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Regarding the Royal Annals 261 two However while the compartments within each register are uniform the width of compartments from one register to the next is not uniform Register four has the narrowest compartments and register six has the widest The probable form of the missing registers seven to nine not shown by markings on the Palermo Stone and Cairo 1 will be discussed as we reach
The Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings M Christine Tetley 256. the Annals is known then that number represents the years of the king s reign 1. Unfortunately because only seven fragments of the original annals survive far more of. the annals has been lost than has survived and the positioning of each fragment has. hitherto been a matter of speculation, The Royal Annals were briefly mentioned in chapter 15 pages 207 to 211 That. is now supplemented by the following comments relating to the way that regnal years. may be indicated The Palermo Stone fragment shown in chapter 15 and the Cairo 1. fragment shown here at Figure 18 1 are the main basis for the following remarks since. the smaller fragments have some variations The transcription of the Cairo 1 fragment is. provided Figure 18 2 from Toby Wilkinson s book,Figure 18 1 The Cairo 1 recto fragment. There is one known exception in the reign of Aha which will be discussed. Chapter 18 Regarding the Royal Annals 257, Figure 18 2 The top portion of the Cairo 1 fragment of the Royal Annals as reconstructed by Toby Wilkinson. I have created a newly composed chart of the Palermo Stone and Cairo 1 together. with the smaller fragments see Figure 18 3 which seem to provide more coherency and. confidence for clarifying the chronology than has been available before now The recto. is presented on the following pages the verso will be presented in conjunction with its. discussion The Annals are to be read right to left. The Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings M Christine Tetley 258. Figure 18 3 Royal Annals recto as reconstructed by M C Tetley C 1 5 Cairo fragments LF London Fragment. PS Palermo Stone REG register Continued on page 259. Chapter 18 Regarding the Royal Annals 259, Figure 18 3 continued from page 258 Royal Annals recto as reconstructed by M C Tetley C 1 5 Cairo. fragments LF London Fragment PS Palermo Stone REG register. The spacing between the Palermo Stone and Cairo 1 is a critical and complex. part of the discussion to follow and will be portrayed later In the meantime it is. convenient to display both ends of the Royal Annals on adjoining pages Note in these. representations based on exact portrayals of these two major stones the consistency. between the sizes of the compartments differing in each register on the stones and on. The Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings M Christine Tetley 260. the reconstruction of the parts of the Annals now lost together with the precision of the. extreme right and left edges of the stone as it must have originally existed. As can be seen Figure 18 3 the two larger fragments are shown on the recto. Cairo 1 is on the left and the Palermo Stone on the right The backside verso of each. stone will be displayed later in this chapter Much more information can be gained from. the Palermo Stone than Cairo 1 of which almost nothing is retained in the lower sections. due to damage It may have been used as a door sill 2 Other fragments are positioned on. the recto but of these only the small London Fragment is represented on the verso. The Royal Annals are arranged in horizontal registers on the recto and verso On. the recto in registers one to six each is separated by a band from the one above and. below and perhaps also for the lower registers seven to nine most of which are now. lost Scholars describe this space as the titulary band where the names of the kings are. The Schematic Form, From an overview of the two main fragments the Palermo Stone and Cairo 1 it. appears that each titulary seems to have been about seven compartments long and. centered above the middle compartments of a king s reign Thus if the regnal year of a. middle compartment of the titulary is known it will give an indication of the length of. the king s overall reign On the verso of the Royal Annals Figure 18 4 the titulary of. each king probably ran within and along the top of the width of a king s first. compartment as shown for the reign of Neferirkare Kakai register four on the Palermo. Stone verso These compartments are much larger than those of the recto as can be seen. in Figure 18 4, Figure 18 4 The Royal Annals verso showing compartment size. Under the titulary band on the recto are the compartments of the registers that. comprise the kings annals The compartments are separated by a rnpt sign each. indicating a year A horizontal line on the recto rules off a section at the base of each. compartment giving the height of the Nile when in flood. When a change of reign is indicated on the recto it is shown by a vertical line. that extends down from the bottom of the preceding register through the register it. applies to finishing at the base of the Nile band It may come at the end of a year or. within a compartment if the partial final year of one king and the accession portion of the. next king share a compartment In such a case the months and days of the partial year. that each king reigned may be noted but there are not enough examples to know whether. this was always the case, On the recto the compartments of registers one to five have much the same depth. but register six is deeper The compartments within each register have the same width. except for register six where of three existing compartments one is wider than the other. Chapter 18 Regarding the Royal Annals 261, two However while the compartments within each register are uniform the width of. compartments from one register to the next is not uniform Register four has the. narrowest compartments and register six has the widest The probable form of the. missing registers seven to nine not shown by markings on the Palermo Stone and Cairo. 1 will be discussed as we reach the periods they originally displayed. On the verso there are only two examples of a change of reign These are. discussed in chapter 21 In register one there is a vertical band dividing the reign of. Menkaure from Shepseskaf although the upper part is lost Menkaure s extant final. months and days are incised within his last compartment separated by the change of. reign band from Shepseskaf s accession year which also has a missing number of. months and days The change of reign is also seen in register four dividing the reigns of. Sahure and Neferirkare but here the band extends down to the top of the next register. The months of the final portion of Sahure s last year are incised within the band with the. months for Neferirkare s accession year noted on the right side of his first compartment. These will be shown in finer detail in chapter 21, The compartments on the verso are much deeper and wider than those of the. recto with the width of one compartment taking up almost the whole width of the. Palermo Stone fragment On the verso of Cairo 1 only parts of two compartments are. legible in register four and a small portion on its right side in register five. The increasing size of the compartments gives the impression that as the project. continued the inscribers realized that more and more space should be allocated to each. Estimating the Regnal Years of Userkaf, In attempting to reconstruct the annals it is important to know how far apart the. Palermo Stone and Cairo 1 were on the original that is how many compartments filled. the gap between the two fragments On the verso of register two shown in Figure 18 5. on pages 260 261 Cairo 1 and the Palermo Stone have compartments from the reign of. Userkaf In Cairo 1 parts of two compartments remain the first occupying about a. quarter of the space and the second about three quarters It mentions the year after the. first occasion of the cattle count indicating Userkaf s third year so the next. compartment of which about two thirds remains on Cairo 1 refers to his fourth regnal. year On the Palermo Stone the entire length of one of Userkaf s compartments is. shown At the left edge of the compartment there is a reference to the third occasion of. the cattle count indicating the king s sixth regnal year. Figure 18 5 Verso showing the space between Cairo 1 and Palermo Stone in the reign of Userkaf C1 Cairo 1. fragment PS Palermo Stone, Therefore in the gap between Cairo 1 and the Palermo Stone there would have. been the last third of Userkaf s fourth year followed by an entirely lost fifth year. compartment except for a few signs visible at the left upper edge on the Palermo Stone. before the rnpt sign indicating the beginning of his sixth year The size of the. compartments gives some indication of the space that makes up the gap between Cairo 1. and the Palermo Stone on the verso of register two. On the recto the distance between the Palermo Stone and Cairo 1 in registers two. to five and the number of years apportioned to the kings reigns which cross the gap. from one fragment to the other has to be consistent with the gap on the verso The. The Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings M Christine Tetley 262. sequence of the following of Horus signs which occur every second year in registers. two and four on the recto help define the number of years in the gap The final number. of years for each king is ultimately attained when all factors are taken into consideration. Processes of Reconstruction, The most difficult problem in reconstructing the annals is to reckon the number. of compartments for each register because there are no fragments that show the edges of. the annals or how they were arranged However we are helped in this regard by registers. five and six of the recto of the Palermo Stone where Djoser I Netjerikhet s reign begins. as shown by a change of reign vertical line and immediately beneath in register six. there appears the third of three compartments from the reign of Sneferu See Figure 18 3. This compartment has problems in that it refers to the eighth year of the cattle count. indicating the 16th year whereas the preceding year has the seventh year of the cattle. count indicating the 14th year Its preceding compartment does not have a stated cattle. count Once the correct regnal year for Sneferu s eighth year has been determined. detailed later in chapter 20 the distance from it back to Netjerikhet s first year gives the. coverage of what amounts to one full register, Having ascertained the distance covered by the compartments for one register. the left side of register five and the right side of register six the years have to be fitted. in between the right and left edges of the annals This has to take into consideration the. distance covered by the compartments on the verso with their much larger size as well. as the overall number of years that are represented on the annals. Provisionally at this stage the overall consideration is the 955 years that are. attributed to the kings for the period from Menes to Neferirkare in the Turin Canon. sections 4 16 4 17 As noted previously the accession of Neferefre is dated to 2750. BCE and the last king whose name survives on the verso of Cairo 1 is Neferirkare. Kakai just two kings before Neferefre Thus the annals record ends just shortly before. we have a definite date from which the earlier reigns may be reckoned. From Neferefre with his first year dated to 2750 BCE down to the end of Unas s. reign there are 128 years and from Unas to Neferirkare of the 8th Dynasty there are 187. years and 6 months Turin Canon section 5 14 5 15 accounting for 316 years. Subtracting 316 years from the overall total of 955 years leaves 639 years to be. attributed to Menes down to Neferefre The Royal Annals do not include the reign of. Menes the first king of the Turin Canon or the reign of Shepseskare the last king before. Neferefre in the Turin Canon in its preserved fragments so these have to be factored. into the 639 years obtained from the Turin Canon, In my reconstruction of the annals I assumed that the registers would have been. aligned at the right and left edges of the recto and verso I used the differing widths of. the extant compartments in each register as a pattern for their respective rows For the. last three registers of the recto seven to nine which have no preserved parts on the. Palermo Stone and Cairo 1 I averaged out the number of compartments for each row. having already accounted for the number of years attributed to the verso. Since there are obvious differences in the size of the compartments on the verso. within and between registers I had to average out the number of compartments to. accommodate the number of years for the reigns of each of the kings Fortunately most. of the surviving compartments have an indication of the regnal year of the king due to. the recording of cattle counts and the highest number of years can be determined for the. kings reigns from the Turin Canon or from contemporary sources Consequently there. is little flexibility in the number of compartments required on the verso. In the reconstruction of the annals it is often necessary to count backward or. forward from the years recorded on the larger fragments to find when a king s reign. began For example the mention of a Sed festival in register three on the Palermo Stone. Chapter 18 Regarding the Royal Annals 263, indicates that the king Den began to reign 30 years previously because Sed festivals. were held in a king s 30th regnal year to bestow on him rejuvenation Between Den s. first year and the last year of Djer in register two whose years can be obtained from. the length and position of his titulary is the reign of Djet for which no years are known. But it can be estimated by the number of compartments between Djer and Den. However scholars may count the number of years required differently depending on the. particular factors they take into consideration 3, Of considerable importance is the record of census or cattle counts mentioned in. the compartments of some of the kings by which their regnal years can be reckoned. However as noted previously scholars disagree about whether these census counts are. annual biennial or irregular Contemporary sources may also give higher cattle counts. than those indicated by the regnal years afforded to the kings in the Turin Canon. Wilkinson gave a summary of publications on the annals and the Palermo Stone. in particular appearing over the last century and even before He notes the following. Pellegrini 1895 Sch fer 1902 Naville 1903 Sethe 1903 Meyer 1904 Breasted. 1906 Maspero 1912 Gauthier 1914 1915 Daressy 1916 Petrie 1916 Read. 1916 Borchardt 1917 Ricci 1917 Breasted 1931 Gordon 1952 Helck 1956. Tcherezov 1960 Kaiser 1961 Cenival 1965 Giustolisi 1968 1969 Helck 1970. Helck 1974 Reeves 1979 Stewart 1979 O Mara 1979 1980 Barta 1981. Roccati 1982 Helck 1982 O Mara 1986a 1986b 1987 Clagett 1989 Spalinger. 1994 and O Mara 1996 4, A summary of these can be seen in a table Appendix 2 of Wilkinson s Royal Annals 256 57. Wilkinson Royal Annals 30 45 citing the following A Pellegrini Nota sopra un inscrizione egizia. del Museo de Palermo Archivio Storico Siciliano 20 1895 297 316 H Sch fer Ein Bruchst ck. alt gyptischer Annalen Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Berlin Berlin Verlag der. K nigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften 1902 E Naville La pierre de Palerme RecTrav Recueil de. travaux relatifs la philology et l arch ologie egyptiennes et assyriennes 25 64 81 K H Sethe. Beitrage zue ltesten Geschichte gyptens Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde gyptens. 3 Leipzig Hinrichs 1903 E Meyer gyptische Chronologie Berlin Verlag der K nigliche Akademie. der Wissenschaften 1904 J H Breasted The Palermo Stone Ancient Records of Egypt Vol 1 The. First to the Seventeenth Dynasties Chicago University of Chicago Press 1906 51 72 G Maspero Une. inscription gyptienne du Mus e de Palerme Etudes de Mythologie et d Arch ologie Egyptiennes Vol 6. Paris Ernest Leroux 1912 H Gauthier Quatre fragments nouveaux de la pierre de Palerme au Mus e. du Caire CRAIBL 1914 489 96 idem Quatre nouveaux fragments de la pierre de Palerme Le Muse. Egyptien Recueil de Monuments et de Notices sur les Fouilles d Dgypte Vol 3 Cairo IFAO 1915 29 53. and pls XXIV XXXI G Daressy La Pierre de Palerme et la chronologie de l Ancien Empire BIFAO. 12 1916 161 214 W M F Petrie New Portions of the Annals Ancient Egypt 1916 114 20 F W. Read Nouvelles Remarques sur la Pierre de Palerme BIFAO 12 1916 215 22 L Borchardt Die. Annalen und die zeitliche Festlegung des alten reiches der gyptischen Geschichte Quellen und. Forschungen zur Zeitbestimmung der gyptischen Geschichte 1 Berlin von Behrend 1917 S de Ricci. La Table de Palerme CRAIBL 1917 107 15 J H Breasted The Predynastic union of Egypt BIFAO. 30 1931 709 24 G Godron Quel est le lieu de provenance de la Pierre de Palerme Chronique. d Egypte 27 1952 17 22 W Helck Untersuchungen zu Manetho und den gyptischen K nigslisten. Untersuchungen zur Geschichte und Altertumskunde gyptens 18 Berlin Akademie Verlag 1956 E. V Tcherezov Drevnejsaja letopis Palermskij kamen i dokumenty drevnego zarstva Egipta Les annales. de la pierre de Palerme et les documents de l Ancien Empire Drevni Egipet 1960 261 72 W Kaiser. Einige Bemerkungen zur gyptischen Fr hzeit II Zur Frage einer ber Menes hinausreichenden. gyptischen Geschichts berlieferung Z S 86 1961 39 61 J L de Cenival Un nouveau fragment de la. pierre de Palerme Bulletin de las Soci t Fran aise d Egyptologie 44 1965 13 17 V Giustolisi. La Pietra di Palermo e la cronologia dell Antico Regno Sicilia Archaeologica 1 4 1968 5 14 ibid 2. 6 1969 21 38 W Helck Zwei Einzelprobleme der thinitische Chronologie MDAIK 26 1970 23 25. idem Bemerkungen zum Annalenstein MDAIK 30 1974 31 35 C N Reeves A Fragment of Fifth. Dynasty annals at University College London GM 32 1979 47 51 H M Stewart Egyptian stelae. reliefs and paintings from the Petrie Collection Part Two Archaic period to Second Intermediate period. Warminster Aris and Phillips 1979 P F O Mara The Palermo Stone and the Archaic kings of Egypt. The Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings M Christine Tetley 264. Furthermore Wilkinson writes In the century since their first publications PS. and its associated fragments have been the subject of many attempted reconstructions by. eminent Egyptologists Each has sought to unlock the many mysteries of early Egyptian. history using the annals as the key Yet the perfect reconstruction has eluded scholars. The task is so replete with problems and complications that even scholars from the same. tradition have produced very different results 5, Wilkinson provides a summary of the reconstruction of the annals from the above. authors naming Daressy 1916 Petrie 1916 Borchardt 1917 Ricci 1917 Helck. 1956 Kaiser 1961 Helck 1974 O Mara 1979 1980 and Barta 1981 6 He. writes It seems highly unlikely that a definitive or even plausible reconstruction of the. annals will ever be possible infuriating as that may be Nevertheless there are certain. elements of a reconstruction about which we may be relatively confident and these. afford us a limited amount of information 7,The Royal Annals Reconstructed. I have sought to follow Wilkinson s commentary on the Royal Annals which has. been extremely helpful in positioning many of the kings reigns together with his. observations from the works of earlier scholars My own reconstruction tries to reconcile. the sometimes differing reign lengths given in the Turin Canon and Royal Annals and to. make use of the most recent discoveries of regnal years found in excavations at places. such as Abydos Abusir and Dahshur which were not available to earlier scholars. Wilkinson offered a commentary on the existing fragments but did not propose. the number of years between fragments and the edges of the annals I have endeavored to. reconstruct the annals in a way that places the fragments recto and verso into their. original form aided primarily by the chronological framework implicit in the fragments. themselves and the other sources already referred to elsewhere in this book. I have assumed that the transcriptions of the Palermo Stone and Cairo 1 supplied. by Wilkinson have both been scaled to 50 of the original though this is not stated On. the verso of the Palermo Stone I have used Naville s earlier transcription also supplied. by Wilkinson because it has more text in the three lower registers Naville s copy is. slightly larger and I have reduced it to the same size as the one given by Wilkinson My. reconstructed Royal Annals measures just under one meter in length 98 7cm from edge. to edge of the written text and 36 cm deep The main pieces the Palermo Stone and. Cairo 1 fit roughly in the center of the reconstruction with a gap between their edges of. 10 15 cm the Palermo Stone is wider at the top The other fragments fit within the. reconstruction at appropriate places, La Canada Paulette Studies in the structural archaeology of ancient Egypt 1 1979 idem The. Chronology of the Palermo and Turin Canons La Canada Paulette Studies in the structural archaeology. of ancient Egypt 2 1980 W Barta Die Chronologie der 1 bis 5 Dynastie nach den Angaben des. rekonstruierten Annalensteins Z S 108 1981 11 23 A Rocatti La litt rature historique sous l Ancien. Empire gyptien Paris Cerf 1982 W Helck Palermostein L IV 1982 652 4 P F O Mara Is the. Cairo Stone a Fake An Example of Proof by Default DE 1986 33 40 idem Historiographies ancient. and modern of the Archaic period Part I Should we Re examine the Foundations A Revisionist. Approach DE 6 1986 33 45 idem Historiographies ancient and modern of the Archaic period Part. II Resolving the Palermo Stone as a Rational Structure DE 1987 37 49 M Clagett The early. Egyptian annals on stone generally called the Palermo Stone M Clagett Ancient Egyptian Science A. source book Volume 1 Knowledge and Order Philadelphia American Philosophical Society Memoirs. 184 1989 tome 1 47 141 A J Spalinger Dated Texts of the Old Kingdom SAK 21 1994 275 319. P F O Mara Was there an Old Kingdom Historiography Is it Datable Orientalia 65 1996 197 208. Wilkinson Royal Annals 45,Ibid 45 60,Chapter 18 Regarding the Royal Annals 265. The extent of my work has been to use the data provided from various sources to. reconstruct the chronology of the Royal Annals as I perceive it to have originally existed. The text of the missing areas is presumably lost forever unless a copy of the whole is. discovered, We now move on to the reconstruction of the first part of the recto of the Annals. The Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings M Christine Tetley 266.