we re talking. about science with a human face and that s a person p 10. As we bring scientific reasoning into educational decision making it is crit. ical that we balance hard evidence with human judgment Feuer 2002. Together policymakers and practicing educators will have to find ways to. address the balance between research and practical wisdom Shavelson. Towne 2002 To make this happen will require building partnerships. between researchers and practitioners to address both improving practice. through research and improving research through a better understanding of. what happens on a daily basis in schools Towne 2002. Defining SBR, According to the NCLB Act 2002 the term scientifically based research. A means research that involves the application of rigorous systematic and. objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to edu. cation activities and programs and,B includes research that. i employs systematic empirical methods that draw on observation or. experiment, ii involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated. hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn. iii relies on measurements or observational methods that provide reli. able and valid data across evaluators and observers across multiple. NCREL Viewpoints, measurements and observations and across studies by the same or dif. ferent investigators, iv is evaluated using experimental or quasi experimental designs in. which individuals entities programs or activities are assigned to dif. ferent conditions and with appropriate controls to evaluate the effects of. the condition of interest with a preference for random assignment. experiments or other designs to the extent that those designs contain 8. within condition or across condition controls, v ensures that experimental studies are presented in sufficient detail. and clarity to allow for replication or at a minimum offer the opportu. nity to build systematically on their findings and. vi has been accepted by a peer reviewed journal or approved by a. panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous objective. and scientific review Title IX Part A Section 9101 37. This definition is intended to encourage researchers to provide better and. more useful evidence of what works and to challenge practitioners to make. good decisions based on evidence Feuer 2002 The difficulty is that few. studies of education programs meet this definition in its entirety. In 2002 AIR introduced two standards against which education research. can be judged The gold standard is research that meets all the require. ments of SBR the silver standard is research that meets the requirements. but does not employ random sampling AIR 2002 The institute s work. which was prepared for the U S Department of Education also includes. some guidelines that can be used by school staff and others to review edu. cation research These guidelines include, The theoretical base of the program or practice explaining specific. goals followed by implementation activities, The evidence of effects stating how the practice has demonstrated. improved student learning, Implementation and replicability explaining the degree to which the. program has been successfully implemented in diverse settings. The following graphic developed by the Iowa Department of Education. illustrates the potential range of methodologies used in education. FIGURE 1 Iowa Content Network Continuum for Reviewing Research. NCREL Viewpoints,Gold Standard,NCLB criteria most rigorous. research designs research proven,programs strategies. 5 Strong Evidence,Research based programs and strategies. strong evidence but lacking one,9 4 two design elements present. in gold standard,Research related programs with,one or more proven strategies. 3 but untested as a whole,need systematic study,Programs with one or two. promising practices but little,2 supporting empirical evidence. No Empirical Evidence,Untested programs or,theories no empirical. evidence reported,1 Reports are anecdotal,testimonial etc. From the Iowa Professional Development Model Selecting Content. www state ia us educate ecese tqt tc prodev definitions html. Reprinted with permission of the Iowa Department of Education. According to Slavin 2003 scientific research traditionally has played a. relatively minor role in education reform since many innovative practices. and programs are untested When reform efforts fail educators and poli. cymakers move to implement a different set of innovations that also have. untested claims instead of adopting well researched programs and prac. tices that have been proven to work Shifting to a new paradigm will mean. changing practice to look more deeply to research based programs rather. than following a new trend, Unlike most other fields of scientific inquiry education places extraor. dinary emphasis on the new and the novel Believing that the most. recent theory at whatever level of research is also the most impor. tant education leaders may lose sight of the value of seminal research. and proven practices Grossen 1996 p 22,NCREL Viewpoints. Both Congress and the U S Department of Education are hopeful that with. the introduction of new research standards and federal mandates evi. dence based reform will become the norm and set an expectation for using. rigorous experimental research to justify programs and practices. Broadening SBR Within NCLB, In addition to Comprehensive School Reform and Title I legislation SBR also. is cited in Title II Preparing Training and Recruiting High Quality Teachers 10. and Principals Title III Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient. and Immigrant Students Title IV 21st Century Schools Title V Promoting. Informed Parental Choice and Innovative Programs Title VI Flexibility and. Accountability Title VII Indian Native Hawaiian and Alaska Native. Education and Title IX General Provisions NCLB Act 2002. Each applicant for funding must demonstrate efforts to address SBR by. describing how each activity will be based on a review of SBR and will be. tied to evidence based results This has far reaching implications for pro. fessional development in all content areas teacher preparation programs in. higher education English language acquisition programs safe and drug. free programs parent involvement mentoring programs and all programs. designed to address state and local student academic achievement stan. dards NCLB Act 2002, Because of the extent of this legislation all schools will be affected not just. those that have been in CSR programs or identified as in need of improve. ment Using SBR will require establishing a culture of inquiry regarding how. decisions are made to improve student learning Leadership will matter at both. the system and school level and must include teachers with high quality. professional learning to improve practice Sparks 2003 Infusing SBR into. school culture will require enhanced professional learning to increase under. standing of the meaning and usefulness inherent in compelling research to. drive practice,Learning a New Vocabulary, In order to become a critical consumer of research one must understand. the language and terminology of research In addition to understanding the. definition of SBR and various standards for research practitioners need a. basic vocabulary with which they can interpret and communicate research. studies to one another to parents and even to students when appropriate. The following definitions are a few suggestions, Evidence based education The integration of professional wisdom. with the best available empirical evidence in making decisions about how. NCREL Viewpoints,to deliver instruction Whitehurst 2002. Professional wisdom The judgment that individuals acquire through. experience Increased professional wisdom is reflected in numerous. ways including the effective identification and incorporation of local cir. cumstances into instruction Whitehurst 2002, Control group A group of individuals whose characteristics are similar to. 11 the experimental group except that they do not receive any of the program. services or products being evaluated Slavin 2003 suggests that in a. good study several schools using a given program are compared with. schools who are not using the program but meet the same demographic. criteria Having at least five schools in each group is desirable. Empirical research evidence Research conducted for the purpose of col. lecting measurable data in terms of attitudes behavior or performance. Empirical research is designed to generate projectable numerical data. on a topic, Randomized experiment The most convincing form of a control group. comparison in which students teachers or schools are assigned by. chance to a group Such comparisons are very rare in education but. very influential Slavin 2003 Some educational researchers contend. that even though this method is used in the medical field it is difficult to. conduct in educational contexts and may be potentially harmful to chil. dren Mid continent Research for Education and Learning 2002. Shavelson Towne 2002 This is part of the criteria to reach the gold. standard of SBR, Statistical significance The difference between the achievement of. students in the experimental and the control group A usual criteri. on is p 0 05 which means that the probability is less than 5 percent. that an observed difference might have happened by chance. Slavin 2003 p 14, Effect size Studies should be reviewed to determine the number of. schools involved in the research and whether the effect size is higher than. 0 20 Slavin 2003 Marzano 2003 The more schools involved in a. study done by more than one researcher the more confident you can be. that the program s results are valid, As one becomes familiar with the terminology and the concepts undergirding. SBR balancing the use of professional wisdom and empirical evidence will. determine the extent to which evidence based programs can be useful Figure. 2 illustrates the relationships between individual experience consensus sci. NCREL Viewpoints, entifically based research and empirical evidence in executing evidence. based education programs,FIGURE 2 Evidence Based Education. Evidence Based,Professional Wisdom Empirical Evidence. Individual Experience Consensus Scientifically Based Empirical Information. Source Whitehurst G J 2002 Evidence based education slide presentation. A basic understanding of research terminology and methods will help prac. titioners develop skills to make better judgments regarding educational. research It will also help to develop an understanding of the work being. done by professional panels such as the What Works Clearinghouse that. are identifying appropriate research for replication There is no doubt how. ever that the movement to create a more evidence based environment will. grow as researchers work to meet the needs of thousands of schools. throughout our country who are challenged to improve learning for all.