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2 UNIT 7 SLAVERY AND FREEDOM Authors and Works Featured in the Video Frederick Douglass Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass autobiography slave narrative My
1 understand how the antebellum debate about by Briton Hammon Lydia Maria Child Frederick. slavery transformed and expanded foundational Douglass Abraham Lincoln Harriet Beecher Stowe. ideas about American identity and citizenship Harriet Jacobs William Craft Lorenzo Asisara and. 2 see and discuss the different strategies slaves Helen Hunt Jackson The institution of slavery is. adopted to resist white authority and to develop often understood as a phenomenon limited to the. their own distinct culture antebellum period in the South In fact slavery. 3 explain the importance of sentimentality and existed in many other historical periods and geo. domesticity within the nineteenth century litera graphical locations in America including the north. ture of social reform ern colonies mostly though not exclusively in the. 4 understand the role of literature in both shaping seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and in. and reflecting political reform movements California where Anglos and Hispanic Californios. enslaved Native Americans Unit 7 includes materi,als about Native American enslavement in order to. add another dimension to students understanding, Instructor Overview of slavery This unit provides contextual background. and classroom materials designed to explore the, When the founding fathers affirmed their commit way these writers both challenged traditional myths. ment to the inalienable rights of life liberty and about America and helped to create new national. the pursuit of happiness in 1776 they opted not to ideals. struggle with the troubling question of how slavery The video for Unit 7 focuses on three influential. fit into this ideal But the contradiction inherent in abolitionist texts Frederick Douglass s Narrative of. the legally sanctioned enslavement of four million the Life of Frederick Douglass Harriet Jacobs s auto. people in a country ostensibly founded on principles biographical Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl and. of freedom eventually became too discomfiting to Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin all par. ignore By the mid nineteenth century the conflict ticipate in the effort to convince readers slavery was. over slavery had reached a crisis point creating irre unjust but adopt very different rhetorical strategies. solvable tensions among the North the South and to appeal to their audiences Drawing on a variety of. the West In Abraham Lincoln s words the nation literary conventions these texts expose the way. had become as a house divided against itself race gender and social position inflect their writers. embroiled in a domestic struggle that threatened to distinct approaches to the abolitionist cause. destroy the union Many Americans concluded that Frederick Douglass s autobiography chronicles. the only solution lay in transforming American cul his early experiences of oppression his rebellion. ture and writers both black and white responded and his eventual heroic achievement of a fully liber. by creating a revolutionary literature committed to ated sense of self and identity Emphasizing the. the overthrow of slavery Autobiographies by former importance of literacy and active resistance he. slaves polemical speeches and editorials and senti recasts the American myth of the self made man. mental novels confronted their audiences with pow to include African Americans In Incidents in the Life. erful narratives of the cruelty and destructiveness of of a Slave Girl Harriet Jacobs modifies the conven. slavery These anti slavery texts had overt designs tions of the masculine slave narrative to chart her. upon their readers using emotional rhetoric and own life Focusing on the specific plight of women. didacticism to call the American populace to action held in slavery and particularly on the sexual. in the interests of social reform Anti slavery litera exploitation they often endured her autobiography. ture also had the important effect of exposing the both appropriates and challenges the discourse of. arbitrary nature of racial distinctions thus challeng sentimentality Situated squarely within the senti. ing prejudices that had long been used to justify dis mental tradition Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle. crimination and inequality Unit 7 Slavery and Tom s Cabin unabashedly appeals to readers emo. Freedom explores representations of race and tions with affective scenes of pathos and tragedy. identity in a wide variety of American texts includ The novel sold hundreds of thousands of copies. ing the Sorrow Songs which were developed com bringing the abolitionist cause to the forefront of. munally within slave culture and works composed American consciousness. U N I T 7 IS N,C T AONR D O FVREEREVDI O, In its coverage of these influential writers and stant and controversial issue in American culture. texts the video introduces students to the complexi and literature. ties of antebellum debates about slavery and race, and foregrounds the relationship between literature. and social reform How do these texts critique an, entrenched racist ideology of white superiority Student Overview. How do they recast American ideals of liberty and, self determination to include African Americans Unit 7 Slavery and Freedom Race and Identity in. What rhetorical strategies do they employ to effect Antebellum America explores the problem that. social reform How do they work within the con slavery posed to a country ostensibly founded on. straints of literary and social conventions and yet principles of freedom and equality By the mid. still assert unique perspectives Unit 7 helps answer nineteenth century the nation had become to quote. these questions by offering suggestions on how to Abraham Lincoln like a house divided against. connect these writers to their nineteenth century itself embroiled in a domestic struggle over slav. cultural contexts to other units in the series and to ery that created irresolvable tensions among the. other key writers of the era The curriculum materi North the South and the West Many Americans. als help fill in the video s introduction to slavery and concluded that the only solution lay in transform. identity by exploring writers who articulated other ing American culture and writers both black and. diverse experiences such as Lorenzo Asisara a white responded by creating a revolutionary lit. Native American enslaved on a Franciscan Mission erature committed to the overthrow of slavery. in California Briton Hammon an African Amer Autobiographies by former slaves polemical. ican who endured both slavery in America and cap speeches and editorials and sentimental novels. tivity among the Spanish William Craft a fugitive confronted their audiences with powerful narratives. slave who escaped by disguising his wife as a white of the destructiveness and cruelty of slavery. man and many others The video for Unit 7 focuses on three influential. The video the archive and the curriculum mate abolitionist texts Frederick Douglass s Narrative of. rials situate these writers within several of the his the Life of Frederick Douglass Harriet Jacobs s auto. torical contexts and stylistic conventions that biographical Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl and. shaped their texts 1 the ideals of femininity and Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin all par. domesticity that shaped nineteenth century ticipate in the effort to convince readers that slavery. women s lives 2 the dynamic creole culture that is unjust but adopt very different formal conven. African American slaves created out of the adversity tions and rhetorical strategies to appeal to their. of their situation 3 slave strategies of rebellion audiences Douglass s autobiography chronicles his. and resistance 4 the issue of miscegenation and early experiences of oppression his rebellion and. 5 the mythology of the plantation his eventual heroic achievement of a fully liberated. The archive and the curriculum materials sug sense of self and identity In Incidents in the Life of a. gest how these authors and texts relate to those cov Slave Girl Jacobs modifies the conventions of the. ered in other American Passages units How do ante masculine slave narrative to chart her own life. bellum African American autobiographies adapt Focusing on the specific plight of women held in. and modify earlier literary traditions such as the slavery her autobiography both appropriates and. captivity narrative and the spiritual autobiography challenges the discourse of sentimentality Situated. How does the slave narrative provide a foundation squarely within the sentimental tradition Stowe s. for a rich tradition of African American writing Uncle Tom s Cabin unabashedly appeals to its read. from W E B Du Bois to Toni Morrison How does ers emotions with affective scenes of pathos and. abolitionist discourse revise enlightenment rhetoric tragedy. from the revolutionary period How does enslave All of the writers discussed in Unit 7 share an. ment of Native Americans in nineteenth century interest in the role of race in American culture as. California resonate with sixteenth seventeenth well as a commitment to promoting social reform. and eighteenth century discrimination against Focusing on such diverse issues as the enslavement. Indians How and why has race remained a con of Native Americans in California and the implica. 4 U N I T 7 S L A V E R Y A N D F R E E D O M, tions of cross dressing and racial passing these texts of slavery and identity in antebellum texts Unit 7. help illuminate the ways abolitionist writers both provides insight into the question of why race has. challenged traditional myths about America and remained a constant and controversial issue in. helped to create new ideals By exploring problems American culture and literature. Video Overview, Authors covered Frederick Douglass Harriet Jacobs Cabin was enormously important in generating sup. Harriet Beecher Stowe port for the abolitionist cause in the nineteenth cen. Who s interviewed Nina Baym general editor The tury. Norton Anthology of American Literature and professor The writings of antebellum African Americans trans. of English University of Illinois Urbana Champaign formed the genre of autobiography in the United. Frederick Douglass IV great great grandson of Frederick States and created the foundation for a rich tradition. Douglass John Carlos Rowe professor of English and of African American literature. comparative literature University of California Irvine. Richard Yarborough associate professor of English and. African American studies University of California Los PREVIEW. Angeles Rafia Zafar director of African and African Preview the video In the early and mid nineteenth cen. American studies Washington University tury America found itself increasingly divided over the. Points covered volatile issue of slavery The economy and cultural tradi. The video explains the development of a slave based tions of the southern states continued to depend on the. plantation economy in the American South and north institution of slave labor while northern opposition to the. ern abolitionist opposition to slavery destructive nature of the peculiar institution reached. Students will be introduced to the tradition of slave new heights Determined to free the country from the. autobiographies and abolitionist fiction literature blight of slavery white and African American abolitionists. which powerfully engaged readers emotions in order wrote to generate public support for liberty and equality. to create social change Abolitionist literature was Frederick Douglass and Harriet Jacobs published power. instrumental in propelling the nation into the Civil ful autobiographical accounts of their experiences as. War slaves and their decisions to escape helping to develop. Frederick Douglass s Narrative of the Life of Frederick the genre of the slave narrative in the process Harriet. Douglass 1845 generated a great deal of attention Beecher Stowe mobilized the literary tradition of senti. and sympathy for the abolitionist cause Thematizing mentality to further the abolitionist cause in her block. the importance of literacy and active resistance his buster novel Uncle Tom s Cabin A highly emotional. narrative recasts the American myth of the self made and sometimes racist story of the tragedy of slavery. man to include African Americans and the power of Christian sacrifice Uncle Tom s Cabin. With Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Harriet brought the issue of African American slavery to the fore. Jacobs wrote the first female authored slave narrative front of American consciousness All three of these writers. published in the United States Focusing on the spe profoundly influenced subsequent developments in. cific plight of enslaved African American women her American literature and offer important insight into how. autobiography uses the discourse of sentimentality to literature can both reflect and produce social change. appeal to a white female readership What to think about while watching What abuses of. Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin took the slavery do these writers bring to their readers attention. nation by storm in 1852 Unabashedly sentimental What rhetorical strategies do they adopt to encourage. the novel reflects Stowe s goal of making northerners their audience to support the abolitionist cause How do. actually feel the pain of enslaved African Americans race and gender influence their writing How do the writ. Although Stowe s use of racist stereotypes makes her ers and texts explored in the video both transform tradi. story problematic for modern readers Uncle Tom s tional American myths and ideals as well as shape new. V I D E O O V E R V I E W 5,Video Overview continued. ones How have their efforts influenced American culture Native American writers and texts not featured in the. and literature video The unit offers contextual background to expand. Tying the video to the unit content Unit 7 expands on on the video s introduction to the political issues histori. the issues outlined in the video to explore further the evo cal events and literary styles that shaped the literature of. lution of American attitudes toward race and slavery in social protest and racial consciousness in the nineteenth. the nineteenth century The curriculum materials offer century. background on abolitionist African American and,DISCUSSION QUESTIONS FOR THE VIDEO. What is an American How How are American myths What is American literature. does American literature create created challenged and What are the distinctive voices. conceptions of the American re imagined through this and styles in American. experience and identity literature literature How do social. and political issues influence,the American canon, Compre How does Frederick Douglass What kinds of racial stereotypes What is sentimentality To what. hension learn to read Why does literacy does Stowe employ in developing kind of audience was sentimental. become so important to him the characters of Uncle Tom s rhetoric designed to appeal. Context Why do you think Harriet Jacobs How do slave narratives recast the What is the relationship between. Questions published under a pseudonym American ideal of the self made Jacobs s account of her slavery. What kinds of anxieties did she man to fit African Americans and escape and Douglass s. feel about making her story How does Frederick Douglass for account of his How does she. public How did her narrative example build on and transform borrow and modify some of the. engage with nineteenth century the legacy of Benjamin Franklin conventions Douglass pioneered. ideas about womanhood in his autobiography Do you,think they wrote for the same. kind of audience How are her,concerns different from his. Exploratory How do the writers featured in How do you think abolitionist How do slave narratives draw on. Questions the video use formulas and rhetoric might have influenced the seventeenth century tradition. conventions to tell their stories the civil rights movement in the of captivity narratives How did. yet still manage to speak in their 1960s How do you think it slave narratives influence the work. own authentic voices influenced subsequent treatments of later African American authors. of race in American literature Charles W Chesnutt James. Baldwin Ralph Ellison or Toni,Morrison for example. 6 U N I T 7 S L A V E R Y A N D F R E E D O M,Texts Contexts. 18th Samuel Sewall The Selling of Joseph first American Peak years of British slave trade 1720 80. Century anti slavery tract 1700 Growing religious criticism of slavery as sin rise of. John Woolman On the Keeping of Negroes 1754 free black and slave Christianity 1740s 90s. 1760s Briton Hammon Narrative of the Uncommon Enlightenment political egalitarianism conflicts with. Sufferings and Surprizing Deliverance of Briton emerging Enlightenment scientific racialism. Hammon 1760 post 1750, 1770s Phillis Wheatley Poems 1773 American Revolution 1775 83. Declaration of Independence 1776,Spanish missions founded in Alta California. 1780s Thomas Jefferson Notes on the State of Virginia Constitution accepts slavery sets end of slave. 1785 imports at 1808 1789, Olaudah Equiano Narrative of the Life 1789 Four of first five U S presidents are slave owners. 1790s Haitian slave revolution leads to Louisiana Purchase. Invention of cotton gin 1793,1800s British slave trade abolished 1807. Slave imports to United States outlawed 1808,1810s Mexican independence wars 1810 20. 1820s David Walker Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the Missouri Compromise 1820. World 1829 Denmark Vesey Conspiracy executions South. Carolina 1822,Chumash Indian rebellion against California. missions 1824,Andrew Jackson elected president 1828. Jacksonian Democracy white male equality,pro slavery anti Indian wars and removals. Mexico abolishes slavery 1829,1830s Influence of Second Great Awakening expands. abolitionism 1830s,Nat Turner rebellion Virginia 1831. American Anti Slavery Society formed 1833,British Empire abolishes slavery 1833 38. Mexican California missions secularized rise of,private peonage of native tenants 1833 36. T I M E L I N E 7,TIMELINE continued,Texts Contexts. 1840s Frederick Douglass Narrative of the Life of Frederick New England textile industrialization tied to slave. Douglass 1845 grown southern cotton 1840s,Slave rebellion aboard Amistad 1841. U S Mexican War annexations include California,California Indian population falls from c 150 000. to c 50 000 from disease violence and,starvation 1848 70. California Gold Rush 1849 51, 1850s Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom s Cabin 1852 Compromise of 1850 California a free state other. Frederick Douglass The Meaning of July Fourth for former Mexican territories open to slavery. the Negro 1852 Fugitive Slave Act, Herman Melville Benito Cereno 1855 Kansas Nebraska Act civil conflict in Kansas. Abraham Lincoln A House Divided Cannot Stand 1854 65. 1858 Dred Scott decision declares Negroes not national. Lydia Maria Child Mrs Child s Answer 1859 citizens 1857. 1860s William Craft Running a Thousand Miles for White population of California over 200 000. Freedom The Escape of William and Ellen Craft intensifying Indian peonage 1860. from Slavery 1860 Civil War 1861 65, Harriet Jacobs Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl 13th Amendment to Constitution abolishes slavery. Abraham Lincoln Gettysburg Address 1863 Congressional or Radical Reconstruction 14th. Abraham Lincoln Second Inaugural Address and 15th Amendments expand civil rights affirm. 1865 black citizenship 1867 77,Formation of Ku Klux Klan 1867. First transcontinental railroad 1869, 1870s Lorenzo Asisara Punishment oral testimony Civil rights anti Klan laws 1870 72. recorded 1877 published 1890 End of Reconstruction 1877. 1880s Helen Hunt Jackson Ramona 1884 White Redemption in South spreading. disenfranchisement lynching debt peonage of,blacks 1880s. Dawes Act leads to wide Indian land losses 1887,8 U N I T 7 S L A V E R Y A N D F R E E D O M. AUTHOR TEXT REVIEW,Sorrow Songs, Drawing on both African musical styles and western European. sources black slaves in the antebellum South created a rich musical. tradition of Sorrow Songs or spirituals These songs fulfilled a vari. ety of functions within slave culture workers timed their labor to the. tempo of their music preserved and articulated communal values and. transcended the restrictions of slavery through meaningful self. expression As Lawrence W Levine points out despite their name. Sorrow Songs do not express only sorrow or despair but can be per. vaded by a sense of change transcendence ultimate justice and per. sonal worth Characterized by their use of traditional West African. rhythmic and harmonic patterns the spirituals often employ a call. and response pattern in which a leader sings or chants a few lines. and the group repeats or offers variations on the lines in response The. songs thus draw upon many of the practices central to the African cul. tures the slaves had been forced to leave behind emphasizing the pri. macy of the spoken word celebrating verbal improvisation and. encouraging group participation The spirituals included here were. not rigidly codified or authored by a single person instead they are. the result of communal authorship and a strong tradition of extempo 6753 William Francis Allen. raneous improvisations Singers often mix lyrics from different songs Charles Pickard Ware Lucy. McKim Garrison Title page, together graft lyrics onto new tunes or create completely new stanzas. Slave Songs of the United States, in the course of performing a song In some sense then the printed 1867. lyrics in this unit offer a false picture of the songs as finished or. frozen when in fact they constantly change and evolve in perfor. The songs developed out of the slave tradition are mostly religious. in nature but their spiritual subjects often had concrete applications. to the slaves daily lives and their concerns in this world The songs. draw primarily on images of heaven and stories from the Old S O R R O W S O N G S W E B. Testament especially the story of Moses leading the enslaved Israelites A R C H I V E. out of Egypt to freedom In Go Down Moses for example slave 6753 William Francis Allen Charles. singers likened themselves to the Israelites and their oppressors to the Pickard Ware Lucy McKim Garrison. Egyptian Pharoah In this way African Americans incorporated sacred Slave Songs of the United States 1867. prophecy into everyday life articulating hope for both spiritual salva Title page of early collection of Sorrow. Songs Former abolitionists transcribed, tion and literal emancipation Sorrow Songs could also function as a. lyrics of the songs of ex slaves to appeal, method of secret communication between slaves Often incomprehen. for funding from northern whites to, sible to whites the lyrics could protest slave conditions mock masters establish schools for freedpeople. and mistresses call other slaves to secret meetings and even aid run 7131 Anonymous Many Thousands. aways and revolts The spiritual Steal Away to Jesus for instance Gone c 1861 65 courtesy of Henry. was used as a code song to assist people escaping along the Edward Krehbiel Afro American. Underground Railroad Folksongs A Study in Racial and. National Music 4th ed 1914 Fisk,University Sorrow Songs often referred. T E A C H I N G T I P S to current events through religious lan. guage The lyrics of Many Thousand, Use the sound files in the archive to play a recorded version of at Gone refer partly to the hundreds of. least one of the songs included in this unit so students can have an thousands of slaves who escaped to the. aural experience of the music If you have a strong voice or musical North with some joining the Union. S O R R O W S O N G S 9, Army during the Civil War accompaniment you might consider leading your class in a spiritual. Simultaneously the song refers to the Encourage students to improvise if they are moved to do so The expe. many who have died and gone to the rience of participating in a performance should help students under. stand the important role of audience and communal authorship in the. 7132 Anonymous Steal Away to Jesus, n d courtesy of John Work Folk development of this musical tradition. Songs of the American Negro 1907 Students may be resistant to the idea that songs and oral tradi. Fisk University The lyrics to this song tions should be studied in a literature class Engage them in the ques. remind listeners that those who obey the tion of what constitutes literature and what appropriate objects of. Lord are assured of ultimate salvation study in a literature class might be How are these songs different from. while unredeemed sinners whether more formal poetry You might distribute a copy of a more tradi. slaves or masters have cause to trem, tional poem such as a sonnet so that the contrast will be clearer Does. ble It might also refer to stealing, away to forbidden worship meetings or it matter that the songs are constantly changing How does our under. it could be an Underground Railroad standing of the songs change when we study them in a literature class. code room rather than in a music classroom,7133 Anonymous Go Down Moses. n d courtesy of Natalie Curtis Burlin,Negro Folk Songs Hampton Series Q U E S T I O N S. 6716 G Schirmer 1918 Slaves used, Comprehension Paraphrase one of the Sorrow Songs in your own. Old Testament texts to reject slave own, ers claims that Christianity justified slav words eliminating repetition and ambiguity whenever possible. ery Singers adopted the voice of God Compare your version to the original and think about what has. commanding Moses to carry a message been lost in your translation Why do you think repetition is cen. to Pharaoh the slaveholder to let my tral to many of the spirituals What is the effect of repetition in the. people the slaves go The song is an songs, example of the African tradition of Context In his Narrative Frederick Douglass points out that slave. Nommo or the belief in the power of, songs reveal at once the highest joy and the deepest sadness. 7134 Anonymous Didn t My Lord, What does he mean by this Explain how a duality of expression. Deliver Daniel n d courtesy of James and purpose inflects these songs. Weldon Johnson The Book of American Context How do the spirituals challenge and protest the institution of. Negro Spirituals 1925 Viking Press slavery What is subversive in these songs Why do you think white. These lyrics speak of African Americans masters and mistresses for the most part missed the rebellious. hope for delivery from both the enslave implications of this music. ment of sin and human enslavement, Exploration How does the Sorrow Songs use of Old Testament. Compiler James Weldon Johnson a, New Negro Renaissance intellectual and images especially the image of the enslaved Israelites compare. author took pride in slave ancestors and to the New England Puritans use of such images Do the slave. their creations songs engage in a form of typologizing Why or why not. Exploration Listen to a recording of one or more of the spirituals. How do you think these songs influenced the subsequent develop. ment of American musical culture What is the relationship. between these early African American songs and subsequent. African American musical forms such as jazz blues and hip hop. Briton Hammon fl 1760, Briton Hammon s Narrative of the Uncommon Sufferings and. Surprizing Deliverance of Briton Hammon A Negro Man published. in Boston in 1760 is generally recognized as the earliest published. autobiography by an African American Composed in the tradition of. the popular Indian captivity genre Hammon s narrative tells an excit. ing tale of travel shipwreck bondage among Native American and. Spanish captors and daring escapes Unfortunately no details of. 10 U N I T 7 S L A V E R Y A N D F R E E D O M, Hammon s life are known beyond those recorded in the Narrative. Although he does not discuss his race within the body of the text. only the title identifies him as a Negro Man he does refer to him. self as a servant and makes frequent mention of his master Thus. while it is unclear whether Hammon was held as a slave or worked as. a servant it is evident that he occupied a subordinate position within. colonial society In some ways the Narrative reinforces traditional. ideals of servitude as a benevolent institution Hammon seems de. lighted when he is finally reunited with his good old master and hap 6830 Peter Canot A View of the. pily returns to Boston with him But Hammon s text also implicitly Entrance of the Harbour of the Havana. critiques slavery by figuring human captivity as a barbarous and Taken from within the Wrecks 1764. inhuman practice that should be resisted courtesy of the Library of Congress. LC USZ62 105952, Hammon s Narrative recounts the experiences of a person of mar. ginal social status someone whose life usually would have gone. unrecorded Sometimes viewed as a hybrid of an Indian captivity and. slave narrative Hammon s story is complicated by the fact that when. he is finally redeemed from captivity it is into a condition of servitude. rather than of freedom Ironically he may actually have experienced. greater freedom among the Native Americans and Spanish than he. would have after returning to Boston with his master. T E A C H I N G T I P S H A M M O N W E B A R C H I V E. Critics have debated whether Hammon composed his 1742 Homann Hereditors Guinea. Propia Nec Non Nigritiae Vel Terrae, Narrative entirely on his own or employed a white editor to write all. Nigrorum Maxima Pars 1743, or part of it Some suggest that the religiously orthodox opening and courtesy of the Library of Congress. closing of the text point to the hand of a white minister while others Geography and Map Division This map. argue that such formulaic qualities are merely traditional characteris of West Africa Guinea shows European. tics of the captivity genre and thus offer little insight into its author slave trade forts coastal slave trading. ship Ask students what they think of this debate How would it change kingdoms but little of the interior where. our understanding of the text if we could establish whether Hammon many slaves were captured It also. depicts ivory and Africans wearing, wrote it on his own or dictated it to a white writer. imported cloth and hats but not slaves, Hammon opens his Narrative with a modest disavowal of his. 2603 Harper s Weekly The Africans of, own ability to properly read his experiences As my capacities and the Slave Bark Wildfire The Slave. conditions of life are very low it cannot be expected that I should Deck of the Bark Wildfire Brought into. make those remarks on the sufferings I have met with or the kind Key West on April 30 1860 African. providence of a good God for my preservation as one in a higher sta Men Crowded onto the Lower Deck. tion but shall leave that to the reader as he goes along and so I shall African Women Crowded on an Upper. Deck 1860 courtesy of the Library of, only relate matters of fact as they occur to my mind Ask students to. Congress LC USZ62 41678 This, consider why Hammon begins his text this way Why might this open engraving shows the crowded conditions. ing have been appealing to his audience How sincere is Hammon s aboard slave ships Such depictions of. protestation of his own low capacities Does he in fact restrict him the inhumanity of slavery provided pow. self only to matters of fact in recounting his experiences erful imagery that helped strengthen the. growing abolition movement in the,United States,Q U E S T I O N S 3601 Anonymous Slave Auction at. Richmond Virginia Illustrated London, Comprehension How does Hammon view the Native Americans who News Sept 27 1865 1865 courtesy. capture him in Florida How does he view the Spanish in Cuba of the Library of Congress LC USZ62. How does he feel about the Catholicism of his Spanish captors 15398 This woodcut engraving depicts. How does captivity compare with servitude in his experience the auction of an African American. B R I T O N H A M M O N 11, woman As with the figure of the tragic Comprehension What role does Christianity play in Hammon s. mulatta slavery is here feminized to understanding of his experiences When and how does he invoke. invoke sympathy for the abolitionist God in the course of relating his story. cause The Illustrated London News was, Context What is the relationship between Hammon s Narrative and. founded in 1842 by Henry Ingram a, liberal who favored social reform the narratives of slave escapes that became popular in the nine. 6830 Peter Canot A View of the teenth century such as those written by Douglass Craft or Jacobs. Entrance of the Harbour of the Havana for example What historical factors might have caused the tone. Taken from within the Wrecks 1764 and subjects of slave narratives to change so dramatically. courtesy of the Library of Congress Exploration At several points in his text Hammon describes his hap. LC USZ62 105952 Havana Cuba piness at seeing the English flag or English Colours and identi. was one of the ports visited by Briton, fies himself as an Englishman What does being English seem to. Hammon as a sailor Trade in sugar, slaves and other commodities linked mean to Hammon What insights does the Narrative provide us. the Caribbean Africa North America into the role of nationalism and national identity within the mar. and Europe itime world along the Atlantic coasts, 6950 Briton Hammon Narrative of the Exploration How does Hammon s Narrative compare with the. Uncommon Sufferings and Surprizing Indian captivity narratives written by Anglo Americans in the sev. Deliverance of Briton Hammon A Negro enteenth and eighteenth centuries Mary Rowlandson s Narrative. Man Frontispiece 1760 courtesy, for example How are Hammon s concerns different In what ways. of the Library of Congress Rare Books, and Special Collections Division Front are his experiences and reactions similar to those of white captives. page of the earliest known autobio,graphical narrative by an African. American Hammon s model helped Lydia Maria Child 1802 1880. establish a close relationship between Lydia Maria Child born Lydia Francis was raised outside of Boston. the autobiographical genres of captivity in a community she described as made up of hard working people. narratives and slave narratives, who had small opportunity for culture Her parents ran a bakery. while raising six children leaving them little time for intellectual pur. suits Still Child encouraged by her Harvard educated older brother. developed an early interest in books and learning By 1820 she had. completed her training as a teacher and begun working at a school in. Maine She soon moved back to Massachusetts where she started a. school for girls and kept house for her brother who had become a. Unitarian minister When she joined the Unitarian Church herself. Child adopted a new name to signal her independence and new iden. tity Rebaptized as Lydia Maria she preferred to be called Maria for. the rest of her life, Child embarked on her literary career after reading a piece in The. North American Review in 1821 calling for American authors to take. American colonial history and Native American life as subjects for. their fiction Taking up the challenge Child wrote Hobomok a tale of. interracial marriage between a Puritan woman and an Indian man set. in colonial Salem Although Hobomok was published when Child was. only twenty two the novel was an early illustration of the concern with. social justice and commitment to ending racism that would dominate. her subsequent work While many critics pronounced the novel with. its moving portrait of racial intermarriage in very bad taste it imme. diately catapulted Child to literary celebrity Capitalizing on her suc. cess she soon produced another historical novel and the first periodi. cal for children published in the United States The Juvenile Miscellany. In 1828 Lydia Maria married David Child a man who shared her. commitment to radical social causes Unfortunately he was also. 12 U N I T 7 S L A V E R Y A N D F R E E D O M, extremely impractical and prone to debt leaving the couple depend. ent upon Child s literary efforts to support their household While liv. ing with David she successfully published housekeeping manuals a. history of the condition of women and stories and articles for a vari. ety of American journals In 1833 Child changed the course of her. career with the publication of An Appeal in Favor of That Class of. Americans Called Africans a sweeping indictment of slavery and. racism addressed primarily to a female audience The pamphlet was. greeted with hostility and damaged Child s mainstream popularity but. it also pushed her to the forefront of the radical abolitionist movement. in the North Affiliated with abolitionism the movement for women s. rights and advocacy of Native American rights Child had marked her. self as a radical and a reformer, In 1841 Child informally separated from her husband and moved 6766 L Schamer Lydia. to New York City to edit The National Anti Slavery Standard an aboli Maria Child 1870 courtesy. tionist newspaper and to work as a correspondent for the Boston of the Library of Congress. Courier Composing weekly Letters from New York Child reported LC USZ62 5535. on a broad spectrum of urban life including problems of poverty. crime and racism She eventually collected this groundbreaking jour. nalistic work into the two volume Letters from New York 1843 1845. In 1843 exhausted by divisions within the abolition movement. Child resigned as editor of the Anti Slavery Standard In 1850 ending. nine years of independence she reunited with her husband and moved. to a village outside Boston where she cared for her ailing father and. continued writing on behalf of the causes that had motivated her early. career While some of her work was very public such as the stirring. letters she wrote in defense of John Brown and his raid on Harpers. Ferry Child also worked behind the scenes helping Harriet Jacobs. edit her narrative Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl All of Child s. anti slavery writing and editing work was crucial to the development. of the abolitionist movement Some 300 000 copies of the pamphlet. collection of her abolitionist letters circulated in 1860 effectively gal. vanizing anti slavery sentiment in the North C H I L D W E B A R C H I V E. Upon her death in Wayland Massachusetts Child left a legacy of 1666 Anonymous The Harpers Ferry. pioneering literary achievement In her nonfiction work she gave Insurrection The US Marines Storming. voice to the perspectives and concerns of traditionally marginalized the Engine House Insurgents Firing. groups In her fiction she mixed sentimentality with calls for social Through Holes in the Doors 1859. reform creating a powerful formula that would be imitated by writers courtesy of the Library of Congress LC. USZ62 126970 This illustration from,like Harriet Beecher Stowe and Helen Hunt Jackson. Frank Leslie s Illustrated Newspaper,depicts the end of John Brown s raid on. T E A C H I N G T I P S,the arsenal at Harpers Ferry. 2773 Anonymous Attack on the, Child composed her Reply within the context of her defense of Insurgents at the Bridge by the Railroad. John Brown and his raid on Harpers Ferry Since some students might Men 1859 courtesy of the Library of. be unfamiliar with this incident you should provide them with the Congress LC USZ62 90728 This illus. tration from The Life trial and execution, historical background Brown was a white man who was committed. of Captain John Brown known as Old, to eradicating slavery by whatever means necessary including vio Brown of Ossawatomie depicts Brown s. lent resistance and aggression On the night of October 16 1859 raid on the arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Brown and a group of about twenty followers including five black Virginia Brown sought to overthrow. men crossed from Maryland to Virginia in an attempt to take over the slavery by armed slave revolt. LY D I A M A R I A C H I L D 13, 3090 Harriet Powers Pictorial quilt federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry Their goal was to set up a base from. c 1895 98 courtesy of the Museum which to organize arm and support slave insurrections throughout. of Fine Arts Boston Many slave and the South,freed women used quilts to record their. While Brown and his group managed to take the arsenal by surprise. histories Some quilts communicated, messages for example quilts using the and seize several hostages the Virginia militia quickly responded to. color black are believed to have indi defend the arsenal By the morning of October 18 Brown s men had. cated a safe house on the Underground killed four people and wounded nine while the Virginia militia had. Railroad killed ten of Brown s group including two of his sons and captured. 3147 James Brown Marston The Old seven including Brown Convicted of treason against the state and. State House Boston 1801 courtesy of conspiracy to incite insurrection Brown was hanged on December 2. the Massachusetts Historical Society As,at Charlestown Virginia. the nineteenth century began immigra, tion industrialization and the advent of Although he failed to achieve his immediate purpose at Harpers. capitalism began to change American Ferry Brown succeeded in becoming a martyr for the abolitionist. cities from barter economies to commer cause Throughout the North people responded with sympathy and. cial ones Gary Nash The Urban admiration for Brown s action Ralph Waldo Emerson even called him. Crucible Boston became the strong a new saint Southern commentators on the other hand declared. hold for Unitarians who were often him a hoary headed murderer John Brown s raid occurring as it did. associated with the new wealthy mer, on the eve of the Civil War became a touchstone for the conflicts that. chant class,3458 American Anti Slavery Society of,divided North and South. Philadelphia Declaration of the Anti After giving your students this background you might ask them to. Slavery Convention 1833 1833 cour stage a debate or mock trial of Brown perhaps drawing some of their. tesy of the Library of Congress At this arguments from Mrs Child s Reply Ask some of the class to work. convention sixty abolitionist leaders as prosecutors some as defenders and some as the jury. declared their dedication to fighting In In Search of Our Mothers Gardens African American writer. slavery through nonviolent means, Alice Walker argues that sometimes women s traditions are best repre. Abolitionists hoped to win sympathizers, by using quotations from the Bible to sented by nonverbal artistry such as quilts For slave women who. emphasize the conflict between slavery never wrote their narratives quilts became a way to record their histo. and Christianity The woodprint by R S ries These quilts were made from discarded scraps of material and. Gilbert illustrates Psalm 91 13 Thou clothing Some quilts communicated messages in a straightforward. shalt tread upon the lion and adder the way for example members of the Underground Railroad hung quilts. young lion and the dragon shalt thou with the color black on clotheslines to indicate a safe house Other. trample under feet, quilts were subtler Like authors of slave narratives African American. 6766 L Schamer Lydia Maria Child, 1870 courtesy of the Library of quilters also used biblical references in their quilts Ask students to. Congress LC USZ62 5535 Child was examine the quilts featured in the archive What stories are being told. a prominent abolitionist and women s in them How do the quilts draw on and transform biblical stories. rights advocate Her first novel How do these quilts compare to the written narratives of slavery. Hobomok about the noblest savage included in this unit. was written in the sentimental literary,tradition Child edited Harriet Jacobs s. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl Q U E S T I O N S. 6949 Harriet Powers Biblical quilt, c 1886 courtesy of the Smithsonian Comprehension Consider the opening of Child s Reply What role. Institution National Museum of do biblical quotations play in her argument against slavery Why. American History Powers a black do you think this might have been an effective rhetorical strategy. woman from Athens Georgia made Context Compare Child s abolitionist arguments in her Reply with. quilts depicting biblical scenes both the rhetorical strategies developed by some of the escaped slaves who. before and after her emancipation Both, composed narrative expos s of slavery Douglass Jacobs or Craft. slaves and freed people used, Christianity to interpret their hard cir for example Where does Child use strategies similar to those of. cumstances and find hope the ex slaves How is her appeal to her readers different How does. her position as a non slave and a white woman affect her appeal. Exploration Mrs Child s Reply is part of a series of letters that. 14 U N I T 7 S L A V E R Y A N D F R E E D O M, Child exchanged with Governor Wise and Mrs Mason of Virginia. over the specific issue of John Brown s raid and the general ques. tion of the morality of slavery Child s subsequent publication of the. letters in pamphlet form was a great success Why do you think. Child decided to publish her argument in the form of letters. between disputants rather than as a series of essays Why do you. think the collection of letters was popular with northern readers. How does Child s use of letters compare to later publications of let. ters such as Amelia Clappe s Shirley Letters,Abraham Lincoln 1809 1865. Born to impoverished parents in backwoods Kentucky Abraham. Lincoln rose to become the sixteenth president of the United States. His remarkable story of success his achievements in guiding the. country through the Civil War and his tragic death have afforded him. iconic stature within the annals of American history and made him a. hero to many Lincoln had little formal schooling and was mostly self. educated eventually training himself in the law After setting up a suc. cessful legal practice in Illinois he became interested in politics and. was elected first to the state legislature and later to the U S Congress. Lincoln s election to the presidency was the result of the compli. cated American political situation of the 1840s and 1850s centered on. the divisive issue of slavery While Lincoln is often celebrated for his. decision to free the slaves he in fact came to his commitment to total. emancipation only by degrees Never an actual supporter of slavery he. was still somewhat ambivalent about its place within the country. through much of his career he fought to ban it from the western terri. tories and new states but was reluctant to advocate abolition within. the South itself Lincoln s primary commitment was always to the. preservation of the Union and he was willing to reject abolitionist. measures if they seemed to threaten that goal Despite his attempts to. seem flexible and moderate on the issue of slavery however his elec. tion to the presidency in 1860 polarized the nation. Seven southern states immediately seceded to form, the Confederacy Within a month of Lincoln s inaugu. ration the Civil War had begun By 1863 Lincoln was. ready to adopt a more radical position and signed the. Emancipation Proclamation finally committing the,Union to the total abolition of slavery. Lincoln s extraordinary skills as a writer and orator. were crucial to his political successes and his ability to. lead the country effectively through the war In the. early speeches of his career he worked to connect with. the common man in the audience employing a clear,3228 Timothy O Sullivan Incidents. almost legalistic logic and a satirical sense of humor As he grew in. of the War A Harvest of Death, confidence as a statesman his speeches retained their clarity but Gettysburg July 1863 courtesy of the. became more powerful and resonant often drawing upon biblical Library of Congress LC B8184 7964 A. references and even the cadences of biblical prose By turning to DLC. A B R A H A M L I N C O L N 15, L I N C O L N W E B A R C H I V E Christian rhetoric Lincoln tried to unite the bitterly divided American. 1708 Brady National Photographic populace and to garner popular support for a war that turned out to. Art Gallery Abraham Lincoln 1864 be longer and bloodier than anyone had anticipated Since Lincoln s. courtesy of the Library of Congress tragic assassination one month into his second term in office in 1865. Prints and Photographs Division his speeches have come to be revered as enduring expressions of form. LC B816 1321 This portrait ative American cultural ideals. photograph from January 1864,between the Gettysburg address and the. second inaugural address resembles T E A C H I N G T I P S. most memorial images, 1803 Abraham Lincoln Emancipation In order to appreciate the significance of Lincoln s Gettysburg. Proclamation 1863 courtesy of the Address students should have some background on the battle of. National Archives and Records Gettysburg Fought in early July 1863 Gettysburg was the bloodiest. Administration This 1863 proclamation battle of the Civil War with a total of 51 000 casualties more men died. emancipated slaves held in areas in, at Gettysburg than in any other battle on North American soil before. rebellion against the United States but, not those in Union controlled areas or since Gettysburg marked an important turning point in the Civil. 3228 Timothy O Sullivan Incidents War the Confederate Army never recovered from the heavy losses it. of the War A Harvest of Death suffered there After giving students this background ask them to. Gettysburg July 1863 courtesy of the think about how Lincoln grapples with the scope and nature of. Library of Congress LC B8184 7964 A Gettysburg as a national tragedy in his address You might have them. DLC Dead Federal soldiers on the bat consider how this speech compares with other presidential speeches. tlefield at Gettysburg Pennsylvania, following catastrophic events such as Franklin Roosevelt s Pearl. Graphic war photographs like this one, inspired postwar literary realism Harbor speech or George W Bush s responses to September 11 2001. 7163 Esther Bubley Inside the Lincoln Ask students to pay attention to the changes in Lincoln s rhetori. Memorial 1943 courtesy of the Library cal treatment of slavery between the House Divided speech 1858. of Congress Prints and Photographs and the Second Inaugural 1865 While the earlier speech is a rigor. Division LC USW3 040346 D After ously logical legalistic argument for keeping slavery out of the West. his assassination Abraham Lincoln s the Second Inaugural claims that slavery is an evil in the eyes of God. image became iconic in the North and, and that the emancipation of the slaves was wrought by divine will. among African Americans through cer, emonies popular songs and prints stat Ask students which speech they find more powerful or persuasive Ask. uary and poetry such as Walt Whitman s them to consider the different historical circumstances in which these. When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard two speeches were composed. Q U E S T I O N S, Comprehension What kind of audience does Lincoln assume will be. listening to his speeches How do you think nineteenth century. audiences might have been different from audiences today. Context Why do you think Lincoln chose the verse from the New. Testament A house divided upon itself cannot stand Luke 11 17. as the basis for his speech What significance would this image of a. threatened home have for nineteenth century Americans How. might it have resonated with American ideals of domesticity. Context Interestingly Lincoln s now celebrated speech was not well. received when he first delivered it on the battlefield at Gettysburg. in November 1863 Apparently it seemed too concise and simple to. the audience which preferred Edward Everett s lengthy two hour. sermon Why do you think the speech was unsuccessful when. Lincoln delivered it Today the Gettysburg Address is often. viewed as a model of eloquence Why has it gained in popularity.