Recommendations for Preparing Lesson Plans

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Grammar for English Language Teachers With exercises and a key by Martin Parrot CUP ISBN 9780521477970 A Practical English Grammar 4 th Edition by A J Thomson amp A V Martinet OUP ISBN 9780194313421 Simpler grammar book If you also need a simpler grammar book useful for setting student homework and for your own

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PART 1 PROCEDURE TO PREPARE A LESSON PLAN FROM A TOPIC. Back to top,INTRODUCTION, This resource will help you prepare lesson plans for your practice teaching component. This document will use the established approach in terms of lesson stages that we introduced. to you during the in class component You will be shown how to construct a lesson plan. starting with a topic in mind establish a communicative aim and context and only then to. establish a grammar or linguistic aim, Generally speaking we will provide you with enough direction to prepare a good lesson plan. and from your first lesson we will be providing ongoing feedback If for your first lesson you. are feeling really unconfident you can email us a draft lesson plan for commenting However. after you have read this document you will likely think this is unnecessary. The trick to gain confidence with your teaching is to plan well go over and over your lesson. plan and then teach your lesson This document is to help you plan well Also to jump start. you in the right direction in PART 4 we provide you with some starter lesson plans. We also ask you to resubmit your lesson plan s along with reflection and observation tasks. as part of your Cert IV units You should also provide lesson plans to your practice teaching. supervisor or the Director of Studies at the school centre or institute where you are doing. your practice teaching, PROCESS TO UNDERSTAND THE CONSTRUCTION OF A LESSON PLAN. The process outlined below helps you construct a lesson plan starting from a topic and is. focussed on designing a lesson with a communicative speaking emphasis. You will start by using a communicative aim as a primary aim and from a dialogue that you. devise establish a grammar linguistic aim There are various other ways to construct. lesson aims but you will see as you read through this document that using this approach. enables you to be very clear about the communication you want to see students demonstrate. at the end of the lesson Using the communicative aim as a primary aim provides you with a. method of discovering some useful grammar linguistic patterns that you can also teach. Following on from the steps below there is a sample completed lesson plan provided. Teach International 2010 2,LESSON PLANNING, STEP 1 Decide on your topic and start imagining a dialogue in that context. Imagine that you were given the lesson topic of festivals Whatever topic you have or. choose once you have decided on it you can start imagining a dialogue in that context It. may help to google the topic on the internet Imaging people talking about festivals in their. country That would be a common enough conversation wouldn t it. You might think of talking about Australian festivals but no don t do that because you ll be. doing all the talking, Okay so that is just some basic thinking on the topic for a likely common conversation that.
could be of interest for the students,STEP 2 Work out your communicative lesson aim. It is common to have two aims for one lesson The first aim should be communicative and. the second being a grammar linguistic aim, For the topic festivals here is a Communicative aim Students will be able to talk about. local festivals in Australia and in their own countries. Notice how this aim is somewhat specific It is more specific than Students will be able to talk. about events which would not be specific enough and your lesson would likely wander It is. less specific than Students will be able to talk about South American festivals which would. limit you being able to apply the communication to an area of student interest. This Communicative aim guides your ideas for the activities of your lesson will be reflected in. the dialogue you come up with and in the free practice activity at the end of the lesson. STEP 3 Work out a dialogue related to the communicative aim. From your Communicative aim you can come up with some kind of dialogue that represents. the communicative aim This involves you imagining what people in the real world would be. talking about in the situation For example you can imagine people talking about festivals. from different countries This fits with your communicative aim right Now type out what that. dialogue might look like It could look like this,A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival. B Yes they parade through downtown streets,A Do they wear any costumes. B Yes really colourful ones,A Is there any dancing.
B Yes they like to dance and play music, A Is there any special meaning behind the Carnival. B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture and there is also a religious reason to say farewell to. the pleasures of the flesh, We try and make this dialogue as natural as we can. Teach International 2010 3,STEP 4 Work out your Grammar linguistic aim. The second aim should cover dominant grammar linguistic pattern of the language To work. this out look at the dialogue for some dominant language patterns or structure Let s. underline where we can see some grammar linguistic patterns The two most common. dominant patterns are grammatical and functional There are more actually. 1 look for a grammar or functional phrases and decide on the most dominant. if you could not find a pattern,2 look for idiomatic expressions. if you still cannot find a pattern, 3 look for vocabulary usually in specialist contexts like banking.
if you still cannot find a pattern,4 look decide on a pronunciation pattern. Okay so lets look for a grammar pattern or functional phrases and decide on the most. Actually in this case we can see either would work Don t confuse functional phrases with. grammar though For your lesson decide on one whichever seems more dominant or useful. Grammatical focus Functional focus, A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival. B Yes they parade through downtown streets B Yes they parade through downtown streets. A Do they wear any costumes A What about costumes Do they wear any. B Yes really colourful ones B Yes really colourful ones. A Is there any dancing A How about dancing Do they dance. B Yes they like to dance and to play music B Yes they like to dance and to play music. A Is there any special meaning behind the A Is there any special meaning behind the. Carnival Carnival, B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture. and there is also a religious reason to say farewell and there is also as a religious reason to say. to the pleasures of the flesh farewell to,the pleasures of the flesh. Whatever we call the underlined text is what your grammar linguistic aim is. If you look for the pattern above in the index In the case above we have focussed more on. of your grammar reference book you will find what we call functional language rather than. like infinitives Now you can write your on any structured grammar This is why we. grammar aim as that or a slight variation such call it a Grammar linguistic aim sometimes. as like infinitives to there are clusters of phrases that clearly. dress dance march perform a function or functions within the. With functional phrases it is best to teach,clusters of phrases to students and what the.
phrases are doing Examples of functions,are Expressing preferences and. obligations Expressing feeling about a,situation Complaining and apologising with. questioning Describing other people and,professions Asking for and giving more. detailed personal information Describing,different professions Explaining habits. Describing past experiences For teach of,these functions you can imagine a few.
common phrases,If we thought we would like to teach the. functional underlined parts above we could,come up with a functionally focussed. Grammar linguistic aim such as Phrases,for asking for information do you know. Teach International 2010 4,what about how about is there. any It helps to put just a few examples,of what you mean inside brackets.
If when you look at your dialogue you cannot see any grammatical or functional patterns. then look for, Idiomatic expressions there may be a number of those then Idiomatic expressions. can be your Grammar linguistic aim, If you sill cannot find a pattern then look for vocabulary Some dialogues because of the. context will have a lot of new vocabulary So then underline those the Vocabulary. can be your Grammar linguistic aim, Idiomatic expressions or new vocabulary are just as legitimate as a grammar or functional. phrases The point is to find a pattern and write it as your grammar linguistic aim. If you still cannot find a pattern then you can always make an area of pronunciation the focus. of your Grammar linguistic aim For example see below PART 3 PRONUNCIATION WORK. A grammar linguistic aim could just as legitimately be Pronunciation Weak Forms or. Pronunciation consonant clusters or Pronunciation connected speech or. Pronunciation word stress or Pronunciation sentence stress or Pronunciation body. Look at your created dialogue to underline a pattern. 1 look for a grammar or functional phrases and decide on the most dominant. if you could not find a pattern,2 look for idiomatic expressions. if you still cannot find a pattern,3 look for vocabulary.
if you still cannot find a pattern,4 look decide on a pronunciation pattern. There are examples of these different types of aims below under. PART 4 Starter Lesson Plans, Let s revise In summary you have used the following order. STEP 1 Decide on your topic and start imagining a dialogue in that context. STEP 2 Work out your Communicative aim, STEP 3 Work out a dialogue related to the communicative aim. STEP 4 Work out your Grammar linguistic aim,Teach International 2010 5. STEP 5 Pre teaching vocabulary work, Consider what vocabulary the students may struggle with and pre teach it at the beginning of.
your Target Language stage, The vocabulary to focus on is that which could cause confusion for the students The idea is. to teach vocabulary before the point where you need to use it so the students can generally. make sense of the general script In fact before any activity at any part of your lesson check if. there is any vocabulary that will confuse and pre teach it After that begin the activity. Let s look at our dialogue and list some words that may need to be pre taught For example. Pre teach Carnival parade downtown streets costumes special meaning apparently celebrate their. culture religious reason pleasures of the flesh,A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival. B Yes they parade through downtown streets,A Do they wear any costumes. B Yes really colourful ones,A Is there any dancing. B Yes they like to dance and play music, A Is there any special meaning behind the Carnival.
B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture and there is also a religious reason to say farewell to. the pleasures of the flesh,Teach International 2010 6. STEP 6 Work out Form and Use Rule of the Target Language language you have. underlined, Oh dear yes Not only do you highlight some Target Language by underlining you do. actually need to understand it You can achieve this using grammar reference books and also. using the internet to find out about the grammar You might be confused at first but once you. think it through you will realise that you do intuitively understand it At the end of this process. you will decide on a minimal summary of what we call the FORM and USE to put on the board. during the Target Language stage of the Lesson Okay it does seem a bit unfair you might. spend even up to an hour working it out and then in the lesson cover it in a few minutes Form. is the way words are constructed and word order USE explains how and when we use it. Grammar Reference books always have headings then they list the FORM then they list. USES So as long as you can find the grammar point in your book you will find information on. the FORM and USE But there will be a lot of information on each In the case of Use there. are often a number of USES that are listed You don t teach it all just select a little of the. FORM to cover in your lesson and one of the USES, TIP Don t try and guess this or you will get it wrong and the students will know it Use. grammar books and the internet until you are clear. Here we show some form and meaning that you could select from your grammar book if you. are teaching a grammar point, If you chose a functional focus the grammar book will not help you In that case you drop your. phrases into substitution tables name the table and add similar examples Doing this serves. the same purpose to make clear the FORM word order and USE how and when we use. Grammatical focus Functional focus, A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival.
B Yes they parade through downtown streets B Yes they parade through downtown streets. A Do they wear any costumes A What about costumes Do they wear any. B Yes really colourful ones B Yes really colourful ones. A Is there any dancing A How about dancing Do they dance. B Yes they like to dance and to play music B Yes they like to dance and to play music. A Is there any special meaning behind the A Is there any special meaning behind the. Carnival Carnival, B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture. and there is also a religious reason to say farewell and there is also as a religious reason to say. to the pleasures of the flesh farewell to the pleasures of the flesh. Grammar linguistic aim Like infinitives Phrases for asking for information do. to dress dance march you know what about how about is there. FORM FORM AND MEANING,Like infinitive to dress dance march. To ask about knowledge,Do you know,Have you heard about. they like to dance,Have you ever seen anything about. is close to they like dancing,To ask for more detail.
the difference is,What about costumes, to dance has more focus on the thing being done How about. in a specific context In this case the specific, context is the Brazilian Carnival To ask if something exists. Is there any, like dancing expresses more the enjoyment so Is there a. is better for talking more generally about your,personal likes. NOTE During the Target Language stage of your NOTE During the Target Language stage of your. lesson this will go on the board and you can refer lesson this will go on the board and you can refer. to it not in great depth but enough to clarify the to it not in great depth but enough to clarify the. FORM and USE of the underlined target language FORM and USE of the underlined target language. Teach International 2010 7, Don t get too carried away Don t include all the Don t get too carried away Don t include all the.
detail you will find Just try and simplify your point detail you will find Just try and simplify your point. as succinctly as possible Expect that students as succinctly as possible Expect that students. already know this and you are just revising already know this and you are just revising. because students usually have an in depth because students usually have an in depth. understanding of grammar more than the understanding of grammar more than the. teacher Your role is just to show the link where teacher Your role is just to show the link where. this target language is used in a context of this target language is used in a context of. communication communication, STEP 7 Decide on some concept checking questions CCQs for the Target Language. General CCQs for the context and Specific CCQs for the underlined target language. Now you have the text on the board you need to ask some concept checking questions. CCQs to help with understanding We are going to go from general to specific like a funnel. General CCQs for the context, These are general questions to check the students understand the general situation dialogue. Naturally they need to understand this first before focussing on the specific meaning of any. underlined target language,Here is our sample dialogue again. A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival,B Yes they parade through downtown streets. A Do they wear any costumes,B Yes really colourful ones.
A Is there any dancing,B Yes they like to dance and play music. A Is there any special meaning behind the Carnival. B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture and there is also a religious reason to say farewell to. the pleasures of the flesh, Here are some example General CCQs for the context. What is a carnival, Here is a picture of a Brazilian Carnival What can you see in it. The meaning behind this carnival is in the last line What does celebrate mean. The meaning behind this carnival is in the last line What does farewell to the pleasures of. the flesh mean,Teach International 2010 8,Specific CCQs for the underlined target language. These will be possible because of the prior work you have done to establish the USE. Let s work some Specific CCQs out for the grammatical and functional options so you can. see the difference,Grammatical focus Functional focus.
A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival. B Yes they parade through downtown streets B Yes they parade through downtown streets. A Do they wear any costumes A What about costumes Do they wear any. B Yes really colourful ones B Yes really colourful ones. A Is there any dancing A How about dancing Do they dance. B Yes they like to dance and to play music B Yes they like to dance and to play music. A Is there any special meaning behind the A Is there any special meaning behind the. Carnival Carnival, B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture. and there is also a religious reason to say farewell and there is also as a religious reason to say. to the pleasures of the flesh farewell to the pleasures of the flesh. FORM FORM AND MEANING,Like infinitive to dress dance march. To ask about knowledge,MEANING Do you know,they like to dance Have you heard about. is close to they like dancing Have you ever seen anything about. the difference is To ask for more detail,What about costumes. to dance has more focus on the thing being done How about. in a specific context In this case the specific, context is the Brazilian Carnival To ask if something exists.
Is there any, like dancing expresses more the enjoyment so Is there a. is better for talking more generally about your,personal likes. Specific CCQs Specific CCQs, What do you think the difference between If you want to ask me if I know something. like to dance and like dancing is about a carnival of festival in your country. what would you say, One of them expresses more enjoyment Expected answer. Which one Do you know,Have you heard about,Have you ever seen anything about.
TIP At this point students may raise all sorts, of odd questions Some of them you will Ask me if I know more about that. know because the research you did when Expected answer. working out the grammar and you can What about costumes. answer the question If a student asks you a How about. tricky grammar question you have two,choices Ask me if something exists. Expected answer, a ask them to give you an example in a Is there any. sentence then write that sentence on the Is there a. board under the correct sentence from your, dialogue E g TIP At this point students may ask about. other phrases You can decide if they fit in, 1 they like to dance the substitution boxes or not.
2 they like dance to,If the suggested phrases do not fit in the. Then ask the student to tell you why 2 is not boxes you have two choices. correct Often someone in the class can and, if not it becomes apparent to you and you can a ask them to give you an example in a. answer In this case the answer is that in sentence then write that sentence on the. English we have a verb structure called the board E g. infinitive where to goes before the verb,Teach International 2010 9. Can you tell me about,If you cannot answer it,Then ask the student to tell you why this does. b write it on the left side of the board Tell not fit in the boxes you already have Often. the student you will check for a proper someone in the class can and if not it. answer because you want to tell them becomes apparent to you and you can. properly and there is not time right now in the answer In this case the answer is that Can. lesson Tell them in your next lesson Ask is more often used as a request when you. some other teachers for the answer and tell think the person has the ability or knowledge. them next time you see them to give it to you You might even add a new. substitution table on the board E g,To ask about knowledge where you are sure the.
person knows,Can you tell me about,What happens in. If you cannot answer it go to,b Same is left column. Another alternative which can help a lot in clarifying meaning is to eliciting words and phrases. into a prewritten dialogue with gaps This can be a little tricky because you will need to deal. with students alternative ideas at the same time Don t try this for your first lesson but by all. means try it for later lessons, The idea here is to encourage the students as much as possible to give you what language. they already know,For example,A Do you know Brazilian Carnival. B Yes they through,A any costumes,B Yes really ones.
A Is there any,B Yes they like to and,A any special meaning the. B Apparently they like to their culture and there is also a religious reason to say. farewell to the pleasures of the flesh, You should still put something on the FORM and USE on the board in the same way as. above and ask General CCQs for the context and Specific CCQs for the underlined target. Teach International 2010 10, STEP 8 Think of media to create context pictures etc. You can also add meaning and context by using media In this case you might be able to. download some audio of the carnivals or at least pictures Once you have some media. related to the topic it can be used at any point in the lesson. STEP 9 Decide what pronunciation drilling work to do on the Target Language. You should also drill the students in the pronunciation There can be some variation from the. steps we showed you on the in class component course. Level Pronunciation drilling method,Beginners Elementary Drill the whole dialogue. Pre intermediate Drill the whole dialogue,Intermediate.
Rather than the whole text select a number,of clauses or phrases to concentrate drilling. on how the words join together when said in,a natural rhythm. Upper Intermediate, How to drill Be a conductor The purpose of drilling students is to get them to follow along. with the sentence stress rhythm Have you ever seen a conductor jabbing the air for each. note No they are waving their wand with the beat and rhythm Likewise you should not. point at each individual word, If you are right handed wave your hand like a conductor when you model saying the. sentence and in just the same way while students are repeating Remember Choral. Individual drilling It is also like a funnel, It also helps a lot to add stress markers to your dialogue.
To work these out say the dialogue out to yourself a number of times naturally and as you. do you will start to hear the musical nature of what you are saying the rhythm Just put. some dots on your lesson plan and on the dialogue on the board This will help you and the. students to stick to the rhythm as you also conduct with your hand. Another thing that can go wrong with drilling is that the students start at different times. Again you need to conduct them on cue to start at a sentence at the same time Try using. your other hand to signal a sentence cue in Maybe you will do it naturally with your. eyebrows Maybe you will naturally start saying the words when you are gesturing them to. Teach International 2010 11,Practice drilling in front of a mirror. Finish drilling off with a pair s practice of the dialogue. STEP 10 Design a practice activity or activities controlled. Take the dialogues text and turn it into either,a a gap fill activity using a handout. b a jigsaw with a student A and student B sheet completed by back to back talking. c Cut up the dialogue into strips so pairs have one speaker each then ask them to match up. the dialogue by reading them out number the first two lines to get them going. d Cut up the dialogue and distribute Get the class to make up the dialogue with the. teachers guidance, e A running dictation where the dialogue or the A or B part is on a wall at the back of the. STEP 11 Practice activity semi controlled free, Now you might think of another activity where the students can use the language in a freer. way So far you have controlled the language the students have been using and for those you. had pre designed the dialogue, This semi controlled free activity should match the communicative aim In our example the.
communicative aim is Students will be able to talk about local festivals in Australia and. in their own countries, For semi controlled free activities you can design some prompt or role play cards that will. enable the students to do exactly what the communicative aim says Don t worry about. thinking about the Grammar linguistic aim because it will naturally flow out of the. conversation, For our example you could have some cards with some more pictures of festivals with some. facts about the festival on the other side of the picture While an A student can see the picture. and ask questions about it the B student can answer by constructing sentences from the. facts on their side of the card In this case you need to think of how the activity would work. There will need to be a rule that the students have to face each other for the activity Note any. rules in your lesson plan, You would demonstrate it with you being A and B or with you as A and a confident student as. B Once you have demonstrated it set them up to practice in pairs You should still have the. target language on the board and remember you are hoping they will use some of the. underlined text in this activity So while you are demonstrating keep an eye on the target. language and even point when you happen to use some of the target language The students. will do the same during the activity and you will likely be very pleased with the result The. result is seeing your aims realised Your students using the new language in a real world. Once you set the activity in motion you can facilitate by going around helping them by echo. correction if they make grammatical or pronunciation errors An alternative is to go around. writing down some errors you hear Then for the take up write them on the board working. with the students to correct the errors,Teach International 2010 12. STEP 12 Possible extended reading or writing activity. NOTE If you are teaching a one hour lesson do not do this because you won t have time. Only do this if you are taking a class for two or more hours. You might build in extended reading and writing activities to your lessons. For this lesson you could have a reading activity from a magazine on festivals or perhaps an. online article that you can copy and paste into a Word document with your exercise. questions added For writing you could get students to write an email home to describe a. festival or other event they have experienced These are just an example of ideas you come. up with your own,STEP 13 Warmer, Now think of a warmer for starting the lesson In this example we are looking at festivals so.
maybe you could ask for volunteers to talk about festivals in their countries Because you will. have done some research you would know the names of a few Another idea could be to play. some music from festivals or carnivals and ask them to guess where the music is from. STEP 14 Review and Homework, Review If you taught the class before you could add a review into your lesson Otherwise. see part 3 of this document there are specific examples of how to include some pronunciation. work in addition to drilling Page 29 32, If you are going to teach them again you could add a homework section But if it is an extra. class it may be too much to expect them to do homework in that case set some really easy. homework such as to have a similar conversation with someone during the week. STEP 15 Write up your lesson plan and prepare any materials. Now that you have your lesson plan stages Warmer Review Target Language Activities. Homework you should write up your lesson plan Also you should prepare any resources. pictures or cards for example or dialogue that you will use for your lesson. Let s just revise the steps, STEP 1 Decide on your topic and start imagining a dialogue in that context. STEP 2 Work out your Communicative aim, STEP 3 Work out a dialogue related to the communicative aim. STEP 4 Work out your Grammar linguistic aim, STEP 5 Select a block of text for the Target Language stage of the lesson.
STEP 6 Elicit the target language possibly to a substitution table for the Target Language. STEP 7 Decide on some concept checking questions CCQs for the Target Language. General CCQs for the context and Specific CCQs for the underlined target language. STEP 8 Think of media to create context pictures etc. STEP 9 Decide what pronunciation drilling work to do on the Target Language. STEP 10 Design a practice activity or activities controlled. STEP 11 Practice activity semi controlled free, STEP 12 Possible extended reading or writing activity. STEP 13 Warmer,STEP 14 Review and Homework, STEP 15 Write up your lesson plan and prepare any materials. Teach International 2010 13,SAMPLE COMPLETED LESSON PLAN. This sample lesson plan is expanded from the one on page 357 in your TESOL course. manual This is because we are asking you to take into account a number of additional. issues The aims section has been added so that you are asked to have a communicative as. well as a grammar linguistic aim the activity stages have been split to define controlled and. semi controlled activities a pre teaching vocabulary section has been added optional reading. and writing sections have been added with notes on when to include them. NOTE Remember also that if you are teaching children the stages are broken up differently. as per page 358 of your TESOL course manual,Lesson Plan. Teacher Date Level Pre intermediate,Time Room Age Teens Young.
Adults Adults,Topic Theme Festivals,Communicative aim. Students will be able to talk about local carnivals and festivals in Australia and in their own. Linguistic Grammar aim,Like infinitives to dress dance march. Stages Activities and notes Resources, Warmer Play some music from carnivals and ask them to guess where the recorded. 5 minutes music is from music, Review From something you have taught them before or some. pronunciations, Pre teach vocab Carnival parade downtown streets costumes Matching.
special meaning apparently celebrate their culture religious reason meaning. pleasures of the flesh with word,Target Carnivals pictures on whiteboard. Drill work Dialogue to board add sentence stress dots now or just before. drilling 3 sets of,15 minutes pictures,General CCQs. What is a carnival, Here is a picture of a Brazilian Carnival What can you see in it. The meaning behind this carnival is in the last line What does celebrate mean. The meaning behind this carnival is in the last line What does farewell to the. pleasures of the flesh mean,Teach International 2010 14. CCQs specific,Can we say they like dance,Expected answer NO.
Can we say they like to dance,Expected answer YES,Can we say they like dancing. Expected answer YES actually,Can anyone tell me the difference between. they like to dance and they like dancing in this dialogue. Expected answer maybe someone,answers correctly, Explain the difference by reading out the difference as written. under USE below,USE rule to the board,they like to dance. is close to they like dancing,the difference is, to dance has more focus on the thing being done in a specific.
context In this case the specific context is the Brazilian Carnival. like dancing expresses more the enjoyment so is better for talking. more generally about your personal likes,FORM to the board. Like infinitive to dress dance march,Drill Model Choral individual. Drill part of the target language just a part for pre intermediate. level Choral individual drilling,A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival. B Yes they parade through downtown streets,A Do they wear any costumes. B Yes And they like to dance and play music,Pairs practice.
Activities A Do you know about the Brazilian Carnival Two sets of. B Yes they parade through downtown streets,Controlled A Do they wear any costumes. 10 minutes B Yes really colourful ones cards,A Is there any dancing Question. B Yes they like to dance and play music and Answer. A Is there any special meaning behind the Carnival. B Apparently they like to celebrate their culture and there is also a religious reason. to say farewell to different,the pleasures of the flesh carnivals. Check answers correct in pairs then as class, Pre teach Centrepiece formal dress flashy betting sweep stakes attendance Matching.

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