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SWINE NUTRITION GUIDE GENERAL NUTRITION PRINCIPLES Vitamin Sources for Swine Diets Vitamins are required for normal metabolism in physiological functions such as growth development maintenance and reproduction Some vitamins are produced by the pig in sufficient quantities to meet its needs while others are present in adequate amounts in feed ingredients commonly used in swine diets
Riboflavin Choline, Riboflavin is an essential component of enzymes Choline is mainly added to sow diets Choline is. involved in the metabolism of protein carbohydrate and involved in many essential metabolic functions for cell. fat Riboflavin content is typically low in grains and structure nervous function and amino acid metabolism. oilseeds commonly used in swine diets Riboflavin Choline is present in adequate amounts in grains and. deficiency causes non specific signs such as low growth oilseeds commonly used in swine diets and pigs are also. rate low intake skin lesions rough hair coat diarrhea able to produce choline to meet the requirements. and reproductive failure Choline supplementation in sows is found to improve. conception rate farrowing rate litter size live born. piglets and weaned piglets,Niacin is an important component of enzymes. involved in many metabolic reactions Grains commonly. used in swine diets contain adequate amounts of niacin Biotin is mainly added to sow diets Biotin is an. but in a bound form unavailable to pigs Niacin essential component of enzymes involved in the. deficiency is characterized by skin lesions rough hair metabolism of protein carbohydrate and fat Grains and. coat hair loss diarrhea vomiting and lesions in the oilseeds commonly used in swine diets have adequate. digestive tract concentration of biotin to meet the requirement of. growing pigs Biotin supplementation in sows is found to. improve litter size live born piglets and weaned piglets. Vitamin B12 and to enhance hoof soundness,Vitamin B12 is an essential component of enzymes. involved in several metabolic functions Feedstuffs of. plant origin do not contain vitamin B12 whereas proteins. of animal origin are good sources of vitamin B12 Vitamin. B12 deficiency causes non specific signs such as low. growth rate low intake rough hair coat incoordination. and reproductive failure A typical sign of vitamin B12 KSU Vitamin premix. deficiency is anemia,A suggested vitamin premix is available at KSU. Premix Diet Recommendations This single, Folic acid premix can be used in diets for all stages of. production by adjusting the inclusion rate for sow. Folic acid is mainly added to sow diets Folic acid is nursery grower and finisher diets A sow add pack. involved in the synthesis of essential components for cell is also available for sow diets to supply the specific. development and function Grains and oilseeds vitamins to enhance reproduction. commonly used in swine diets have adequate,Vitamins can be combined with trace minerals in a. concentration of folic acid to meet the requirement of. VTM premix but it is recommended to have, growing pigs Folic acid supplementation in sows is. separate premixes because trace minerals can affect. particularly important for adequate development of. the vitamin stability Otherwise VTM premix age, conceptus and to improve litter size and live born. must be monitored to ensure it is used before,excess vitamin loss. Pyridoxine, Pyridoxin is mainly added to sow diets Pyridoxine is an. essential component of enzymes involved in amino acid. metabolism Grains and oilseeds commonly used in, swine diets have adequate concentration of pyridoxine. to meet the requirement of growing pigs Pyridoxine. supplementation in sows is found to improve litter size. and wean to estrus interval,Kansas State University Applied Swine Nutrition 2. Vitamin sources Factors affecting vitamin stability. Synthetic vitamins are widely used in premixes for Vitamin stability in premixes is affected by exposure to. swine diets The commercially synthesized vitamins are light heat moisture oxygen and pH and contact with. modified from natural vitamin forms to improve their other compounds These factors subject vitamins to. stability compatibility mixability and handling degradation primarily through oxidation The long term. characteristics for feed supplementation The natural or multiple exposure to these factors generally magnifies. source of vitamin E d tocopheryl acetate or natural the negative impact on vitamin stability The individual. vitamin E is the only non synthetic vitamin often used in vitamins vary in their susceptibility to degradation Table. swine diets A list of sources of vitamins and respective 2 In general the most sensitive or labile vitamins are. units of activity is presented in Table 1 vitamin K3 vitamin A pyridoxine vitamin B12 and folic. acid Shurson et al 2011,The form of vitamin products determines important. characteristics of vitamin quality Vitamin forms with. good stability are usually able to maintain good vitamin. Vitamin stability in premixes, bioavailability Vitamin forms with high flowability high. uniformity in mix low dusting and low caking provide Premix composition affects vitamin stability especially. optimal handling and mixing characteristics Altogether with regard to the presence or absence of choline and. these characteristics are important because vitamins are inorganic trace minerals To maintain vitamin potency it. added in such small amounts to swine diets that the is recommended to have vitamin premixes separated. presence or absence of vitamins in individual rations from choline and trace mineral premixes. markedly affect performance and health, Choline is very hygroscopic and absorbs significant. amounts of moisture from the environment which, affects the stability of other vitamins when added in the. Vitamin levels premix Inorganic trace minerals also affect the stability. The vitamin content of feed ingredients is usually of vitamins when added in the premix as trace minerals. disregarded in diet formulation because of imprecision often produce reduction and oxidation reactions in the. and variation on methods of analysis characteristics of premix Among the inorganic trace mineral sources the. ingredients and degradation of vitamins in storage and sulfates have greater effect on vitamin stability than. processing Gaudr and Quiniou 2009 Thus vitamin carbonates and oxides Use of organic trace mineral. levels in the vitamin premix are calculated to fully supply sources reduces vitamin activity losses by 40 to 50. the vitamin requirements of swine Also it appears to be during storage compared to adding inorganic trace. standard practice to add a margin of safety for vitamin minerals in a vitamin trace mineral premix Shurson et. levels beyond the NRC 2012 requirement estimates al 2011. Flohr et al 2016 The margin of safety intends to, account for fluctuations in daily feed consumption and. degradation of vitamins in storage and processing Vitamin stability during feed processing. Some processes used in feed manufacturing affect, vitamin stability Reddy and Love 1999 In swine diets. Vitamin stability pelleting is typically the most aggressive process against. vitamins due to exposure to heat moisture pressure. The stability of vitamins in a premix is critical in and abrasion Mixing also affects vitamin stability due to. maintaining vitamin potency Susceptibility to abrasion and contact with other compounds in the diet. degradation varies depending on individual vitamins. and on a number of factors that affect vitamin stability. Safety margins for vitamin premix formulation are, usually based upon vitamin cost presence or absence of. Vitamin stability during storage, trace minerals and choline in the premix feed processing Vitamins are rather stable prior to preparation of a. characteristics environmental conditions anticipated premix and remain reasonably stable in complete feeds. storage time and expected rates of vitamin potency Consequently most vitamin losses occur while the. losses Shurson et al 2011 vitamin premix is under storage Both storage time and. storage conditions should be controlled for vitamin. premixes Vitamin premixes should be stored in a dry. Kansas State University Applied Swine Nutrition 3, cool and dark place to maintain stability during storage References. Also the use of barriers such as plastic lined bags aid in. reducing the absorption of moisture DSM Vitamin Nutrition Compendium Vitamin stability. Available at, Premixes containing vitamins exclusively can be stored https www dsm com markets anh en US Compendium html. for about 3 to 4 months However storage time should Flohr J R J M DeRouchey J C Woodworth M D Tokach. not exceed 60 days if choline and trace minerals are R D Goodband and S S Dritz 2016 A survey of current. present in combination with vitamins in the premix feeding regimens for vitamins and trace minerals in the US. swine industry Journal of Swine Health and Production. During storage vitamin potency can be monitored in 24 290 303. premixes through a vitamin activity assay Vitamin assay Gaudr D and N Quiniou 2009 What mineral and vitamin. costs are generally expensive which prompts the levels to recommend in swine diets Revista Brasileira de. selection of one indicator vitamin to estimate the Zootecnia 38 190 200 doi 10 1590 S1516. vitamin potency losses in the premix According to 35982009001300019. National Research Council 2012 Nutrient Requirements of. Shurson et al 2011 retinol appears to be the best, Swine 11th Revised Edition The National Academies Press. indicator in the vitamin premix because of the low cost Washington DC doi 10 17226 13298. of assay relatively high sensitivity of vitamin A to Reddy M B and M Love 1999 The impact of food. multiple factors and high expected loss of activity per processing on the nutritional quality of vitamins and minerals. month of storage Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 459 99 106. doi 10 1007 978 1 4615 4853 9 7, Reese D E and G M Hill 2010 Trace minerals and vitamins. Technologies to improve vitamin stability for swine diets National Swine Nutrition Guide PIG 07 02 06. Shelton N W S S Dritz J L Nelssen M D Tokach R D, Advances in research and technology have led to the Goodband J M DeRouchey H Yang D A Hill D Holzgraefe. development of specialized vitamin forms to provide D H Hall and D C Mahan 2014 Effects of dietary vitamin E. superior vitamin stability Many commercial vitamin concentration and source on sow milk and pig concentrations. of tocopherol Journal of Animal Science 92 4547 4556. manufacturers have succeeded in enhancing stability of. doi 10 2527 jas 2014 7311, vitamins with spray drying and beadlet technologies. Shurson G C T M Salzer D D Koehler and M H Whitney. DSM Vitamin Nutrition Compendium 2011 Effect of metal specific amino acid complexes and. Spray dried vitamin products are manufactured as a inorganic trace minerals on vitamin stability in premixes. Animal Feed Science and Technology 163 200 206, fine powder with high stability and good uniformity of. doi 10 1016 j anifeedsci 2010 11 001,mix but only fair quality in terms of flowability. dustiness and caking Beadlets are produced by coating. vitamins in gelatin or starch to prevent contact with. factors affecting vitamin stability until it is digested by. the pig Beadlets are manufactured as a fine granular. product with high stability and also high flowability low. dustiness and low caking characteristics Cross linked. beadlets are produced by coating vitamins with cross. linked gelatin proteins which makes harder beadlets. that are more resistant to the pressure and abrasion of. pelleting The inclusion of antioxidants in the beadlets. provide additional protection against oxidative factors. Kansas State University Applied Swine Nutrition 4, Table 1 Sources of vitamins and respective units of activity. Vitamin Abbreviation Principal compound Source Units of activity. Vitamin A A Retinol Retinyl acetate 1 IU 0 34 g retinyl acetate. Retinyl A palmitate 1 IU 0 55 g retinyl palmitate, Retinyl A propionate 1 IU 0 36 g retinyl propionate. Vitamin D D Cholecalciferol D3 Cholecalciferol vitamin D3 1 IU 0 025 g cholecalciferol. Vitamin E E tocopherol dl tocopheryl acetate 1 mg 1 0 IU dl tocopheryl acetate. d tocopheryl acetate natural vitamin E 1 mg 2 1 IU d tocopheryl acetate1. dl tocopherol 1 mg 1 11 IU dl tocopherol,d tocopherol 1 mg 1 49 IU d tocopherol. Vitamin K K Menadione K3 Menadione nicotinamide bisulfite MNB. 1 Ansbacher unit 20 Dam units,Menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite MPB. 0 0008 mg menadione,Menadione sodium bisulfite complex MSBC. Riboflavin B2 Riboflavin Crystalline riboflavin Commonly expressed as mg. Niacin B3 Niacinamide and nicotinic Niacinamide Commonly expressed as mg. acid Nicotinic acid Commonly expressed as mg, Pantothenic B5 Pantothenic acid d calcium pantothenate 1 mg 0 92 mg d pantothenic acid. acid dl calcium pantothenate 1 mg 0 45 mg d pantothenic acid. Vitamin B12 B12 Cobalamin Cyanocobalamin 1 g 1 USP unit 11 000 LLD units. Pyridoxine B6 Pyridoxine Pyridoxine hydrochloride 1 mg 0 823 mg pyridoxine. Choline B4 Choline Choline chloride 1 mg 0 868 mg choline. Biotin H Biotin d biotin 1 mg 1 mg of activity, Folic acid Bc Pteroyglutamic acid and Folic acid 1 mg 1 mg of activity. polyglutamate derivatives, Adapted from Reese and Hill 2010 and 1Shelton et al 2014 The vitamin sources listed in italic are less commonly used sources. Kansas State University Applied Swine Nutrition 5, Table 2 Susceptibility of vitamins to factors affecting stability. Vitamin Abbreviation Temperature Humidity Light Oxygen Acid pH Alkaline pH. Vitamin A A Very sensitive Sensitive Very sensitive Very sensitive Sensitive Stable. Vitamin D D Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Very sensitive Sensitive Stable. Vitamin E E Stable Stable Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive. Vitamin K K Sensitive Very sensitive Stable Sensitive Very sensitive Stable. Riboflavin B2 Stable Sensitive Sensitive Stable Stable Stable. Niacin B3 Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable. Pantothenic acid B5 Sensitive Sensitive Stable Stable Stable Stable. Vitamin B12 B12 Very sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Stable Stable. Pyridoxine B6 Very sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Stable Sensitive Stable. Biotin H Sensitive Stable Stable Stable Stable Stable. Folic acid Bc Very sensitive Sensitive Very sensitive Stable Very sensitive Stable. Adapted from DSM Vitamin Nutrition Compendium and Shurson et al 2011. Kansas State University Applied Swine Nutrition, Cite as Menegat Mariana B Robert D Goodband Joel M DeRouchey Mike D Tokach Jason C Woodworth and Steve S Dritz 2019 6. Kansas State University Swine Nutrition Guide Vitamin Sources for Swine Diets.