Renewable Energy Technologies and Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms

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Renewable Energy Technologies and Kyoto RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES AND KYOTO PROTOCOL MECHANISMS Large scale integration of solar and wind power in


REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page ii,Interested in European research. RTD info is our quarterly magazine keeping you in touch with main developments results programmes events. etc It is available in English French and German A free sample copy or free subscription can be obtained from. European Commission,Directorate General for Research. Information and Communication Unit,B 1049 Brussels. Fax 32 2 29 58220,E mail research cec eu int, Internet http europa eu int comm research rtdinfo index en html. For further information on energy research in the EU. please refer to the following Internet sites, EU RTD Programme http europa eu int comm energy index en htm.
EU Energy Research http www cordis lu sustdev energy. Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero,Tel 32 2 29 62811,E mail Domenico Rossetti di Valdalbero cec eu int. Helpdesk rtd energy cec eu int, Europe Direct is a service to help you find answers. to your questions about the European Union,New freephone number. 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11,LEGAL NOTICE, Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use. which might be made of the following information, The views expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect the.
views of the European Commission, A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet. It can be accessed through the Europa server http europa eu int. Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. Luxembourg Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 2003. ISBN 92 894 6169 1,European Communities 2003, Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged. Printed in Belgium,PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE FREE PAPER. REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 1,Renewable energy technologies. and Kyoto Protocol mechanisms,JOINT IMPLEMENTATION IN.
CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE,CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM IN. THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA,REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 2. RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES,AND KYOTO PROTOCOL MECHANISMS. Table of Contents,Foreword 3,Introduction and acknowledgements 4. List of acronyms 5,Kyoto Protocol and project based mechanisms 6.
EU research projects from theory to practice 9, Prospects for renewables and energy efficiency in Central and Eastern Europe 13. Context 13,Renewable resources 13,Joint Implementation opportunities 15. Prospects for renewables in South and East Mediterranean Area 16. Context 16,Renewable resources 17,Clean Development Mechanism opportunities 18. Joint Implementation 20,Project cycle 20,JI design 21. Baseline development 25,Clean Development Mechanism 30.
Project cycle 30,CDM design 31, Tentative sustainable development appraisal of CDM 35. European Emissions Trading JI and CDM 41, Relationship with the Community Emissions Trading Scheme 41. Linkages with JI and CDM 42,Annex I JI Portfolio of potential projects 45. Annex II CDM Portfolio of potential projects 50,Annex III Contacts for JI and CDM projects 58. REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 3,TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Since the signature of the Kyoto Protocol December 1997 Europe is ahead in. terms of political will to fight against global warming and to act in favour of a. more sustainable world as demonstrated in all the positions taken by the EU in. international fora like the Johannesburg Conference August September 2002. To achieve its Kyoto commitments the EU will have to make strong efforts both. domestically and internationally, At home the EU is already implementing various policies and measures in order to increase the share of renewable. energy sources and combined heat and power to improve energy efficiency for example in buildings and industry. and to raise the level of alternative fuels for transport Moreover maintaining a substantial share of nuclear will be. necessary to avoid large increase of CO2 in the electricity sector. The EU target to reach 3 of GDP dedicated to Research and Technological Development in 2010 will also help to. develop cleaner smaller and more efficient technologies i e emitting less greenhouse gases in the whole life cycle of. products Some practical examples will be provided by the forthcoming Environmental Technologies Action Plan. At the international level there is a great potential for the so called flexible mechanisms and especially for Joint. Implementation projects in transition economies and for Clean Development Mechanism projects in developing. countries This aim is to reach the global emission reduction target in a cost effective way while transferring advanced. technologies to other industrialised and developing countries. This brochure focuses on co operative projects between partners from the EU and its neighbouring countries It high. lights the various steps advantages and practical information needed to build such projects oriented towards renew. able energy technologies, I am convinced that the methods and tools provided by these study results will help governments businesses and. non governmental organisations in the EU Central and Eastern Europe and Mediterranean Countries to fully benefit. from these challenging partnerships, For the future European research will continue to support both technological advances for example in the transition. towards hydrogen and socio economic research providing scientific background data to decision makers. Philippe Busquin,Member of the European Commission. Responsible for Research,REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 4.
RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES,AND KYOTO PROTOCOL MECHANISMS. Introduction and acknowledgements, This brochure provides general background informa The two team coordinators of the BASE and CDMEDI. tion on the possibilities for Joint Implementation in projects and the main authors of this brochure are. Central and Eastern Europe and Clean Development Madeleine Rawlins from ESD Energy for Sustainable. Mechanism in the Mediterranean area in particular in Development and Houda Allal from OME Observa. the field of renewable energy toire M diterran en de l Energie Domenico Rossetti. di Valdalbero from the European Commission DG, The objective of this publication is not to present pre Research has supervised the work. scriptive methods for project developers but to, increase capacity building in the countries of these Participants in the BASE and CDMEDI projects were Kari. regions and to help various stakeholders government H mekoski from Electrowatt Ekono Magdalena Rogul. businesses and NGOs to prepare and evaluate Joint ska from EC BREC IBMER Manfred Stockmayer from. Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism KWI Architects Engineers Consultants Marjan Seliskar. projects This is achieved by illustrating different from ISPO Ylo Mets from Estivo Sandor Molnar from. assessment tools developed by two European research Systemexpert Consulting Ltd Ludmila Skurovcova from. projects known as BASE and CDMEDI CityPlan N jib Osman from ANER and Roberto Vigotti. from Enel Green Power, Different in both scope and objectives BASE Baseline and.
additionality for Joint Implementation in Central and East Valuable comments have been received from Samir Allal. ern Europe and CDMEDI Development of renewables in University of Versailles OME France H l ne Connor. Southern Mediterranean region through Clean Develop HELIO International Susanne Haefeli International. ment Mechanism provide useful tools and methods that Energy Agency Aphrodite Mourelatou European En. have been summarised in a single publication which it is vironment Agency Juan Jos Pe a Uni n Fenosa. hoped will also increase the interest of potential investors Energ as Especiales S A Spain and Norbert N Vasen. in these Kyoto Protocol project based mechanisms ETA Renewable Energies Italy Thanks for reading also. go to Tahar Abdessalem Ecole Polytechnique de Tunisie. The publication is divided into various parts the Kyoto LEGI Tunisia Abdelhanine Benallou CDER Morocco. Protocol and the project based mechanisms the BASE Tomas Chmelik Ministry of Environment Czech Repub. and CDMEDI European research projects the prospects lic J r me Halbout SGAM France Ezzedine Khalfallah. for renewables in Central and Eastern Europe and in the ANER Tunisia Gareth Phillips SGS Climate Change Pro. Mediterranean area and the Joint Implementation and gramme UK and Andr a Pinna PCF WB US. Clean Development Mechanism project cycles design, and appraisals The annexes give examples of potential On behalf of the European Commission constructive. Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mech remarks have been made by J rgen Salay Peter Zapfel. anism projects and actual contact points in Central and and Damien Meadows from DG Environment Sandra. Eastern Europe and in the Mediterranean area Stevens from DG Transport and Energy Maria Lamin. from DG Development Liisa Tanttari from DG Enlarge. This brochure has been prepared by two consortia of ment and Wiktor Raldow Michel Poireau Barry. European research organisations and funded by the Robertson and Pierre Valette from DG Research. European Union under the Fifth Framework Pro,gramme for RTD DG Research Energy programme. socio economic activities,REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 5. INTRODUCTION,List of acronyms, AAU Assigned Amount Units GWP Global Warming Potential. BASE Baselines for Accession States in Europe IET International Emissions trading. Promoting Clean Energy Investments through IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate. Joint Implementation in Central and Eastern Change. European Countries IRR Internal Rate of Return, CDM Clean Development Mechanism JI Joint Implementation.
CDMED Scenarios and strategies for the JOINT Joint Implementation for International. implementation of the Clean Development Emissions Reductions through Electricity. Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol in the Companies in the EU and Central and. Mediterranean region Eastern European Countries, CDMEDI Promoting and financing Clean MED2010 Large scale integration of solar and. Development Mechanism renewable wind power in Mediterranean countries. energy projects in the Mediterranean region MOP Member Of the Parties. CEE Central and Eastern Europe NGO Non Governmental Organisation. CEEC Central and Eastern European Countries OME Observatoire M diterran en de l Energie. CER Certified Emission Reductions PAM Policies and Measures. CHP Combined Heat and Power PCF Prototype Carbon Fund. COP Conference of the Parties PDD Project Design Document. DH District Heating PIN Project Idea Note, DNA Designated National Authority PV Photovoltaics. EB Executive Board SEMC Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Countries. ERU Emission Reduction Units SSC PDD Small Scale Project Design Document. ERUPT Emission Reduction Units Purchasing Tender SSN SouthSouthNorth project. ESD Energy for Sustainable Development UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on. ETS Emissions Trading System Climate Change,EU European Union US United States of America. GHG Greenhouse Gas,REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 6. RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES,AND KYOTO PROTOCOL MECHANISMS.
Kyoto Protocol and,project based mechanisms, A global strategy on climate change has been agreed. under the 1992 United Nations Climate Change Con KYOTO PROTOCOL EU MEMBER STATE COMMITMENTS. vention and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol This international. legal regime promotes financial and technical co oper Country Internal commitment. ation to enable all countries to adopt more climate change from 1990 levels. friendly policies and technologies It also sets targets. and timetables for emission reductions by developed Austria 13. countries Belgium 7 5,Denmark 21, Specifically the Protocol requires 39 developed coun Finland 0. tries to reduce their greenhouse gas GHG emissions France 0. by an average of 5 2 relative to 1990 levels These Germany 21. annual emissions reductions must be reached by Greece 25. 2008 2012 referred to as the first commitment period Ireland 13. The developed countries with emission reduction tar Italy 6 5. gets are called Annex I countries industrialised coun Luxembourg 28. tries whereas those without targets are the non Netherlands 6. Annex I countries developing countries Portugal 27. Within the Kyoto Protocol is a provision for the creation Sweden 4. of a bubble of emissions commitments The EU bub United Kingdom 12 5. ble allows the EU Member States to act as a group and. to negotiate a formal binding redistribution of their. global commitments which in total account for an 8. reduction in GHG emissions The agreement on these,commitments will remain valid throughout the com. mitment period and therefore the EU cannot expand, this bubble into the Accession States where the com. mitments have already been far exceeded through,economic decline.
REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 7,KYOTO PROTOCOL AND. PROJECT BASED MECHANISMS, The Protocol will only enter into force once it has been The Clean Development Mechanism CDM defined. ratified by at least 55 Parties to the Climate Change in Article 12 allows Annex I Parties to implement proj. Convention including industrialised countries repre ects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in non. senting at least 55 of this group s total 1990 carbon Annex I Parties and has the twin goal of assisting non. dioxide emissions As of June 2003 the first condition Annex I Parties to achieve sustainable development. for the Protocol to enter into force has been more than and contribute to the ultimate objective of the Con. fulfilled since 108 countries have ratified the Protocol vention i e to stabilise greenhouse gas emissions at. The second condition is almost fulfilled The Kyoto Ther levels not dangerous to human development Under. mometer has reached 43 9 The following Annex I the CDM the Parties not included in Annex I will bene. countries are missing US Russia Australia Monaco and fit from project activities resulting in Certified Emission. Liechtenstein Only the US 36 2 and Russia 17 4 Reductions CER while Parties included in Annex I. have emissions large enough to fill the gap However may use the CER accruing from such project activities. Russia is expected to ratify the Protocol in 2003 Once to contribute to their compliance with part of their. the Kyoto Protocol enters into force the Conference of quantified emission limitation and reduction commit. the Parties COP of the United Nations Framework Con ments under Article 3 The CDM thus allows the trans. vention on Climate Change UNFCCC 1 will also serve as fer of CER to a party investing in GHG emission reduc. the formal Meeting of the Parties MOP for the Kyoto tion projects This transfer or trade is a market based. Protocol This is referred to as the COP MOP system that allows individual firms as well as coun. tries to select the most effective solutions to achiev. The Kyoto Protocol allows developed countries to reach ing GHG emission reduction The CDM is supervised by. their targets in different ways They have to imple an Executive Board EB and a share of the proceeds. ment domestic Policies And Measures PAM and they from project activities will be used to assist particularly. are allowed to supplement these PAM with projects vulnerable developing countries in meeting the costs. abroad and with market instruments also called flex of adapting to climate change. ibility mechanisms The following section describes. these mechanisms as they were conceived by the Pro JI projects can generate emission reductions only as of. tocol and have been better defined during the ensuing the start of the commitment period see below Emis. negotiations sion Reduction Units ERU are only generated after. the beginning of the commitment period in 2008, International Emissions Trading ET as set out in Art CDM projects can generate CER before the commit. icle 17 permits an Annex I Party to sell part of its ment period i e the crediting period is different from. assigned amount the amount of emissions the Party the commitment period The crediting period for CDM. may emit during the commitment period to another projects starts after registration at the earliest Such. Annex I Party Assigned Amount Units AAUs registration can occur as soon as the procedures are. settled There is an exception for projects that have. Joint Implementation JI defined in Article 6 allows started as of the year 2000 and before 10 November. Annex I Parties to implement projects that reduce 2001 where exceptionally the crediting period may. greenhouse gas emissions by sources or enhance start prior to registration but not before 1 January. removal by sinks in the territories of other Annex I 2000 The crediting period can be selected as being. Parties and to credit the resulting Emissions Reduc either seven years with twice the option of renewal. tion Units ERU against their own emission targets or ten years without renewal. The term Joint Implementation does not appear in,Article 6 but it has entered into common usage as. convenient shorthand,1 www unfccc int,REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 8.
RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES,AND KYOTO PROTOCOL MECHANISMS. BASELINE EMISSIONS ACTUAL PROJECT EMISSIONS AND BASELINE EMISSIONS ACTUAL PROJECT EMISSIONS AND. THE RESPECTIVE CARBON CREDITS FOR A JI PROJECT THE RESPECTIVE CARBON CREDITS FOR A CDM PROJECT. Emissions Emissions,Baseline Baseline,Carbon Credits. Emissions from Emissions from,the Project the Project. 2008 2012 2008 2012,Start Project time Start Project time. Note the start of the project must be after 2000,The last Conference of Parties COP 9 which took.
place in New Delhi India in October November 2002, adopted the Delhi Ministerial Declaration on Climate. Change and Sustainable Development Among other, statements the Declaration indicates that actions are. required to develop cleaner more efficient and afford. able energy technologies including fossil fuel and. renewable energy technologies and actions are,required with a sense of urgency to substantially. increase the global share of renewable energy,REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 9. EU RESEARCH PROJECTS,FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE,EU research projects.
from theory to practice, BASE developing national electricity sector baselines work. ing with key electricity sector players in each country. The BASE European research project was conceived,and key government stakeholders in each country. after experience with the JOINT project and other,comparing approaches and results between coun. learning by doing activities particularly ERUPT tries in a learning by doing approach. Emission Reduction Units Purchasing Tender and the. PCF Prototype Carbon Fund showed that there was In each country a BASE country team was established. very little in the way of harmonised approaches for bringing the focal points other key government agen. the definition of additionality and baselines in the cies electricity sector environment energy regula. field of JI in the Accession States of Central and Eastern tors and key industry players specifically from the. European Countries CEEC In particular it was shown electricity sector to work through the various aspects. that there was very little agreement on the means by of the BASE project. which to demonstrate additionality under the Kyoto. Protocol of the UNFCCC The methodology and indeed BASE addresses both the needs of industry and gov. the nomenclature for baselines were often confusing ernment in investor and host countries The primary. and inconsistent objectives of BASE were to agree on methodologies to. be applied in the host countries covered by the project. Furthermore it was clear that there was a consider Czech Republic Estonia Hungary Poland and Slo. able replication of work being carried out on baselines venia to integrate into national baseline definition. in the CEEC as each baseline was established on a the work that is already being carried out in each. case by case basis There was a need to consolidate country on emissions reporting and energy sector. this work to harmonise baselines and baseline modelling and to produce transparent guidelines for. approaches and thus to reduce the transaction costs investors and governments on how to design develop. for developing JI projects and approve eligible JI projects. BASE was designed to bring key stakeholders together BASE is working with the UNFCCC focal points in each. in each country in order to reach consensus on country and other key stakeholders e g electricity. defining how baselines should be developed along and heating industry research institutions to develop. side the requirements put on JI applicants as regards a set of baseline tools methodologies and guidelines. demonstrating additionality under Kyoto tailored to each country s climate change objectives. developing a harmonised nomenclature on and, framework for baselines ranging from the simplest 2 The BASE project Baselines for Accession States in Europe Promoting Clean. Energy Investments through Joint Implementation in Central and Eastern. heat only projects to the more complicated com European Countries has been funded by DG Research under the EU Fifth. Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. bined heat and power grid feed in projects http base energyprojects net. familiarising key players in each country with various 3 The JOINT project Joint Implementation for International Emissions. Reductions through Electricity Companies in the EU and Central and Eastern. baseline methodologies and then testing an agreed European Countries has been funded by DG Research under the EU Fifth. Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. baseline approach on real projects in each country http joint energyprojects net. REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 10,RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES.
AND KYOTO PROTOCOL MECHANISMS, The project has developed consensus among the key BASE has consolidated existing databases in each. stakeholders particularly those ministries most rele country that are being used for a number of purposes. vant to promoting and approving JI projects on the such as the national communications being prepared. processes necessary to satisfy minimum requirements by the UNFCCC focal points and the energy planning. of additionality for JI applicants being carried out by those government agencies. responsible in each country for the energy sector, Baselines have been assessed in each of the partici. pating CEEC at the national level looking at individual Furthermore working alongside governments BASE. energy sector plans and modelling activities in each has defined baselines for the electricity sector in each. BASE then tested these by focusing at a JI project level country using tools and models that are already being. Potential JI projects were identified in each country used by governments and the relevant sectorial players. and their eligibility under JI was tested The potential to establish the emissions framework for the sector in. credits that could be generated by these projects were each country and thereby set the framework for defin. assessed in each country by the BASE core team ing the additionality of proposed JI projects In working. with governments on JI and baselines there are a, The focus on real projects was key throughout the BASE number of benefits that the BASE project has brought. project Until recently baselines were very hypothetical to each of the host governments within the project. and academic lacking the practical experience of get The ability to deal systematically with the key issues. ting projects approved and through the process of val of additionality. idation Over the past two to three years there has A nomenclature and methodology to review and. been a far greater focus on tangible projects through appraise JI projects. BASE JOINT ERUPT the PCF and other emerging pro The ability to compare the advantages and disadvan. grammes This has allowed the BASE project team tages of JI vis vis other types of support e g sub. including the country teams to consolidate the wealth sidies targets etc. of experience on defining JI project additionality and to More confidence on the part of host governments in. apply baseline methodologies in JI host countries working with investors who propose JI projects and. in evaluating their JI proposals and, BASE developed a project boundary definition system An understanding of the project cycle and project. built up from a number of project components that are risk and how they can reduce costs in JI. common to all energy sector projects The system, developed under the BASE project has already been Considerable practical skills have been gained during.
adopted with some adjustment by the Austrian gov the BASE project However there are a number of. ernment In addition BASE is working alongside gov issues that still hinder JI in these countries The most. ernments to facilitate JI project development by devel notable issue is that climate change while important. oping national criteria for JI project implementation in each of the CEECs is only one of a number of areas. which are clear and transparent both to potential requiring intensive focus as they prepare for accession. investors and to key government stakeholders to the European Union. Guidelines have been set out for the practical implemen In all cases governments lack the personnel hence. tation of JI projects setting out the methodologies to be the capacity to deal with the numerous pressing. applied in each case providing indications of the levels of issues of climate change from developing national. expected credits from each type of project and setting communications under the UNFCCC to negotiating. out requirements that will be expected for JI project base national positions at the COP MOP to complying with. line development in each country and internationally the new EU directive on emissions trading4 to review. REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 11,EU RESEARCH PROJECTS. ing JI project applications Indeed if the climate analysis of institutional regulatory and financial. change agenda in each CEEC is to be fully developed in aspects of wind and PV programmes in these coun. each Accession State the issue of capacity and cap tries as well as the new financial instruments avail. acity building must be dealt with quickly able such as the green certificates are also of great. importance to the study, CDMEDI For wind power the economic potentials have been. estimated in Morocco 6 000 MW Tunisia 1 000,The objective of CDMEDI is to support the develop. MW Egypt 10 000 MW technical potential 100 000, ment of renewable energy projects in the Southern MW and Turkey 10 000 MW technical potential. Mediterranean region through the CDM and to help 88 000 MW Selected sites have also been analysed. European countries achieve their Kyoto targets in by the Wasp software program and concerned wind. accordance with the objectives of the European Union farm project potential totals Morocco 200 MW. the Mediterranean countries and the Kyoto commit Tunisia 150 MW Egypt 130 MW and Turkey 70. ments This will also contribute to sustainable develop MW Integration plans for the selected projects have. ment both in the Northern and in the Southern been developed along with analyses of the institution. Mediterranean regions al and financial aspects, The CDMED 6 and MED2010 7 projects showed that the Because of its low rural electrification rate and high.
Mediterranean countries are endowed with high population the Moroccan PV market is the biggest. potential of renewable energy sources and that these among the three countries studied in MED2010 Mo. resources are underdeveloped because of many exist rocco Tunisia and Egypt Indeed the potential PV mar. ing barriers The projects also showed that CDM could ket in Morocco amounts to 100 000 to 200 000 PV sys. play a positive and important role in developing the tems as against 6 000 to 15 000 PV systems in Tunisia. renewable energy market in the Mediterranean and 4 500 in Egypt Thus the integration plan devel. region thereby contributing to the sustainable devel oped for Morocco focused on a selected region repre. opment of the region senting a market of 9 500 PV systems in Tunisia the. target was 50 of the potential PV market while in, Indeed the MED2010 project analysed the large scale Egypt the integration plan concerned the total PV mar. integration of wind power and photovoltaics PV in ket potential. Morocco Tunisia Egypt and Turkey with the objective. of reaching by 2010 a share of 10 to 12 of these, energy sources in the electricity balance of the coun 4 Common position adopted by the Council on 18 March 2003 with a view to. the adoption of the Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council. tries studied This objective is in agreement with those establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within. the Community and amending Council Directive 96 61 EC. of the European Directive on the promotion of renew 5 The CDMEDI project Promoting and financing Clean Development. Mechanism renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean region has been. able energy in the EU countries and also with the funded by DG Research under the EU s Fifth Framework Programme for. Research and Technological Development www ome org cdmedi. strategic guidelines on renewable energy set by the 6 The CDMED project Scenarios and strategies for the implementation of the. countries analysed The work accomplished by the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol in the Mediterranean. region has been funded by DG Research under the EU s Fifth Framework. partners within the framework of the project com Programme for Research and Technological Development See Allal H Nogaret. E Clausen N E Lundtang Petersen E Georgy G Casale C Russ P The. prised the assessment of the existing resources and development of wind power in the Mediterranean region in the framework of. the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol Global Wind Power. analysis of sites for wind and PV projects the develop Conference Paris 2002 To obtain a copy of the CDMED published report. allal ome org, ment of wind atlases and the preparation of integra. 7 The MED2010 project Large scale integration of solar and wind power in. tion plans and the design of business plans in view of Mediterranean countries has been funded by DG Research under the EU s Fifth. Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. implementing the identified and studied projects The www ome org renewable med2010. REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 12,RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES. AND KYOTO PROTOCOL MECHANISMS, But despite high renewable energy resources renewable energy CDM projects and of the high poten.
MED2010 confirmed the lack of adapted institutional tial of renewable energy sources with which the. frameworks for the large scale integration of wind region is endowed. power and PV in the Southern and Eastern Mediter,ranean countries SEMC and the need for specific. financing schemes such as the CDM to allow the,renewable energy market to really develop in the. Mediterranean region, The results of the CDMED project on both medium and. long term potential 2010 to 2030 for CDM projects,based on co operation between the EU and in the. Southern Mediterranean countries coincides with, other studies on CDM that drastic cuts in emissions.
reduction cost can be expected if all deviations from. the baseline are considered to be acceptable as CDM. projects Limiting CDM projects to projects for renew. able energy based electricity generation would reduce. these impacts However important cost advantages, can still be expected The induced amount of addition. al capacity of renewable technology installed in South. ern Mediterranean countries would be significant In. this region the capacity would almost double as com. pared to the reference case The potential related to. the CDM would thus reach 16 000 MW of additional,renewable energy technologies installed capacity. mostly wind,To conclude CDMED and MED2010 projects showed. that an interesting potential for renewable energy. CDM projects does exit in the Mediterranean region If. implemented in the region the CDM could contribute. to economic growth and sustainable development of, the SEMC hosting such projects through the transfer of. funds and technology from the European countries, That said the implementation of the CDM of the Kyoto.
Protocol in the Mediterranean region requires defin. ition of the type of projects which could be imple. mented and the development of adequate strategies, Also in order for the Mediterranean renewable energy. market to benefit from the CDM it is very important. that the main actors and potential investors in CDM. projects be aware of the opportunities to implement. REC 36900 final for pdf 11 09 03 8 58 Page 13,PROSPECTS FOR RENEWABLES IN. CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE,Prospects for renewables and energy efficiency. in Central and Eastern Europe, Most of the countries in Central and Eastern Europe CEE energy sectors have embraced change and have. CEE are dependent on imports of fossil fuels for their. taken many large strides towards achieving the require. energy There are only three countries that stand out ments of EU accession Structurally the sectors are. as not being dependent on imports Poland has abun changing fast with the traditional state owned energy. dant coal reserves Romania has abundant gas monopolies partially or fully unbundling and privatising. reserves and Estonia has abundant oil shale reserves Over the past ten years the CEE energy sectors have. However the CEE region is well endowed with renew experienced the same trend of investment as the Euro. able energy resources which are currently under pean sector with Western corporate entities acquiring. utilised and could contribute significantly to reducing generation and distribution businesses and assets This. import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions combined with evolving national energy regulatory pol. icies and frameworks has stimulated investment into. As these countries move towards EU accession energy energy efficiency and environmental performance. pricing is becoming more transparent and policy, makers recognise the significant benefits of renewable.
energy development such as employment revenues RENEWABLE RESOURCES. regeneration and environmental performance renew, ables are beginning to get the attention they deserve The CEE countries offer rich renewable resources9 bio. mass is particularly abundant and the countries have. The region has a history of energy intensive industry the potential to further develop biomass energy. and high consumption of fossil fuels for energy pro through agriculture In conjunction with agricultural. duction The extended period of under investment production biomass provides more than 50 of the. limited environmental controls and the absence of region s renewable energy resource Most of these. exposure to market based fuel and power markets is countries have more than 40 forest cover and some. currently generating many challenges for CEE as the have as much as 80 The potential to develop bioen. countries move towards accession into the European ergy crops is considerably higher in the CEE region than. Union EU The CEE region represents a huge oppor in the EU with former agricultural land available for. tunity both in the exploitation of its renewable energy energy crops such as rape and short rotation coppice. potential and in terms of energy efficiency, The CEE region is rich in hydro resources with consid. There is a significant prevalence of district heating sys erable untapped potential particularly in the Slovak. tems in the CEE region and there is a need for substan. tial refurbishment of the systems This provides great. scope for energy efficiency combined heat and power 8 Poland Estonia Lithuania Latvia Czech Republic Slovakia Hungary. Romania Bulgaria and Slovenia, CHP and fuel switching leading to both economic 9 For an analysis of the factors that led to the successful implementation of. renewable energy projects at EU Member State level the reader is referred to. and environmental performance improvements the European Environment Agency s report Renewable energies success.

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