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it when they started learning a foreign language Therefore a grammar written for tho se who are trying to learn a se cond language is very useful both in teaching and learning a second language I started teaching Engli sh as a second language in 1952 a long time ago Years
TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012, 1, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012. TURKISH GRAMMAR, ACADEMIC EDITION, 2012, Y KSEL G KNEL. 2, TURKISH GRAMMAR, TURKISHACADEMIC, GRAMMAREDITION 2012. FOREWORD, The Turkish Grammar book that you have just started reading is quite different. from the grammar books that you read in schools This kind of Grammar is known as. traditional grammar The main difference of a traditional grammar and that of a. transformational one is that the first one describes a natural language as a static. object but the second one describes both the parts of the language engine and how. it runs This is like learning about a motionless car There is something lacking in this. description It is the dynamics of the parts of a car that runs a hundred and twenty. kilometers an hour , Traditional grammars describe only the physical appearance of a language they. do not mind what goes on behind the curtain The mind of a human being works like. the engine of a sports car It arranges and chooses words matching one another . transforms simple sentence units to use in different parts of sentences and recollects. morphemes and phonemes to be produced by the human speech organs All these. activities are simultaneously carried out by the human mind . Another point that the traditional grammarians generally miss is that they write the. grammar of a certain language to teach it to those who have been learning it from the. time when they were born up to the time when they discover something called. grammar This is like teaching a language to professional speakers . Then what is the use of a grammar I believe most people were acquainted with. it when they started learning a foreign language Therefore a grammar written for. those who are trying to learn a second language is very useful both in teaching and. learning a second language , I started teaching English as a second language in 1952 a long time ago Years. passed and one day I found myself as a postgraduate Fulbright student at the. University of Texas at Austin in 1960 Although I studied there for only a short period . I learnt enough from Prof Archibald A Hill and Dr De Camp to stimulate me to learn. more about Linguistics , After I came back to Turkey it was difficult to find books on linguistics in. booksellers in Istanbul Thanks to The American Library in Istanbul I was able to. borrow the books that attracted my attention , In those books I discovered Noam Chomsky whose name I had not heard during my. stay in the U S A , I must confess that I am indebted to the scholars and the library above in writing. this Turkish Grammar , I am also grateful to my son Dr zg r G knel who encouraged me to write this. book and to Vivatinell Warwick U K which sponsored to publish it . Y KSEL G KNEL, 3, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012. 4, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012, 5, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012. TURKISH GRAMMAR, ACADEMIC EDITION, Y KSEL G KNEL, Vivatinell Bilim K lt r Yay nlar . 2012, Grafik Tasar m Uygulamalar , Vivatinell Press. Selami Burhan G KAY, Vivatinell Cosmopharmaceutics. Fetih Mah Tunca Sk No 2 34704, Ata ehir stanbul T RK YE. Tel 90 216 470 09 44, Faks 90 216 470 09 48, 6, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012. CONTENTS,Foreword 3,Contents 7,Logical Morphemic and Oral Sequencing 13. The Turkish Grammar 16,The Turkish Vowel and Consonant Harmony 17. The Vowel Harmony Sequence 17,The Consonant Harmony 19. Morphemes and Allomorphs 22,Derivational Morphemes and Their Allomorphs 23. Morphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce Nouns 23, Morphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce Adjectives 24. Morphemes Attached to Adjectives to Produce Nouns 27. Morphemes Attached to Verbs to Produce Nouns 28, Morphemes Attached to Verbs to Produce Adjectives 32. Morphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce Verbs 33, Morphemes Attached to Adjectives to Produce Verbs 34. Inflectional Morphemes and Their Allomorphs 34,Nominal Phrases 37. Adverbs and Adverbials 40,The Transformational Activity of the Logic 41. Form and Function in Languages 43,Using Adjectives as Adverbs 45. The Inflectional Morphemes 48,The Defining Morpheme and Its Allomorphs i u 48. The LE LE YIN and E DE DEN Inflectional Morphemes 53. LE allomorphs le la 53, LE YIN 54, E DE DEN and LE Morphemes 54. E allomorphs e a 56, DE allomorphs de da te ta 62. DEN allomorphs den dan ten tan 64, Possessor Possessed Noun Compounds sim Tamlamalar 66. Definite Noun Compounds Belirtili sim Tamlamalar 66. Indefinite Noun Compounds Belirtisiz sim Tamlamalar 73. Noun Compounds Without Suffixes Tak s z Tamlamalar 73. Noun Infinitive Compounds sim Mastar Tamlamalar 75. Prepositions and Postpositions Edatlar or lge ler 76. 7, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012,Primary Stress Secondary Stress and Intonation 77. E DE DEN Morphemes Postpositions 86,The Inflectional Morphemes Attached to Verbs 93. The Simple Present be 94,The Present Modals with Verb be 103. must be 103,can t be 105,may be 106,may not be 107. The yes no Questions Used With Verb be 108,have to be should be ought to be needn t be 109. have to be zorunday m 109,needn t be gerek yok 110. The Simple Past Verb be 111,Interrogative Words 114. M Rumor Inference s ylenti anlam karma 118,The Future Form of be will be 120. there is there are have have got 121,there used to be there used to have 122. there must may be there can t be there is going to be 123. Imperat ves and W shes 123,W sh 125,The Simple Present Tense Geni Zaman 127. The Verbs Ending with Vowels or Consonants 131, Some Nouns Used Together With et yap i le to Produce Verbs 132. The Negative Form of The Simple Present Tense 134,The Simple Present Positive Question 135. The Simple Present Negative Question 137, The Question Words Used in the Simple Present Tense 139. The Present Continuous and the Present Perfect Continuous 141. The Verbs That Are Not Used in the Simple Present in Turkish 146. Turkish Verb Frames T rk ede Fiil at lar 148,Transitive and Intransitive Verb Frames 148. Reflexive Verb Frames 149, The Passive Transformation of the Intransitive Verbs 150. Reciprocal Verb Frames te Fiiller 152, Both Transitively and Intransitively Used English Verbs 153. The Simple Past and the Present Perfect 159, Mi li Past Tense Rumor and Inference Mi li Ge mi 167. 8, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012,The Simple Future and be going to 171. The Past Continuous Tense 174,The Past Perfect Continuous Tense 178. Was were going to 178,used to 179, The Rumor Forms of The Simple Present and The Present Cont 181. The Past Perfect Tense 182,The Future Continuous Tense 183. The Future Perfect Tense 184,Infinitives Mastarar 185. The mek mak Infinitives 185,The me ma Infinitives 185. The i u Infinitives 185, The dik d k d k duk tik t k t k tuk Infinitives 185. Where and How the Infinitives Are Used 187,1 a The mek mak Infinitives Used as Subject 187. 1 b The mak mak Infinitives Used before Postpositions 187. 1 c The mek mak Infinitives Used as Objects of iste 189. 1 d The mek mak Infinitives Used Attached to DEN Morph 189. 2 a The me ma Infinitives Used Attached to Noun Compounds 190. 2 b noun infinitive and V me y i V ma y 192,2 c noun infinitive e a 196. 2 d noun infinitive Compounds Followed by den dan 196. 3 a noun infinitive E DE DEN 197, 4 a possessor noun V dik d k d k duk tik t k t k tuk 198. The Passive Infinitive 199,Modals 201,Present Modals 201. can may ebil abil 201,must meli mal 205,have to zorunda 207. needn t don t have to 208,should ought to 209,Past Modals 211. Could 211,was were able to 212,would could polite request 213. Perfect Modals 214,must have 214, 9, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012. can t couldn t have 216,should have ought to have 217. may have 218,might have 219,needn t have 219,didn t need to 220. Transformations English 221, The Nominalization of the Simple English Sentences 221. The Transformation of the Simple Sentences into Determiners 226. The Productivity of the Natural Languages 228, TheTransformed Simple Sentences Used as Adverbial Clauses 230. Turkish Sentence Nominalizations 232,Turkish Simple Sentence Nominalization 235. Transformed Nominal Phrases 236,The infinitives with me ma 237. The infinitives with dik d k d k duk tik t k t k tuk 238. Simple Sentence Nominalization 1 V D K pers 238,The Simple Future Tense V ecek acak pers 239. The Past Perfect V mi m m mu ol duk pers 240,The Future Perfect V mi m m mu ol duk pers 240. Simple Sentences with the Verb root ol be 240,Chain Noun Compounds 241. 2 V D K pers 243,V M ol duk pers 247, Nominalized Sentences Containing question words 247. Turkish Determiner Determined Compounds 250, Simple Sentences and Transformed Nominal Phrases 255. The Passive Transformation and the Passive Verb Frames 257. The Verb Frames 260, The Structural Composition of the Causative Verb Frames 261. A Short List of Verb Frames 262,The Order of Morphemes 268. Causative Verb Frame Examples 269,The Passive Causative 270. Syllabication 270,Dividing the Verb Compositions into Syllables 279. The Rumor Forms of the Simple Present Continuous and Future Tenses 291. Negative Verb Compositions 294,Some Example Sentences of the Verb Frames 295. 10, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012, Adverbial Clauses Postpositional Adverbial Phrases 340. Time 340,before 340,after 345,when and while 346,while 349. as soon as 352,until 353, by and by the time 356,since 357. Cause or Reason 359,Contrast Ra men 361,Purpose 363. Place 367,Manner 368,as 368,as if as though 369,Result 371. so that such that 372,o kadar adjective noun time ki 373. too adjective to V i in and adjective enough to Verb 373. Degree 375,Comparative Degree 375,Superlative Degree 377. Positive or Negative Equality 378,Parallel Proportion Ko ut Uyum 379. Wish 380,wish would 380,wish past subjunctive 381,wish past perfect or perfect modal 382. Conditional Sentences 383,Present Real Supposition 383. Present Unreal contrary to fact Supposition 386,Past Real Supposition 387. Past Unreal contrary to fact Supposition 388,Orders and Requests 390. Plain Orders and Requests 390,Polite Requests 391,Polite Refusals 392. 11, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012,Offers 392. V P 393,Question Tags de il mi 394,So do I Neither do I 395. Conjunctions and Transitional Phrases 396,Intensifiers 403. Reported Speech 407,Roots Stems and Verb Frames 408. Rational Sequencing 410,Morphemic Sequencing 418, The Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Nouns and Nominal Phrases 418. The Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Action Vebs 420. Dual Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Verb Roots Stems and Frames 421. The Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to be ol Verbs 422. Modal Auxiliary Verbs 423,Oral Harmonic Sequencing 425. Morphemic and Oral Sequences 428,Symbols and Abbreviations 431. References 432, 12, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012. LOGICAL MORPHEMIC AND ORAL SEQUENCING, Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker in their books assert that the human. mind has an inborn logical ability which seperates a body of thought a. sentence into two parts to produce sentences A person thinks logically that. a sentence should be about something or someone and uses them as. subjects and uses all the information given about the subjects as predi . cates , Chomsky calls them Nominal Phrase and Verbal Phrase in short NP . VP Additionally the predicate part VP is also seperated into two parts as. a verb and an object V NP These logical storages parts are empty. before one starts learning his her language When someone starts hearing. the sounds of his language he loads these sounds with meaning and inserts. them into these empty logical storages The sequencing of the storages is. also learned while someone is being exposed to his native language . Therefore the sequencing of the logical storages change from language to. language The logical storages and their learned sequencing are called the. logical sequence of a sentence The so called storages are also flexible. enough to hold the shortest and the longest language units . The word verb V covers a verb root a verb stem or a verb frame and. all the inflectional suffixes attached to them such as ed ing s and. auxiliary verbs such as must may might can could etc preceded. by them The verbs together with these inflectional suffixes and auxiliary. verbs constitude a verb composition concept and called a verb V . All subjects and objects whether long or short are Nominal Phrases If a. verb is intransitive it does not need an object NP so the predicate part. has only a verb and some adverbs or adverbials The predicates that have. be verbs are also considered Verbal Phrases ,The sentences described above are of three kinds . 1 A subject a transitive verb and an object Jack killed a mouse . subj V obj NP , NP VP,2 A subject and an intransitive verb Jack sleeps . subj V, NP VP,3 A subject and a be complement Jack is brave . subj V, NP VP, 13, TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012. Although these logical storages are inborn their sequencing is learned. through the experiences of an individual Therefore the sequencing of the. subject and predicate and that of the subject verb and object change. from language to language For instance in English . I am coming , Subj NP pred VP , There are no personal suffixes attached to verbs in English . In Turkish Geliyor um ge li yo rum , V subj NP , In Turkish a personal concept is expressed by a personal suffix either at . tached to a verb at the end of a sentence or expressed by both a pronoun in. the beginning and a suffix at the end of a sentence Using personal suffixes. attached to the ends of the Turkish sentences except the third person sin . gular is a grammatical necessity , Furthermore the subject verb and object sequence of the English lan . guage differs in Turkish as subject pronoun object verb subject suffix . or object verb subject suffix ,English We are picking flowers . subj pron V obj, Turkish 1 Biz i ek topuyor uz We are picking flowers . subj pron obj V subj suffix , Turkish 2 i ek topluyor uz We are picking flowers . obj V subj suffix , The reason why there may be two identical alternative sentences in Turkish. is that one should compulsorily use a personal suffix attached to the verb in. a sentence but if he wants to emphasize the subject he could also use a. pronoun in the beginning of a sentence as well as a personal suffix repre . senting the pronoun at the end , If we use a sentence without a personal suffix the sentence becomes un . grammatical although it is understandable , Ben yar n Ankara ya gidiyor ungrammatical . Ben yar n Ankara ya gidiyor um grammatical Ben could be ignored . Ben sen i seviyor ungrammatical , Ben sen i veviyor um grammatical Ben could be ignored . As a general syllabication rule in Turkish the single underlined conso . nants of the words or allomorphs detach from their syllables and attach to. the first vowels of the following morphemes as in the examples above This.