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for the Busch ComfortTouch network technology Busch ComfortTouch www BUSCH JAEGER de 2 Duration 2 days 16 lessons Table of Contents Network technology 1 Introduction 4 1 1 Applications in the home network 4 1 2 Structure of a home network 5 1 3 Components in the home network 6 1 4 Transmission media 9 1 5 The DSL router 10 1 6 DSL ADSL Appendix 12 2 Ethernet and wiring 14 2 1
Network technology,Duration 2 days 16 lessons,Table of Contents. 1 Introduction 4,1 1 Applications in the home network 4. 1 2 Structure of a home network 5,1 3 Components in the home network 6. 1 4 Transmission media 9,1 5 The DSL router 10,1 6 DSL ADSL Appendix 12. 2 Ethernet and wiring 14,2 1 Ethernet IEEE 802 3 14. The Ethernet media access method CSMA CD 16,2 1 1 The Ethernet data package 19. 2 1 2 Ethernet developments 20,2 1 3 100 Mbit s Ethernet Fast Ethernet 20. 2 1 4 1000 Mbit s Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet 21,2 1 5 10 Gigabit s Ethernet 10GBit Ethernet 21. 2 1 6 Overview of Ethernet standards 22,2 1 7 Ethernet in summary 23. 2 2 Hub and switch 24,2 3 Wiring 27,2 3 1 Ranges and data transmission rates 29. 2 3 2 Bandwidth demand for applications 29,2 3 3 Transmission media 32. 2 3 3 1 Copper cables twisted pair 32, 2 3 3 2 Wireless via radio network Wi Fi wireless LAN 32. 2 3 3 3 Polymer Optical Fiber POF 32,2 3 3 4 Via the power grid Powerline 33. 2 3 3 5 Telephone network HomePNA www homepna org 34. 2 3 3 6 Cable TV network TV Coax LAN www mocalliance org 35. 3 TCP IP Basics 36,3 1 1 The TCP protocol 38,3 1 2 The UDP protocol 38. 4 DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 74,4 1 Basics 74. 4 2 Configuration 75,4 2 1 DHCP client 75,4 2 2 DHCP server 77. 4 3 DHCP client server communication 78,5 DNS Domain Name System 79. 5 1 Introduction 79,5 2 How is the DNS structured 80. 5 3 The domain namespace 81,5 4 Domain name 82,5 5 The DNS server Nameserver 83. 5 6 The DNS client Resolver 83,5 7 DNS name resolution Forward Lookup 84. 5 8 DNS address resolution Reverse Lookup 86, 5 9 History the beginnings of name resolution about the file hosts 87. 5 10 Summary 87,6 TCP IP configuration 88, 6 1 General information short compressed repetition 88. 6 2 Required settings 90,6 3 Configuration 91,6 3 1 Configuration with Windows 91. 6 3 2 Configuration with Ubuntu Linux 92, 6 4 Identifying and displaying the current configuration 93. 6 4 1 Displaying the current TCP IP configuration under Windows 93. 6 4 2 Displaying the current TCP IP configuration under Ubuntu Linux 94. 6 5 Testing connectivity with Ping 95,7 Radio LAN wireless LAN Wi Fi 96. 7 1 General information 96, 7 1 1 Radio network according to the IEEE 802 11 standard 98. 7 1 2 The operating mode Ad hoc mode 99,7 1 3 The operating mode infrastructure mode 99. 7 1 4 Network security in the radio network 100, 7 1 4 2 Wi Fi Protected Access WPA and TKIP encryption 101. 7 1 4 3 Wi Fi Protected Access 2 WPA2 and AES encryption 101. 7 1 4 4 The 802 1x standard 102,7 1 5 Extensible Authentication Protocol EAP 103. 7 1 6 Wireless Distribution System WDS 104,7 2 Practical application 106. 7 3 Wi Fi setup 108,8 HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol 110. 8 1 The World Wide Web WWW 110,8 2 HTTP addressing 111. 8 3 HTTP client web browser 111,8 4 HTTP server web server 112. 9 e mail 113,9 1 e mail basics 113,9 1 1 e mail protocols 115. 9 1 2 The e mail account 116,9 1 3 e mail services via webmail 116. 10 LAN router 118,10 1 Performance characteristics 118. 10 2 Router configuration 119,10 3 What can be configured 120. 11 Strategic error search in the TCP IP network 122. 12 Tools for diagnosis und error search 126, 12 1 Displaying the current IP configuration ipconfig ifconfig 128. 12 2 Testing connectivity ping 129,12 3 Testing name resolution nslookup 130. 12 4 Route tracing tracert traceroute 130,12 5 Analyzing the network Wireshark 131. 12 6 Displaying routing tables netstat route 132, 13 Remote access from the internet to your home network DynDNS 133. 13 1 Principle of remote access with DynDNS 134, 13 2 Configuration for remote access What must be done 137. 1 Introduction,Learning objectives, Recognizing the benefits and uses of a home network. Knowing the structure and components of a home network. Assessing the functional scope of a DSL router,Indicating the transmission media used. 1 1 Applications in your home network, Networking your own home is the current trend and is something that cannot be. prevented or stopped Terms like home entertainment home office and home. automation are on everybody s lips these days, Networking is required when for example every family member has his her own. computer and requires simultaneous access to the Internet or everyone wants to. use the family color laser printer People often want to store data from different. family members in one central location regardless if this involves conventional text. documents photos audio or video files This makes easy storage of your family. data the so called backup possible, The following overview lists a few typical applications. Resource sharing,shared use of the devices and services. one internet connection for everyone, one color laser printer for the entire family print service. central data storage and data exchange file service. Audio Video streaming,Playing music and video over your network. Internet telephony Voice over IP VOIP,Telephoning via the internet. Internet radio web radio,Listening to the radio via the internet. Monitoring camera, Checking and remotely operating the camera via the internet remote control. Remote access, Access from outside on the go from available resources. to private web servers in your home network, to a computer via a secure channel Virtual Private Network VPN. to the monitoring camera,to the home control system KNX. Figure 1 Applications in the home network,A glimpse into the future. Today separate networks for data IP network voice telephone network and. television TV network still exist for the private and the working environment. In the future and with the appropriate bandwidth everything will be combined and. integrated into a single network the IP network,1 2 Structure of a home network. In order to have access to the desired services and functionalities in the home. network the corresponding technical requirements must be fulfilled A network that. is restricted to a single building is called a local network or a Local Area Network. LAN A home network is thus a typical LAN, The simplest network consists of two computers that are connected to each other via. a direct connection crossover cable or a coupling element switch This lets you. access one computer from the other Use this setup to for example directly. exchange data between two computers, However more than two networked devices are usually available Thus a DSL. router for example may be required to permit simultaneous access to the Internet. A network printer that is accessible to all family members and a central database in. the network are also regarded as common components of a home network For. reasons of efficiency several functions are combined in the DSL router For. example the switch is integrated in the DSL router more details later Figure 2. illustrates the typical setup of a home network,DSL router 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 USB WAN. Client Client 100 Mbit s www bfe de,memory Server,www busch jaeger de. Figure 2 a home network setup,1 3 Components in the home network. The devices to be networked must have a corresponding network interface This is. also referred to as a LAN or Ethernet interface The devices are connected to the. central coupling element switch by a LAN cable Currently Ethernet interfaces are. available for the transmission speeds 10 Mbit s 100 Mbit s and 1000 Mbit s where. 100 Mbit s is the most common today More details are discussed in Chapter 2. Ethernet and cabling, The network interface can also be implemented as a wireless solution wireless. LAN Several things must be observed here too that are examined in a separate. chapter later,What components belong to this interface. Client computer PC notebook with,network interface. network printer,ideally with a LAN interface,via USB on the DSL router. network storage,external media storage,Network Attached Storage NAS. 4 port 8 port 16 port,Fast Ethernet 100 Mbit s,Gigabit Ethernet 1000 Mbit s DSL router. Router Internet Gateway,Transmission medium,Figure 3 Components in the home network. The home network components are examined more closely in the following. Computer PC or notebook with a network interface, The computers require a LAN card Cards with 100 Mbit s Fast Ethernet are. standard today and cards with 1000 Mbit s Gigabyte Ethernet are. increasingly available as well Slower network partners automatically reduce. the speed to 100 or 10 Mbit s Notebooks often have a network card installed. Wi Fi adapter network card with antenna as well, The computers are also frequently referred to as a client in the network. because they a l so u se the services of other devices e g network printer. central d ata storage,Network printer, Network printers are central printers in the network that the user can access. from his her computer client The network printer is also called a print. server since it offers its printing services to others the so called clients. A network printer can be used in many different ways in the network The. network printer is most often configured using the browser via a web. The following hard and software implementation methods for network. printers are available, The printer has its own network interface IP interface. The printer is connected via a USB or parallel interface to a so called printer. box that is connected to the network via a LAN interface. The printer is connected via USB to a modern DSL router like a Fritz Box. 7170 that has the additional print server function. The printer is directly connected to a PC and made available to other users. in the network via a Windows share and the running Server service for. Network storage, Network storage is used to centrally store data in the network Each family. member can then save his her media in the form of Office documents music. folders photos videos etc You can also use network storage to exchange. data within your family The device that makes this kind of external data. storage available is also known as a file server, It is also most often configured by your browser via a web interface. Network storage is possible hardware wise as follows. using an external hard drive with a LAN interface, This is a separate device that you configure using your browser You can. set up areas on the hard drive that only certain users can access This type. of network storage is also called Network Attached Storage NAS. external hard drive with USB interface, The USB hard drive like the USB printer can be connected to the DSL router. that must have the corresponding file server functionality. A special computer in the network provides hard drive memory to other. network users A Windows computer does this using a Windows share and the. activated Server service, All of the network devices are connected to the switch and are thereby. connected Specific operating modes and different application areas. combined with product variety make switches a complex topic This variety. also justifies the large price differences However since no special. requirements are imposed on a switch in the home network it is enough to. realize that the switch basically establishes the physical connection between. the communicating devices Switches differ among other things in the. number of existing network connections which are also referred to as ports. Thus there are 4 port 8 port or 16 port switches as well If more ports are. required than a single switch can provide multiple switches can then be. connected cascaded That s not a problem these days. A 4 port switch is already integrated in standard DSL routers. The DSL modem connects the home network to the public network internet. via the telephone network If the DSL modem is available as an external. device it then has two ports It is connected to the splitter telephone. network on one side and to the router LAN on the other side The DSL. modem is often already integrated in a combination device which is usually. referred to as a DSL router, Nowadays it is most often configured via the browser The provider s. identification data is essentially what must be entered here DSL and its. configuration are not part of this seminar Additional background information. on the subject DSL ADSL is provided at the end of this chapter 1 6. The router is required in the network to forward those data packages that are. not intended for a device in the home network to the public network internet. The router permits simultaneous access to the internet for all the devices The. router may exist as a separate device but in home networks it is usually. integrated in the DSL router combination device,1 4 Transmission media. Different transmission media are used depending on the circumstances and the. requirements An overview shall be provided first Details will follow in the next. Overview Transmission media in the,home network,Twisted pair cable Cat 5 Cat 5e Cat 6. Copper cable,Wireless LAN Wi Fi,Bluetooth is also possible sometimes. Synthetic fiberoptic cables,POF Polymer Optical Fiber. Light optical,Power line,piggybacked over the power grid. Figure 4 overview transmission media for the home network. 1 5 The DSL router, Nowadays the DSL modem and the router are mostly integrated in a single device. These are then referred to as combination devices The combination device most. often also has a 4 port switch and maybe even a wireless base station access. point The names for the combination device may differ Names like DSL router. Internet Wi Fi Gateway or ADSL Wi Fi router are common Only a closer look at. the product description provides detailed information on the range of functions. offered by the combination device, The advantage of a combination unit is less required space and less power. consumption compared to individual components, However the entire device must be replaced when one function fails. Figure 5 T Com Speedport W 701V Figure 6 AVM Fritz Box Fon 7170. DSL router often already contains,combination device. switch with multiple network connections LAN ports usually a 4 port. Fast Ethernet 100 Mbits s,Giga Ethernet 1000 Mbits s. DHCP server,radio base station Wi Fi access point,port for internet telephony. Figure 7 DSL router features,DSL router extras are. telephone system for internet and landlines,port for analog and ISDN telephones. USB interface for printer Configuration as a network printer. USB interface for an external USB hard drive Configuration as network storage. Parental controls using web filters and timetables. Configuration options for remote access including,client for address services such as dyndns org. The router subscribes to a directory service so that it can be accessed from the. internet via an easily recognizable name such as livestation dyndns org. Configurable port forwarding, makes services like a separate web server or secure access via ssh possible from. the outside,Figure 8 DSL router features extras, At this point reference should be made to DSL routers with a wireless LAN. The Wi Fi components should at least support the current 802 11g standard and be. capable of secure encryption WPA Wi Fi Protected Access. 1 6 DSL ADSL Appendix, DSL is the abbreviation for Digital Subscriber Line and refers to a method for. digital data transmission over the copper lines of the existing telephone network A. far greater data speed is achieved compared to analog or ISDN modems A. telephone connection does not use the maximum bandwidth of the involved cables. Since the longer route of the connections to the local exchanges of the respective. telephone company is mostly routed via coaxial or even fiber optic cables it is quite. possible to use the telephone ISDN network using the piggyback method for. additional digital data, These methods are given the umbrella term xDSL where the x stands for one of the. different sub methods With DSL both data and telephone connections run. simultaneously over the same line separated by filters and signal distributors. splitters This requires a DSL Modem which processes the data for the telephone. or ISDN network, The most important DSL methods are ADSL SDSL HDSL and VDSL ADSL. Asymmetric DSL provides a higher data rate from the Internet to the connection. than vice versa SDSL Symmetric DSL however provides the same data rate when. sending and receiving ADSL and SDSL have relatively low demands on line quality. and enable speeds up to about 1 5 Mbit per second HDSL High Data Rate DSL. provides 2 Mbit per second and VDSL Very High Data Rate DSL up to 50 Mbit per. second a n d place the highest demands on line quality. All DSL methods use the higher ranges of the frequency spectrum of a cable As a. result the line length must not exceed a certain value so that the maximum. transmission speed can be achieved The DSL signal can be impaired by resonance. effects distortion and outside interference The longer a line the smaller the data. DSL methods are used on the lines from the end user to the next exchange or. distribution node This requires a digital exchange and a maximum length of cable. section between the end user and the exchange That s why DSL can primarily be. used in urban areas but not in rural areas,ADSL modem. Figure the principle of ADSL,2 Ethernet and wiring. Learning objectives,classify the terms Ethernet and IEEE 802 3. understand the CSMA CD Ethernet media access method. know the common data transmission rates of the Ethernet versions. understand why only lower transmission rates are often achieved in. apply the term MAC address, classify the terms Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. explain the tasks of a switch,specify wiring for the Ethernet. 2 1 Ethernet IEEE 802 3, The beginnings of the local networks hark back to the 70s The first developments. were characterized by company specific solutions There were no standards. Different technologies were developed over time The most common technologies. include d Ethernet Token Ring Arcnet and FDDI whereby the Ethernet has. become the standard in the local network Local Area Network LAN Ethernet is. the most widely used technology for transmitting data in the network Whether or. not other technologies are more suitable for this purpose has not played a role The. market has made this decision simply based on price. In the late 1970s the IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. organization set up a working group to respond to the demand for standards for local. networks Project 802 was founded to establish network standard on layers 1 and 2. of the OSI reference model Note the OSI reference model is an attempt to depict. network communication in multiple layers 7 to be precise Project 802 included. Working group 802 3 which developed standards for the Ethernet Because the. IEEE Project 802 mainly defines standards for Ethernet technology the name. Ethernet is synonymous with all the specifications suggested and standardized by. the Working Group 802 3, Figure 1 roughly shows the developmental stages of the Ethernet. Ethernet developments,Beginnings in 1973,Radio based ALOHAnet. Ethernet in English,100 Mbit s,Fast Ethernet,1000 Mbit s 1 Gbit s. Gigabit Ethernet,10 Gbit s 2006,10Gigabit Ethernet. Figure 1 developmental stages of the Ethernet, It began in the 1980s with 10 MBit Ethernet via coaxial cables followed by Fast. Ethernet with 100 Mbit s the Gigabit Ethernet with 1000 Mbit s up to 10Gigabit. Ethernet with 10 000 Mbit s 10 Gbit s The transmission media was also subject to. an ongoing adjustment Initially only coaxial cables were standardized Today. twisted pair cables i e twisted copper cables different fiber optic cables and radio. belong to the Ethernet standard as well,What defines the Ethernet. Ethernet includes specifications for cable types and connectors describes. signaling for the bit transmission layer encoding transmission speed and. specifies packet formats and protocols From the OSI model s point of view. Ethernet specifies both the physical layer OSI Layer 1 and the data link layer OSI. Layer 2 Ethernet is largely standardized in the IEEE 802 3 standard.