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110672 Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No iii Title Rhetorical Public Speaking 2e Server K Short Normal S4 CARLISLEDESIGN SERVICES OF Publishing Services Rhetorical Public Speaking Second Edition NATHAN CRICK Louisiana State University Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River
Editor in Chief Ashley Dodge,Senior Acquisitions Editor Melissa Mashburn. Editorial Assistant Megan Hermida,Project Manager Clara Bartunek. Executive Marketing Manager Kelly May,Marketing Coordinator Theresa Rotondo. Digital Editor Lisa Dotson,Art Director Cover Jayne Conte. Full Service Project Manager Sudha Balasundaram S4Carlisle Publishing Services. Compositors S4Carlisle Publishing Services,Cover Designer Karen Noferi. Cover Photo Alamy,Printer Binder STP Courier, Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced with permission in this textbook. appear on appropriate page within text, Quintilian quoted in THE PHILOSOPHY OF RHETORIC in THE RHETORICAL TRADITION READINGS. FROM CLASSICAL TIMES TO THE PRESENT ed Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg Boston Bedford Books of. St Martin s Press 1990 329, Copyright 2014 2011 by Pearson Education Inc All rights reserved No part of this publication may be. reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical. photocopying recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher Printed in the. United States To obtain permission s to use material from this work please submit a written request to Pearson. Education Inc Permissions Department One Lake Street Upper Saddle River New Jersey 07458 or you may fax. your request to 201 236 3290, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Crick Nathan, Rhetorical public speaking Nathan Crick Louisiana State University Second Edition. Includes index,ISBN 978 0 205 86936 7, 1 Business communication Handbooks manuals etc 2 Business writing Handbooks. manuals etc 3 Public speaking Handbooks manuals etc I Title. HF5718 C75 2013,808 5 1 dc23,2012042686,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10. ISBN 13 978 0 205 86936 7,ISBN 10 0 205 86936 X,DESIGN SERVICES OF. A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No iv K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. Preface vii Audience 80,Maria Stewart Let us make a mighty. Introduction xi effort and arise 81,The Context For Written Speech xv. Constraints 82, The Context For Electronic Communication xvi Gen George S Patton You are not. The Context For Public Speaking xix all going to die 84. Chapter 1 Lucy Stone I have been a,The Canons of Rhetoric 1 disappointed woman 88. Practical Judgment 89, A Definition of Rhetoric 2 Frederick Douglass Must I argue that a system. Three Ethical Attitudes Toward Rhetoric 3 thus marked with blood is wrong 90. The Form of Rhetoric 6 Occasion 91, The Canons of Rhetoric 10 Susan B Anthony Resistance to tyranny is. The First Canon Invention 10 obedience to God 93,The Second Canon Arrangement 19. The Third Canon Style 32 Chapter 4,The Fourth Canon Memory 42 Ethos 97. The Fifth Canon Delivery 43,Persona 100,Chapter 2 Sojourner Truth Ain t I a woman 103. Genres of Public Speaking 55 Evoked Audience 105,Tecumseh Brothers we all belong. Speeches of Introduction 58 to one family 106,Speeches of Identification 59 Identification 107. Speeches of Deliberation 61 Benjamin Banneker We are all of. the same family 108,Speeches of Solicitation 62,Speeches of Commemoration 64 Distinction 109. Gorgias What is there greater,Speeches of Enrichment 65 than the word 110. Speeches of Administration 66 Polarization 111, Speeches of Advocacy 68 Clarence Darrow The cruel and the thoughtless. will approve 113,The Rhetorical Situation 73 Chapter 5. Exigence 77, Patrick Henry Suffer not yourselves to Authority 123. be betrayed with a kiss 79 John Brown The court acknowledges the validity. of the law of God 124,DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No v K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. vi Contents,Generalization 125 Sinner 158, Russell Conwell There was a poor man out Emma Goldman They turned our office into a. of work in Massachusetts 126 battlefield 159,Analogy 128 Idol 160. Socrates Unrighteousness runs faster John Muir The smallest forest reserve was in the. than death 129 Garden of Eden 161,Sign 130 Abomination 162. Chief Seattle Not a single star of hope hovers Mark Twain We have some legislatures that bring. above his horizon 131 higher prices than any in the world 163. Causation 133, Jonathan Edwards Look not behind you lest Chapter 7. you be consumed 135 Eloquence 169,Principle 136 Form 171. Jonathan Winthrop We shall be as Thomas Jefferson We hold these truths to be self. a city upon a hill 138 evident that all men are created equal 172. Organizing Symbol 175, Chapter 6 Abraham Lincoln We here highly resolve that. Pathos 143 these dead shall not have died in vain 179. Utopia 149 Poetic Categories 180, Mary Elizabeth Lease We shall have the golden The Heroic 181. age of which Isaiah sang 149 Walt Whitman Great poets will be proved by their. unconstraint 182,Wasteland 150,The Tragic 183,Mark Twain We see the terrified faces 151. Henry David Thoreau He is not Old Brown any,Virtue 152 longer he is an angel of light 185. Louis Pasteur Worship the spirit of Dennis Shepard Good is coming out of evil 187. criticism 153 The Comic 189, Vice 153 Benjamin Franklin The older I grow the more apt. William Smith They may gradually deceive I am to doubt my own judgment 190. themselves 155,Saint 156 Index 195,William Graham Sumner Now who is the. Forgotten Man 157,DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No vi K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. he purpose of this book is to give students a practical understanding of. how public speaking can function as a rhetorical intervention as an act. of persuasion designed to alter how other people think about and respond. to public affairs that affect their lives The audience for this book is the engaged. citizen that individual who is an active participant in the democratic process of. debate deliberation and persuasion as it relates to issues of public concern. New to This Edition, This new edition has been updated and expanded to provide students with the tools. they need to be effective public speakers The following lists specific changes to the. new second edition, Updated examples of rhetorical artifacts from historical social movements. and contemporary popular culture to show public speaking in action. An introduction to media theory that articulates the relationship of rhetoric. to written electronic and oral communication, A succinct definition of rhetoric as the art of giving form to a situation. through the action of an audience, A comprehensive presentation of the Five Canons of Rhetoric that allows you. to master the basics of public speaking in the first few weeks of class. The addition of a chapter on eloquence to challenge advanced public speak. ers to raise their skills to a higher level, The guiding rationale for this book is that the success or failure of democratic social. life depends on the cultivation of engaged citizens each of whom has the capacity. to act rhetorically in the public sphere In other words democracy suffers when we. base our educational system on the na ve faith that individuals instinctively possess. the skills of public advocacy The reality is that citizens are made not born Part. of that educational process involves instilling in people the belief that free speech. is their right and individual expression is their duty The other part of the process. is to give them the knowledge skill and confidence to perform that duty and. to judge the performances of others when the situation demands it One unique. function of a class in public speaking is to provide a structured and supportive. environment in which to develop these skills in preparation for an active life This. textbook is designed to facilitate that process by providing the tools understood as. methods that promote the creative expression of engaged citizens. The speaker in rhetorical public speech is therefore something more than just. a person who says words in the presence of others A rhetorical public speaker is. called a rhetor meaning a conscious instigator of social action who uses persuasive. discourse to achieve his or her ends Being conscious implies that a rhetor is not. DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No vii K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. viii Preface, simply one whose speech happens to have consequences All acts of communica. tion have the potential to influence people and events but rhetorical public speech. is unique in having been created specifically for that purpose That is what makes. it an art rather than a product of luck Being an instigator means that a rhetor. intentionally behaves in such a manner as to cause others to think and feel in new. and different ways We instigate not only when we prompt originate and begin. something but also when we do so in the presence of others who may be reluctant. to follow An instigator makes people act in ways they might not otherwise have. done if not prodded to do so Finally what is instigated is a social action meaning. that the effects of a rhetor s persuasive discourse are determined by how they alter. and impact the behaviors of other people with respect to some end or some goal or. interest that functions in response to an exigence A rhetor thus represents a person. willing to stir motivate challenge and even confront audiences in order to make. them think and act in such a way that addresses a shared problem 1. It is from this methodological and pedagogical perspective that examples have. been chosen which represent strategies for generating social change within certain. historical moments of crisis Methodologically a historian of public speaking finds. the most interesting examples of rhetoric on the margins of culture Understand. ably this does not mean that these strategies were particularly effective or virtuous. it means only that the strategy was explicitly and creatively employed in such a way. that makes it useful for the purpose of elaboration Instructors and students who do. not find their own views expressed in the examples of the book should bring them. to the table during the span of the course to generate productive discussion through. engagement, The controversial nature of these speeches also provides an opportunity to. discuss the ethics of rhetoric By ethics I do not refer to whether a speaker s. beliefs match up to some formal catechism or obey some polite convention The. ethics of rhetoric are determined by how well the speaker has fully considered the. broader consequences of his or her actions beyond the immediate moment and. has acted conscientiously with respect to that evaluation Part of the responsibility. of rhetorical theory is to make speakers aware of just how much impact a single. speech might have in a complex and interconnected world in which good inten. tions are not enough to produce desired consequences The ethical study of public. speech helps people to avoid getting trapped into such a situation by providing the. tools to survey a broader social environment before acting Based on this holistic. ethical ideal a large part of what distinguishes this book from other texts on public. speaking is its continual emphasis on the speaker as a part of a larger social whole. I have tried in this book to reconnect public speaking with the rhetorical and. wholly democratic tradition of eloquence of the act of appearing before others. to express one s truth with beauty and excellence Toward this end I have empha. sized that aspect of public speaking which is often quickly passed over by text. books in haste to present the latest in flowcharts and moral catechisms the act of. appearing before others Throughout this book I will emphasize public speaking. For the relationship between rhetoric and citizenship see Robert Asen A Discourse Theory of. Citizenship Quarterly Journal of Speech 90 no 2 2004 189 211. DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No viii K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. as an action that occurs in the company of others who share experience on matters. of common concern Although rhetorical public speaking is arguably about the act. of persuasion it is more importantly an action of gathering together people to ap. pear before one another in a shared space of their common world Nonetheless a. few examples are analyzed in this book that appeared in print and were meant to. be read I have selected them because they perfectly exemplify a specific persuasive. strategy and because they highlight an important figure in history As much as. I am able I will emphasize how the written form changes the delivery and organi. zation of the argument in order to make clear the difference between the written. and spoken word, Finally the book emphasizes that public speaking is an art As an art it is. learned through practice Nothing replaces the pure experience of simply talking in. front of others This experience cannot be quantified or measured The value of any. conceptual material therefore must be judged with respect to how it enriches and. broadens the experience of the student in the act of speaking The Roman rhetori. cian Quintilian wrote An art consists of perceptions consenting and cooperating. to some end useful to life and involves a power working its effects by a course. that is by method consequently no man will doubt that there is a certain course. and method in oratory 2 A successful course in public speaking will seek to edu. cate students in a method of channeling the power of the spoken word toward ends. that are useful in life, Those who have used earlier editions of this book in the past will find this edi. tion to be far more lucid accessible and practical The challenge of writing this. textbook has been to integrate complex theoretical concepts and rich historical ma. terial into a practical teaching manual Trial and error have revealed which concepts. should be forefront and what examples speak to the diverse experiences of students. One effect of this has been to streamline the conceptual material This version of the. textbook has eliminated an entire chapter on the psychology of motivation and has. reduced considerably the discussion of the rhetorical background folding relevant. material into a single chapter on the rhetorical situation Furthermore it has altered. a chapter originally titled Style so that it focuses instead on eloquence and. by doing so has reduced six poetic categories to three the heroic the comic and. the tragic Another effect has been to alter the makeup of the historical examples. requiring with two exceptions all of the examples to be originally delivered orally. Third the entire body of text has been completely rewritten in order to make it. more readable and accessible to students while also reinforcing dominant themes. of the book Finally the extended treatment of a single speech by Martin Luther. King Jr that originally occupied the summary sections in each chapter has been. replaced by more focused summaries that simply show how all of the conceptual. material relates to each other The result is a book that I believe has identified the. core concepts that are absolutely essential for the mastery of public speaking pre. sented in a way that challenges and engages students. Quintilian quoted in The Philosophy of Rhetoric in The Rhetorical Tradition Readings from. lassical Times to the Present ed Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg Boston Bedford Books of. St Martin s Press 1990 329,DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No ix K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No x K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. Introduction, he goal of rhetorical public speaking is the transformation of a collection. of disparate individual hearers into a common and committed audience. through the power of the spoken word Every metaphor every gesture and. every argument must be directed toward this act of turning the many into the one. at least for a moment This basic fact was recognized by nineteenth century orator. and philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson who wrote more than one essay on the. subject of eloquence Of the orator he says the following. That which he wishes that which eloquence ought to reach is not a particular. skill in telling a story or neatly summing up evidence or arguing logically or. dexterously addressing the prejudice of the company no but a taking sov. ereign possession of the audience Him we call an artist who shall play on an. assembly of men as a master on the keys of the piano who seeing the people. furious shall soften and compose them shall draw them when he will to. laughter and to tears Bring him to his audience and be they who they may. coarse or refined pleased or displeased sulky or savage with their opinions. in the keeping of a confessor or with their opinions in their bank safes he. will have them pleased and humored as he chooses and they shall carry and. execute that which he bids them 3, Although Emerson s language expresses something of a tyrannical tenor Do my. bidding he nonetheless emphasizes the essential characteristic that sets public. speaking apart from other mediated forms of communication such as writing or. video the fact that experience of being in the same place at the same time to listen. to a single person speak can be a very powerful experience indeed This is because. as Walter Ong later pointed out spoken words are always modification of a to. tal existential situation which always engages the body In oral verbalization. particularly public verbalization absolute motionless is itself a powerful gesture 4. When we watch someone on a screen or read his or her words on paper silence may. bore us and we can always turn our attention to other things but when we are pres. ent together to listen to a speech that captures our attention we commit ourselves. completely to the experience, However it is natural to ask whether Emerson would have had held oratorical. eloquence in such high regard if he lived in our modern technological age of the. Internet television smartphones digital video photography movie radio and all. the other technologies from the past hundred years Indeed one might argue that. modern technology will soon make the art of oratory obsolete altogether Why. Ralph Waldo Emerson Eloquence http oll libertyfund org option com staticxt staticfile show. php 3Ftitle 86 chapter 104478 layout html Itemid 27 accessed 15 Dec 2011. Walter Ong Orality and Literacy 67,DESIGN SERVICES OF. A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No xi K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. xii Introduction, after all give an informative speech about the history of the civil rights movement. when one can forward a PDF file Why bother making introductory speeches to. every person in a new workplace when one can send a group e mail And why get. everyone in the same room to hear a sales pitch when they can do it by videoconfer. encing In an age where communication via electronic technology is the first choice. for most people in their busy lives one must have a clear reason for gathering peo. ple together in the same space at the same time to hear a speech Consequently any. book that purports to teach public speaking as oratory must address the unique. quality of oral performance that makes it something to take seriously despite the. pervasiveness and attractiveness of new media, The best place to find evidence of the continued vitality of the oratorical tradi. tion is simply one s everyday experience On the one hand it is undeniable that. new media have effectively challenged or even replaced many communicative inter. actions that previously had relied on face to face contacts One can imagine a time. when the university classroom the corporate boardroom and the local merchan. dise store will all go the way of the door to door salesperson and the colonial era. town hall meeting and when a friend will refer simply to a relationship one has. with a digital picture and associated text messages On the other hand the science. fiction projections of a time when human beings will be content simply sitting. alone in a room surrounded by video screens and constant chatter are really meant. as amplifications of isolated tendencies in society rather than serious predictions. based on human nature For the fact remains that despite our ability to commu. nicate through media as never before there is a very basic need in every human. being for intimate human contact that comes from simply being with others in the. same place at the same time and recognizing and welcoming one another s pres. ence There is simply no way that any form of media will replace the necessity to be. present together at births and at deaths during weddings and wakes in celebration. and in tragedy and to achieve communion and to resolve crisis In short even as. the amount of time spent communicating through new media increases mathemati. cally the importance of those moments when we must come together and share the. experience of eloquence increases geometrically We may not speak to one another. in person as much as we had in the past but that only means that we must be pre. pared to do so with passion and with power when the moment calls. Moreover although the inventions of our time are certainly new additions to. the world the challenge of adapting our forms of communication to new technol. ogy is a very ancient one In the age of Classical Greece in the fifth century b c e. the new technology was writing and the new media was papyrus We might think. this an archaic media by our standards but at the time it was highly disruptive to. the traditional oral community In the Phaedrus Plato complained that writing will. introduce forgetfulness into the soul of those who learn it they will not practice. using their memory because they will put their trust in writing which is external. and depends on signs that belong to others instead of trying to remember from the. inside completely on their own And they will imagine that they have come to. know much while for the most part they will know nothing 5 Although a writer. Plato Phaedrus 275b,DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No xii K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. Introduction, himself Plato wanted to limit the scope and influence of writing because he believed. it would interfere with the pursuit of wisdom through what he called dialectic. which was a method to use face to face dialogue to seek out truths of both the world. and of the soul through living speech For him writing threatened to replace that. which was real and vibrant with that which was artificial and mechanical. But just as every first generation has its Plato whose job it is to warn us of. the dangers of being seduced by new technology every second generation has its. Aristotle whose job it is to adapt our method of communication to our available. mediums Although a student of Plato Aristotle did not look upon writing with such. anxiety He simply recognized that each medium required its own unique form and. that each kind of rhetoric has its own appropriate style 6 In his mid fourth century. b c e treatise Rhetoric Aristotle gives us perhaps the first extended treatment of the. differences between the written and spoken word, The written style is the more finished the spoken better admits of dramatic. delivery alike the kind of oratory that reflects character and the kind that. reflects emotion Hence actors look out for plays written in the latter style. and poets for actors competent to act such plays However speeches made. to hear spoken look amateurish enough when they pass into the hands of a. reader This is because they are so well suited for an actual tussle and therefore. contain many dramatic touches which being robbed of all dramatic rendering. fail to do their own proper work and consequently look silly Thus strings of. unconnected words and constant repetitions of words and phrases are very. properly condemned in written speeches but not in spoken speeches speakers. use them freely for they have a dramatic effect 7, Aristotle points out perhaps the most essential quality of the spoken word its. unique suitability to capture the emotional character of a situation with only a few. words or gestures and to do so in such a way that powerfully brings an audience. together through shared experience Whereas writing must reproduce every single. aspect of a situation through words thus necessitating lengthy and detailed nar. ration and argumentation oral performance can accomplish the same task with. a simple turn of phrase or wave of the hand And even perhaps more important. Aristotle recognizes that the spoken and written word are not in competition each. is suited for its own unique purpose and has its own unique form. The difference between these two mediums was emphasized again much later. by philosopher John Dewey in the twentieth century who made an effort to recover. the importance of the face to face community that he felt was being threatened by. rapid changes in both transportation and mass communication At the time many. people were arguing that the only way to sustain democratic life was to abandon. the oral tradition and instead concentrate on disseminating massive amounts of. print material that would inform citizens about every single aspect of the world so. that they could make educated decisions about matters of political and economic. affairs What Dewey recognized was that although the written word was certainly. Aristotle Rhetoric 1413b5,Aristotle Rhetoric 1413b1020. DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No xiii K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. xiv Introduction, important to deal with complex matters it was not sufficient to sustaining demo. cratic life He wrote, Signs and symbols language are the means of communication by which a fra. ternally shared experience is ushered in and sustained But the winged words. of conversation in immediate intercourse have a vital import lacking in the. fixed and frozen words of written speech Systematic and continuous inquiry. into all the conditions which affect association and their dissemination in print. is a precondition of the creation of a true public But it and its results are but. tools after all Their final actuality is accomplished in face to face relationships. by means of direct give and take The connections of the ear with vital and. out going thought and emotion are immensely closer and more varied than. those of the eye Vision is a spectator hearing is a participator Publication is. partial and the public which results is partially informed and formed until the. meanings it purveys pass from mouth to mouth 8, For Dewey written speech has a linear pattern and logical coherence that makes. it suitable for effectively arranging and disseminating complex ideas whereas oral. speech tends to emphasize the total quality of shared experience that makes it more. suitable to sustain relationships and to create connections among diverse groups. of people Written speech highlights the power of language to create a network of. causal relationships to weave together a web of meanings and to project possibili. ties into the future based on knowledge of the present and past. In effect written speech gives order to a complex world as exemplified in the. scope and power we grant to the discourses of science religion economics and. history He thus relates writing to vision not only because one has to literally. look at the words but also because it creates the experience of being an observer. from a distance By contrast by connecting via the ear oral speech tends to create. the experience of being surrounded by and immersed within an environment Oral. speech made in the presence of others brings ideas and possibilities to life within. the objects people and events of one s surroundings When successful oral speech. draws people together to share what is created in that moment an effect that is. often associated with ritual ceremonies and celebrations In short genuine com. munity can only exist within the spoken word Dewey s democratic ideal would. therefore strike a balance between the two mediums A harmonious relationship. between written and oral speech would bring about the best of both spectator. and participant experiences thereby allowing people to stand outside a situation. and contemplate it from a distance while also periodically immersing themselves. in the shared life of a community, The introduction of even newer electronic media of communication has not. refuted this ideal as much as supplemented it The phrase electronic media is. taken from Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan who used it to denote. any technology of communication that used any form of electricity to disseminate. messages immediately across a potentially global field and or reproduce auditory. sounds or visual images with great accuracy and the potential for playback The. John Dewey The Public and Its Problems Athens Ohio University Press 1954. DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No xiv K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. Introduction, term electronic media therefore includes both traditional mass media such as. the television and radio as well as newer digital media everything accessible. through modern computers such as e mail the Internet and digital photography. and video Starting with the telegraph in the nineteenth century and extending up. to and beyond modern smartphones electronic media far surpasses the invention. of the printing press and introduces the utopian possibility of immersing ourselves. in the total life of the planet in a single moment This creates opportunities for. expanding the horizon of one s experience to distances unheard of a century ago. Social networking sites and global communication systems now create the possibil. ity of reaching thousands if not millions of people instantaneously. Yet despite all of this we still demand the detached solitude of the literate life. and the tactile experience of partaking in the spoken word Each medium serves its. own function and must be appraised by that function In order to guide judgments. about what medium of communication is appropriate for what types of situations. this introduction will define three different speech contexts the context for written. speech the context for online communication and the context for public speaking. The Context For Written Speech, Written speech as it is used here refers to the primary media of a print rather. than handwriting insofar as print privileges sequential ordering of parts a specific. point of view an explicit logical progression a complex arrangement of informa. tion and a spirit of objective detachment According to McLuhan printed speech. is marked by isolation reflection distance specialization and fragmentation In. writing one does not participate together in a shared moment one composes or. reads in private taking each word and each sentence at a time and threading. together a total sequential narrative that often has a sense of past present and. future McLuhan observes that writing tends to be a kind of separate or specialist. action in which there is little opportunity or call for reaction The literate man or. society develops the tremendous power of acting in any matter with considerable. detachment from the feelings or emotional involvement that an illiterate man or. society would experience 9 By acting without reacting McLuhan means the. ability to reflect on ideas or situations not with just an overt physical response. but by quietly writing down one s thoughts in logical or poetic form. Writing that is to say makes possible the monk the poet the scientist and the. philosopher Written speech refers to those objects that we wish to study in private. to dwell over and reflect upon to use as a reliable guide for judgment Objects of. written speech include annual business reports scientific journal articles the Bible. handwritten letters diaries legal judgments novels the U S Constitution techni. cal manuals poetry anthologies new procedural guidelines to do lists biographies. economic projections and philosophies Because of the nature of the medium the. context for written speech tends to be of a much broader scope than that of oral or. electronic communication A written document takes time to compose and to pub. lish in the promise that the message it contains will retain relevance for some time to. Marshall McLuhan Understanding Media The Extensions of Man Boston MIT Press 1994 79. DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No xv K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. xvi Introduction, come For instance sometimes it is better to provide a written manual rather than to. explain a procedure to print out an article rather than send it by e mail or to docu. ment the reasons for a judgment rather than argue them in a public setting To put. it succinctly written speech is the best response when we wish to give an audience. material to take home and study Whenever we want someone to reflect upon a. message in private and be able to return to it later written speech is the ideal medium. Perhaps the paradigmatic case of written speech as a rhetorical response to. a complex and enduring problem is the publication of reports produced by re. search committees and commissioned by government or industry to provide frame. works for action based on a careful research into the current situation Ideally. these reports are then studied by relevant authorities after which time they pres. ent their judgments on how to act Reports are the way that specialist groups. such as scientists judges economists theologians and historians actually function. rhetorically in the broader political environment Even though their intention may. not have been specifically to persuade the publication of their research acts to. guide judgments about public affairs in a powerful and convincing way From a. rhetorical perspective situations that call for a persuasive response through written. speech tend to possess the following qualities, A pervasive problem that endures across durations of time and breadth of space. Sufficient time to deliberate upon a proper response without the need for. immediate action, Significant resources to draw upon in analyzing the problem. An audience with the willingness and capacity to deliberate over a period of. time upon a single issue, Given this type of situation rhetoric that takes the form of written speech generally. attempts to accomplish the following goals, Provide a distinct perspective on a situation that offers a useful point of view. Give order and coherence to a disordered and chaotic condition. Replace short sighted fears and desires with far sighted judgment. Replace overheated involvement with cooler forms of detachment. Encourage delayed individual reflection over immediate group response. Discussion The best way to understand the unique character of written speech. as a print form is to compare the same text presented in two different media types. What is the difference for instance between checking out a book from the library. and reading it as a PDF file online What is the difference between writing and. receiving a handwritten letter and just sending an e mail And when do you feel. you need to send a card with writing inside of it versus simply sending an e card. The Context for Electronic Communication, Although electronic forms of communication include many technologies of the. mass media most of us will primarily make use of online forms of electronic com. munication such as e mail teleconferences website postings and text messaging. Online communication is thus meant to refer to text image audio and video mes. sages sent and received by individuals on computer aided technologies and capable. DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No xvi K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM. Introduction, of being received simultaneously by an infinite number of users and also being. recalled by those users at any time As indicated by McLuhan s analysis online. communication tends to foster mobility and decentralization and at the same time. create a sense of constant feeling of being in touch with other people In addition. it tends to favor messages that have an iconic or mosaic form over those that feature. more primarily linear narratives or arguments more fitting to written speech. There are several specific features of online communication that make it unique. First it allows for multiple messages to be sent and received simultaneously and at. rapid speed This creates an enormous competition for time as it creates an almost. permanent backlog of messages awaiting consideration In this environment mes. sages are naturally developed to capture one s immediate attention and be received. and understood in a short amount of time Second the capability of multimedia. messaging further heightens the competition for attention such as a simple e mail. might be supplemented with embedded images attached files and background. graphics or sound Third it creates a situation of receiving a message in private. at the same time that it is capable of being broadcast to a group This reduces the. sense of privacy that written speech tends to produce while at the same time al. lowing a message to be freed from its situational context Fourth the capability of. saving and resending messages allows them to spread widely and rapidly thereby. allowing both successes and mistakes to be immediately broadcast to all members. of a group from a group of friends to a global audience Fifth it creates the pos. sibility of anonymity if the message is sent with a blind or disguised sender thereby. liberating the message not only from context but from authorship. The majority of our online communication tends to be informal in quality. despite the intended content Even in organizational settings official e mails are of. ten laced with personal observations jokes compliments or complaints that have. a conversational tone E mail in particular fuses composition and production in. one function thereby fostering a type of discourse that is loose and impromptu. rather than formal and reflective In addition online communication makes ease. and entertainment permanent features of its use Even governmental websites are. designed to be appealing to the eye On the one hand this makes online communi. cation ideal for situations that require readily accessible information or the rapid. dissemination of striking ideas events or images Whereas websites are there to. present information or perform a function for anyone who needs it at any time. e mails and text messages allow individuals to send specific messages to anyone. in an instant On the other hand online communication tends to lack durability. As quickly as messages are produced they are destroyed or replaced Also online. communication tends to lack a sense of shared or situated context Whereas even. a book needs to be read somewhere online communication has the sense of being. received everywhere and nowhere, But does electronic communication dominate every aspect of our lives simply. because it is available That question can only be answered by looking more closely. at the unique qualities of each type of media If we take the writing of Marshall. McLuhan as a guide the Internet exaggerates all the characteristics of previous. electronic media such as the telegraph radio movie and television which appear. to eclipse the function of both written and oral speech McLuhan writes that it is. the speed of electric involvement that creates the integral whole of both private and. DESIGN SERVICES OF, A01 CRIC9367 02 SE FM indd Cust Pearson Au Crick Pg No xvii K S4 CARLISLE 1 11 13 1 02 PM.