Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization in Interior

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Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization in Interior Architecture Education representations in sketching and drawing Bertoline et al 1995 Through a variety of two dimensional 2D and three dimensional 3D technical drawings artistic illustrations tangible models computer drawings and digital models designers communicate ideas and design solutions to others Perception as a


Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization in Interior Architecture. We explored how beginning level interior architecture students develop skills to create mental visualizations. of three dimensional objects and environments how they develop their technical drawing skills and whether. or not physical and computer generated models aid this design process We used interviews and observations. to collect data The findings provide an insight on what kind of difficulties students experience during their. learning process and how they overcome those difficulties The results of the study indicate that the students. lack of skills in technical drawing and in creating 2D and 3D mental visualizations negatively influenced their. design process Using the existing body of literature we discussed the findings and suggested teaching. strategies to improve the learning process for the beginning level interior architecture students The findings. of this study allowed us to have a better understanding of the student design and learning process. Interior architecture interior design technical drawing skills mental visualization computer aided design. architectural models,IJ SoTL Vol 11 2017 No 2 Art 15. Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization in Interior Architecture Education. Ali Riza Arslan and Sibel Seda Dazkir 1, 1School of Human Ecology Georgia Southern University Statesboro GA 30460 USA. Received 14 June 2016 Accepted 15 March 2017, We explored how beginning level interior architecture students develop skills to create mental visualizations of. three dimensional objects and environments how they develop their technical drawing skills and whether or not. physical and computer generated models aid this design process We used interviews and observations to collect. data The findings provide an insight on what kind of difficulties students experience during their learning process. and how they overcome those difficulties The results of the study indicate that the students lack of skills in. technical drawing and in creating 2D and 3D mental visualizations negatively influenced their design process Using. the existing body of literature we discussed the findings and suggested teaching strategies to improve the learning. process for the beginning level interior architecture students The findings of this study allowed us to have a. better understanding of the student design and learning process. INTRODUCTION Finke 1980 We can perceive objects using mental imagery. Mental visualization of two dimensional and three not only when we look at them but also by recalling them. dimensional objects is an essential skill in many disciplines Thus imagery and perception can function alike Finke. including design architecture art science and engineering 1980 Shepard 1984 Through perception we develop an. Designers transfer the mental imagery of their design ideas understanding of our tangible surroundings Accordingly it. onto two dimensional 2D and three dimensional 3D is important to study how beginning level interior. illustrations Using those illustrations they communicate architecture students perceive walls columns and furniture. their ideas and design solutions to their clients colleagues that are drawn in 2D For example it is vital that students. and contractors Thus it is important to explore how are able to perceive a line drawn on a 2D drawing as a 3D. interior design students develop skills to create mental wall and not merely as a line How do students create 3D. visualizations of 3D objects and environments and how mental visualizations while working on their 2D technical. they develop their technical drawing skills This study is drawings. focused on how Interior Architecture students develop In the interior architecture program where the study. their skills to mentally visualize 2D and 3D representations took place students take courses to develop their technical. of interior settings and create technical drawings to drawing skills They are expected to be able to draw objects. communicate their design ideas Using qualitative research correctly from different views which requires an. methods we aimed to answer the following questions 1 understanding of the relationship between shape and form. How do students develop their skills to visualize 2D designs That understanding is related to visual thinking spatial. in 3D and how does this process affect their overall design visualization perception and 3D mental visualization. process 2 How do model making and computer aided Visual thinking is important in design and problem. design influence this process The findings allowed us to gain solving whether it is in the field of product design Dahl. a better understanding of the student learning process and Chattopadhyay Gorn 1999 architecture Kavakli. discuss ways to improve teaching strategies in the interior Gero 2001 Yagmur Kilimci 2010 engineering Bertoline. architecture education et al 1995 Ferguson 1992 Potter Van der Merwe. 2001 or computer science Casakin Dai 2002 Petre, RESEARCH BACKGROUND Blackwell 1999 Slack 1984 stated that research on visual. The design process starts with inspiration and identification mental imagery has been focused on how mental images are. of design problems Ideas travel from the world of defined produced transformed and understood Mental. imagination to the world of objects Aspelund 2010 Many imagery is defined by Kosslyn 1994 as a basic form of. researchers Bertoline Wiebe Miller Nasman 1995 cognition that plays a central role in many human activities. Bevlin 1993 Bilda 2006 Dahl Chattopadhyay Gorn ranging from navigation to memory to creative problem. 1999 emphasized the importance of mental imagery in solving p 2 Visual mental images are pictorial depictions. design Designers transfer their mental imagery and ideas and they are representations of the physical environment. into tangible illustrations and imagery is instrumental as it Mental imagery may impact cognition Kosslyn 1980 Sorby. provides a bridge between design ideas and their et al 2005 and perception Finke 1980 Shepard 1984 It. representations in sketching and drawing Bertoline et al can influence the generation and interpretation of. 1995 Through a variety of two dimensional 2D and information through spatial representation Kosslyn 1980. three dimensional 3D technical drawings artistic According to Sorby et al 2005 higher level thinking. illustrations tangible models computer drawings and digital reasoning and creativity are related to spatial abilities The. models designers communicate ideas and design solutions ability to visualize objects and situations in one s mind and. to others to manipulate those images is a cognitive skill vital to many. Perception as a concept plays an important role career fields especially those requiring work with graphical. regarding how we analyze and understand our near images Sorby et al 2005 p 10 428 1 Mental rotation. environment The mental visual images of objects and forms tests have been used to measure mental images and image. that we imagine can function like real objects Farah 1985 transformation Shepard Metzler 1971 Shepard. https doi org 10 20429 ijsotl 2017 110215 1,Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization.
Cooper 1982 along with image restructuring Pearson De buildings from the given 2D drawings their skills were. Beni Cornoldi 2001 significantly lower compared to the architects Thus she. Spatial visualization is defined by Gorska and Sorby claimed that 3D mental visualization of buildings is an. 2008 as the ability to mentally manipulate rotate twist architectural skill mostly gained during their education. and pictorially invert presented visual stimuli p 1 rather than professional life The author further 2010. Students can develop their spatial visualization skills with argued that. training Khairulanuar Azniah 2004 Olkun 2003 Potter 1 communication of building information. et al 2009 Rafi Khairulanuar Che Soh 2008 Sorby et al through 2D drawings in architectural design. 2005 Inspired by Piagetian theory Potter and Van der bears on the 3D mental visualization practices. Merwe 2001 argued that spatial visualization skills affect 2 architects during such practices appear. academic performance and they can be developed with somehow to be capturing the 3D appearance of. training The authors 2001 found that students with low the building designs in their minds 3 many. levels of spatial ability such as 3D spatial perception were architects claim to carry out such 3D mental. more likely to fail the first year engineering graphics course visualization practices during design and think. without remedial intervention p 7B5 5 Furthermore that they benefit from these practices in. Samsudin Rafi and Hanif 2011 found that secondary thinking about the 3D aspects of their designs. school students performed better at a given orthographic and 4 many believe that these practices highly. drawing task after they received spatial visualization training rely on spatial visualization abilities pp 5 6. The authors 2011 explained that many studies found. spatial ability as the predictor of success in engineering Architectural education influences designers drawing. drawing courses Kajiyama 1996 Olkun 2003 Rafi skills spatial visualization skills and design process Kavakli. Khairulanuar 2007 Sorby Baartmans 2000 Strong and Gero 2001 found differences between second year. Smith 2001 architecture students and experienced architects with more. Despite the relationship between spatial abilities than 25 years of experience regarding their number and. spatial ability tests such as mental rotation test cognition richness of sketches in the conceptual design process The. and academic performance as claimed by many researchers authors Kavakli Gero 2001 explored the reasons. as outlined above some researchers found no or behind the difference in content and levels of productivity. inconsistent relationship between academic performance between the two groups They 2001 argued that novice. and visualization skills in architectural education e g Akin designers were slower at image generation and cognitive. 2003 Ho 2006 Yukhina 2007 Some researchers e g activity novice designers poorer sketching ability in. Hegarty Waller 2004 Yagmur Kilimci 2010 argued that matching their imagery to sketches Finke 1990 as well as. mental rotation is not effective in understanding 3D mental their lack of mental rotation ability might have impeded. visualization of large scale environments Thompson information processing and production of alternate ideas. Slotnick Burrage and Rosslyn 2009 claimed that mental and experienced designers used imagery more efficiently. rotation can be dissociated from visualizing spatial locations compared to novice designers Similarly Helmi and Khaidzir. Some scholars found no or inconsistent evidence between 2016 found that novice students sketches failed to. spatial ability tests and architectural visualization skills For support their mental imagery. example Ho 2006 found a relationship between spatial Yagmur Kilimci 2010 found that all architects who. visualization ability of architecture industrial design and participated in her study had 3D visualization skills. mechanical engineering students and their studio design lab independent of their years of experience in practice She. course grades only within the female participants He argued that architectural education helps students gain 3D. 2006 also found no relationship between spatial visualization skills however those who have low levels of. visualization skills and years of design education Akin 2003 3D visualization skills could be relying more on physical. found that upper level architecture students performed models and computer programs Thus they could be. poorer compared to the lower level students regarding spending most of their time on creating those physical or. their skills in manipulating small scale rectangular blocks digital models instead of creating ideas The author. Yukhina 2007 compared first to fifth year architecture Yagmur Kilimci 2010 explained that it s difficult to. students regarding their spatial visualization ability and explore how we can support the improvement of 3D. academic performance and she did not find a consistent mental visualization skills in architectural design education. relationship between the two variables across the five because we do not know what the underlying abilities are. groups Those findings support that there are contrasting There is a lack of empirical findings in the field of. findings in the literature about the relationship between interior architecture regarding the relationship between. spatial visualization and academic success across all spatial abilities and performance and also between. disciplines Spatial visualization skills when measured with visualization skills and the use of physical or digital models. small scaled objects may not be related to architectural Some studies from the field of engineering and science such. visualization skills as Huk 2006 found that students with high spatial abilities. Yagmur Kilimci 2010 compared architects and benefited from 3D models in biology education whereas. mechanical engineers involved in design regarding their 3D students with low spatial abilities became cognitively. mental visualization skills She 2010 found that mechanical overloaded Keehner Montello Hegarty and Cohen 2004. engineering students significantly outperformed found that participants with high spatial abilities performed. architecture students regarding their spatial visualization better at a test when they were asked to determine the cut. skills Although the engineers were able to visualize the line on a 3D model without rotating it However when. https doi org 10 20429 ijsotl 2017 110215 2,IJ SoTL Vol 11 2017 No 2 Art 15. participants had the ability to rotate the 3D computer During those interviews their ability to perceive their 2D. model there was no difference between high and low drawings in 3D was investigated During the interviews the. spatial participants Katsioloudis Javanovic and Jones 2014 students were asked about whether or not they could. asked students to create a technical drawing of a given understand the 2D drawings during the first weeks of. object when it is rotated to a certain position The authors Interior Design I course how they created 2D and 3D. 2014 found that the group of students who were drawings how they figured out what the shapes and forms. presented with a 3D image or model significantly performed should look like on plan top view elevation side view. better compared to the group that was only presented with and 3D views whether or not they understood the. a 2D image a side view with no depth of the object Finally relationship between what they drew on plans and their. Katsioloudis Javanovic and Jones 2014 claimed that 3D actual representations if they had any difficulties perceiving. models can improve spatial visualization skills or visualizing objects while drawing them if there were any. instances when they could not mentally visualize 3D. METHODS representation of the floor plan elements and whether or. The participants were 15 undergraduate 12 female 3 male not they consider the actual dimensions of furniture when. beginning level Interior Architecture and Environmental they place draw them on their floor plans. Design IAED students enrolled in a public university in The interviews were recorded with a digital voice. Turkey All of the participants were at the beginning of their recorder and they were typed verbatim We also took. second year third semester in the program when notes during the interviews not only about the participants. interviews took place The same group of 15 students took responses but also about their nonverbal reactions such as. six IAED beginning level courses together Introduction to their body language and facial expressions to better. Interior Architecture Basic Space Analysis Interior understand their responses during the analysis stage At the. Design I Computer aided Design Model Making and beginning of the interviews we collected data about the. Technical Drawing during their first academic year in the demographics of the participants MAge 19 The. program Many of those courses required 3D mental interviews lasted about 20 30 minutes We coded the. visualization of 2D drawings and vice versa During those responses and grouped similar responses together to create. classes students are expected to develop technical drawing themes. skills and acquire the ability to visualize and document their. designs in both 2D and 3D The Interior Design I course FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION. is the main design lab course where students develop design Our first research question was focused on how students. ideas and use 2D and 3D drawings to express those designs develop their design skills to visualize 2D designs in 3D and. The participants worked on a two story residential building how this process affects their overall design process During. design in this class creating space planning for both the interviews the participants discussed their experiences. structural and furnishing elements The students created creating and understanding 2D and 3D drawings their. floor plans a roof plan a lighting plan and elevation side struggles gaining those skills and how those experiences. view drawings in Interior Design I affected their overall learning and design process For. In the Computer aided Design course the students example the analysis of the interview data revealed that. learned to use AutoCAD and they created 2D and 3D students struggled with developing design ideas while. drawings of their Interior Design I project on computer working on their 2D drawings in the Interior Design I. In the Technical Drawing course the students learned course Their lack of skills in technical drawing and in. about line quality lettering and how to draw different views creating 2D and 3D mental visualizations influenced their. of objects in scale In this course the students learned how design process negatively A student Suna ID2 explained. to create 3D drawings by looking at 2D views of objects In While working on my floor plan and section view I thought. the Model Making course the students created small I would develop design ideas but I was wrong It happened. scale models of their Interior Design I residential projects in time Ayla ID1 discussed how her lack of experience. and models of buildings given to them by their Model and beginning level skills affected her performance in class. Making instructor I could only draw the floor plan by recalling and. We used qualitative research methods to gain a copying what we already did in class Even. deeper understanding of the research phenomenon We though I was taking the technical drawing class. interviewed the students using a semi structured interview at the same time as the Interior Design I. guide and asked them about their process of 3D mental course I still did not know how to create a. visualization The semi structured and inductive approach of floor plan or top views of structural and. the study allowed us the flexibility to explore new topics furnishing items. search for new meanings and learn from participant. perspectives Creswell 2007 Those testimonials support that students developed. The interview data was triangulated using their drawing skills and skills to visualize those drawings in. observations of student work and in class performance The time The participants explained that they struggled to. students were observed in the Interior Design I class and create drawings outside what their instructor showed them. their works such as their hand drafted drawings physical This impeded their design process and their creativity. small scale models and computer drawings were observed Those findings support the literature that lack of drawing. The students were interviewed individually at the beginning skills can impede cognitive and creative process in design. of their third semester second year in the program Brooks 1968 Finke 1990 Helmi Khaidzir 2016. Because of this struggle the students searched for. https doi org 10 20429 ijsotl 2017 110215 3,Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization. photographs of furniture and interiors that were similar to In class observations from first semester revealed. what they wanted to create Then they made alterations on that students could not fully grasp what they were actually. those pictures to come up with their own design ideas drawing They repeatedly asked their instructor questions. The students were asked if they could draw elevation about what the size of objects should be in the plan and. side views from a given floor plan and visualize it in 3D section views Suna ID2 claimed that they developed only. without seeing a physical or digital model Koray ID11 their technical skills such as draftsmanship and drawing. explained that by mid spring semester they he and his conventions in the Technical Drawing course and she. classmates knew what they were supposed to do to create claimed that they did not develop skills to visualize furniture. elevation views Figen ID9 further explained supporting from their drawings She further explained We can only. Yagmur Kilimci s 2010 findings that visual mental imagery explain communicate as much as we are able to. skills are gained through architectural education comprehend Ayla ID1 explained. During the first semester it took me hours to I could not see my mistakes on my drawings. create an elevation view I just could not even when I realized something was not right. perceive the relationship between a floor plan For example I could not see where the armrest. and what it represents Now when I look at of a seating unit should be I was following the. floor plans I know where to look I understand technical drawing rules extending the lines to. the plan and visualize it in my head create an armchair that was placed diagonally. but I could not visualize it I also had a lot of, During their technical drawing class the students difficulty creating the scaled model. created 2D drawings such as top and side views of given 3D. geometric shapes and vice versa This engineering graphics The following findings further support that the. style technical drawing class was focused on visualizing and participants developed technical drafting and mental. drafting small scaled objects Despite this training it was visualization skills with practice and in time answering. observed that the students struggled with doing the same research question 1 The students were required to place. type of drawings of interior elements in the Interior Design an armchair at a 45 degree angle next to a straight. I course They copied and used the dimensions and shapes horizontal wall Although they could draw this armchair in. that were given to them by their instructor in class This a plan top view they struggled to transfer it to an elevation. supports the literature that spatial visualization skills with side view The participants were asked if they could. small objects may be different than visualization skills visualize how the furnishings should look like in plan and. needed for interior environments e g Akin 2003 Ho elevation views or if they were simply copying what their. 2006 Yukhina 2007 On the other hand it appears that instructor showed them if they had difficulty transferring. students developed their understanding of how forms plan views to elevation views and if they can now draw an. should look like in 2D and 3D views in time The findings armchair that is placed diagonally by a horizontal wall Ayla. support the literature that training and experience help with ID1 revealed that she and some other classmates could. mental imagery and visualization skills Piaget Inhelder not draw the diagonally placed armchair and they took a. 1971 Potter et al 2009 picture of a classmate s work and copied from there Ayla. When asked about whether they consider the actual ID1 further explained I knew what was missing on my. size of furniture on floor plans or if they understand the drawing when I asked for my instructor s help I just did not. relationship between what they draw and their actual know how to fix it Ceren ID6 had similar experiences as. representations such as lines representing walls columns she could not figure out how to properly draw the armchair. and windows one student Sebnem ID3 responded I I did not know how to do it For this reason my drawing. had no idea about dimensions and scale of objects and until looked weird. now I never paid attention Now I seek information about The students were observed to be having difficulty. them when I draw Another student Deniz ID4 explained visualizing interior furnishings from their 2D drawings They. that she drafted her plan by copying from examples such as also had difficulty figuring out the proper height of the. drawings created by the instructor or a fellow student diagonally placed chair They could have determined the. when she did not know about the dimensions she needed height of the chair by looking at the chairs that were already. to use Suna ID2 revealed that if she were to use a sofa available to them in the classroom Those findings suggest. that she saw at a furniture fair she would draw it out of that students would benefit from having more integration. scale and not in line with ergonomics Those testimonials between technical drawing and design courses The. reveal that beginning level students struggled with how to technical drafting course should be revised to emphasize. correctly draw objects in scale and mentally visualize those mental visualization skills The course should also focus on. objects Some students looked for information on the size drafting furniture rather than just small geometric objects. of furniture whereas other students learned how to draw Students can be asked to draft existing pieces of furniture. furniture in correct scale by looking at instructor s that are available to them in class which in turn would help. examples Although many students learn how to draft by them develop skills to draw furniture in scale and feel more. copying from examples in the beginning level they are confident creating similar drawings in their design courses. expected to locate size information and draft objects We asked the participants how they developed their. without help as they progress in the program If the students ability to understand their 2D drawings and visualize those. struggle with mentally visualizing 2D views and creating interior settings in 3D We asked the respondents what. technical drawings they should be encouraged to seek help helped them develop those skills Suna ID2 explained that. from their instructors she developed those skills with practice She emphasized. https doi org 10 20429 ijsotl 2017 110215 4,IJ SoTL Vol 11 2017 No 2 Art 15. the importance of technical drawing skills On the other understanding the size of furnishings and. hand Gamze ID10 revealed that she started to understand interior structural elements I understood what. the relationship between the floor plans and the actual 3D I was actually drafting When you do not think. settings when they stopped working on its technical aspects about the scale it is a lot simpler I can draw my. and focused on the creativity aspect Another student Ayla floor plan in scale but I cannot create the scaled. ID1 explained model of my project It is just too complicated. Towards the end of the semester I noticed that Regarding perspective views AutoCAD. I think about my project even during my spare definitely helps me perceive the 3D view as I can. time When I have the freedom to explore I orbit the view rotating the 3D computer. noticed that I imagine things that are a little too model to see it from different angles. unrealistic When I am relaxed I realize that I We investigated students basic visualization skills by. am better able to think in 3D I start to create asking them about how a simple geometric object would. the space in my head For example when I draw look like in different views We asked them if they were able. a cabinet I visualize how it will look like in the to understand how a cylinder would look like in plan and. room as if I am walking around the room elevation views One of the students Elif ID8 explained. That s what started to happen When I draft the that she had difficulty making the connection between the. 2D floor plan I no longer just see the lines and circle the top plan view of a cylinder and the cylinder and. rectangles I perceive the space with its third that AutoCAD helped her see the connection All those. dimension responses and in class observations indicate that model. All the testimonials discussed so far shed light on how making and use of computer aided design allowed students. students developed their skills to visualize their designs in to improve the accuracy of their project drawings Those. 2D and 3D and how this process affected their overall skills also helped them visualize their floor plans in 3D and. design process answering research question 1 The rest of in elevation views. this section is focused on the second research question The testimonials from the students as given above. which is focused on how model making and computer aided support the literature Yagmur Kilimci 2010 that design. design influenced students skills in creating and visualizing students with low levels of 3D visualization skills could be. 2D and 3D drawings depending more on 3D physical or digital models causing. The students took Interior Design I Computer them to spend more time on those models and less time on. aided Design and Model Making courses together in the creating ideas Working with physical and 3D computer. spring semester During the second half of the spring models and the ability to see those models from different. semester the Computer aided Design students were viewpoints can help designers improve their visualization. asked to reproduce their hand drafted drawings from and problem solving skills as well as their design. Interior Design I using AutoCAD They were also asked communication skills The findings also support the. to create a physical small scaled model of their Interior literature Katsioloudis Javanovic Jones 2014 Keehner. Design I project in the Model Making class When asked et al 2004 that the use of computer generated or physical. about how using AutoCAD and model making influenced models can help close the gap between low and high spatial. their understanding of 2D and 3D drawings students students. responded In summary the participant responses revealed that. students developed their skills in creating and mentally. Sevgi ID5 I had a sloped ceiling design in the visualizing 2D and 3D drawings using computer aided. bedroom of my project I was not able to design small scaled models and their technical drawing. determine the height of that ceiling I just could skills by practicing and looking at examples in their. not visualize it in my head When I took the surroundings imagining how the space would look like. Computer aided design class I created a 3D visualizing a walk through of the space by thinking about. model of my project By this way I was able to the projects and by brainstorming ideas. measure the ceiling height I had difficulty hand,drafting objects in 3D view because I struggled.
to visualize them in my head Model making CONCLUSION. helped me better understand it and it made Mental visualization of objects and spatial visualization skills. drawing easier are essential in many fields of study such as design. engineering art and architecture Those skills are found to. Ayla ID1 I could not visualize how a spiral be related with higher level thinking and creativity which are. staircase should look like in plan and elevation essential skills in many fields Sorby et al 2005 It is. views I looked at a spiral staircase I climbed it especially important for students studying disciplines such. and analyzed it but I still could not figure it out as interior architecture architecture and industrial design. After I drew it in AutoCAD with the help of my that they develop the necessary skills to create 2D and 3D. professor I was finally able to understand it technical drawings and be able to visualize 2D drawings in. 3D One of our research questions was about exploring. Alp ID7 It was during the model making class how students develop those skills The findings of this study. that I was able to perceive the 3D look of my suggest that students gain those skills in time Students lack. project a lot better and I was better at of experience and skills cause uncertainty and prompt them. https doi org 10 20429 ijsotl 2017 110215 5,Technical Drafting and Mental Visualization. to copy drawings from others and sometimes without visualization and three dimensional representation using. understanding what they are copying Learning by copying conventions of engineering drawing p 7B5 3 As. existing examples can help students develop technical explained earlier a body of literature Khairulanuar. drawing skills however students should seek help in their Azniah 2004 Olkun 2003 Potter et al 2009 Rafi. design and other studio courses if they struggle with Khairulanuar Che Soh 2008 Sorby et al 2005 also. understanding and mentally visualizing those examples when suggests that spatial visualization skills can be developed. they are copying them through training, Despite the help of technical drawing training Despite the relationship between spatial visualization. students start to perceive and visualize the space better skills academic performance and technical drawing skills as. when they have more experience use physical and found by some researchers in the field of engineering and. computer generated models or when they have the science Potter Van der Merwe 2001 Sorby et al 2005. creative freedom The creative freedom prompts them to there is a lack of support in the architectural education. imagine how the space would look like and create 3D literature regarding the relationship between mental. mental visualizations and walkthroughs Thus it is important rotation academic performance e g Akin 2003 Ho 2006. that educators emphasize the development of visualization Yukhina 2007 and mental visualization of large scale. skills environments Hegarty Waller 2004 Yagmur Kilimci. Beginning level students skills in technical drafting 2010 Our findings support that an engineering style. mental visualizations of 2D views of objects and interior technical drawing course with a focus on drafting small. settings and correctly drafting furniture in scale can be geometric objects did not help interior architecture. improved by revising the existing technical drafting courses students develop their visualization skills of interior settings. by encouraging students to seek help in their design studio in the Interior Design I class Despite the uncertainty. classes and by encouraging students to use their whether training and testing in spatial visualization abilities. observation and research skills The existing technical can improve or measure skills to visualize large scale. drafting course in the program is focused on draftsmanship environments implementing improved technical drawing. and drawing small objects This course can be revised to and spatial visualization exercises may enhance interior. include more architectural drawings such as plans and architecture students communication skills using technical. elevations and drawings of actual pieces of furniture drawings which in turn can improve their skills in. Students can measure and create 2D drawings of furniture communicating their design ideas through those drawings. that they can touch and feel This would help them develop The findings of this study shed light on the student. a better understanding of the relationship between the 2D learning process in the Interior Architecture education. drawings of furniture and what they actually represent Those findings may also be used in other disciplines that rely. Our second research question was about exploring on students to visualize and mentally manipulate 2D and 3D. how model making and CAD influence students 3D representations of objects The findings provided insight on. visualization skills The students were better at perceiving not only what kind of difficulties students experienced. the space with the help of models and CAD Digital and during their learning process but also how they overcame. physical models allowed them to see some aspects of design those difficulties More research needs to be conducted. that they could not visualize on their own and improved the with a larger and more diverse sample size to further. accuracy of their drawings and designs We believe that investigate students process of mental 3D visualizations. beginner level students especially those with lower mental Future research can benefit from using mental rotation tests. visualization abilities benefit considerably from the use of and spatial skill exercises to investigate the influence of. computer generated and physical models This also supports spatial skills on beginner level interior architecture. that students benefit from inter connectedness of different students technical drawing and mental visualization skills. courses REFERENCES, Despite their usefulness for developing visualization Akin 2003 Spatial reasoning of architecture students. skills we believe that beginning level students should not with simple three dimensional arrangements ITU. just rely on computer generated models in their design Journal A Architecture Planning Design 1 1 3 19. process The participants of this study were required to use Aspelund K 2010 The design process 2nd Ed New. 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