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Quality Assurance in Teacher Education in Europe 6 Chapter 5 Accreditation and Evaluation of In Service Teacher Education 51 5 1 Types of provider and existence of regulations 51 5 2 Main procedures 54 5 3 External bodies undertaking accreditation and or evaluation 56 5 4 Scope 59 5 5 Frequency 61 5 6 Use made of findings 62
Quality Assurance,in Teacher Education in Europe,The information network on education in Europe. This document is published by the Eurydice European Unit with the financial support of the. European Commission Directorate General for Education and Culture. Available in English Quality Assurance in Teacher Education in Europe and French L assurance. qualit de la formation des enseignants en Europe,ISBN 92 894 8627 9. This document is also available on the Internet http www eurydice org. Text completed in March 2006,Eurydice 2006, The contents of this publication may be reproduced in part except for commercial purposes. provided that the extract is preceded by a complete reference to Eurydice the information. network on education in Europe followed by the date of publication of the document. Requests for permission to reproduce the entire document must be made to the European Unit. Cover photograph Images com Corbis Rob Day Brussels Belgium. European Unit,Avenue Louise 240,B 1050 Brussels,Tel 32 2 600 53 53. Fax 32 2 600 53 63,E mail info eurydice org,Internet http www eurydice org. Printed in Belgium, A number of recent initiatives reflect that quality control in education is an important issue on the. political agenda of the European Commission as well as in many European countries. Within the Lisbon process enhancing the quality and effectiveness of education and training systems in. Europe is one of the three main goals to be achieved in the period up to 2010 In this context the. European Commission has set up an expert group on Improving the Education of Teachers and Trainers. In the spring of 2004 a sub group of this expert group in cooperation with the Standing Group on. Indicators and Benchmarks also established by the European Commission under the same framework. addressed the question of developing suitable indicators for measuring improvement in the education of. teachers and in particular their continuing professional development The group has identified the. development of systems for the evaluation and accreditation of the initial and in service education of. teachers as one of the priorities involved in improving teacher education. Concern for quality assurance in teacher education is closely linked to the broader context of the. development of higher education and the follow up of the Bologna Process The European Association. for Quality Assurance in Higher Education ENQA http www enqa net established standards and. guidelines for quality assurance in higher education in Europe which were adopted at the Conference of. Ministers responsible for Higher Education in Bergen in May 2005 ENQA points out that Institutions. should have a policy and associated procedures for the assurance of the quality and standards of their. programmes and awards They should also commit themselves explicitly to the development of a culture. which recognises the importance of quality and quality assurance in their work. In light of the Lisbon and Bologna processes the European Commission asked Eurydice in the autumn of. 2004 to carry out a study on regulations for the evaluation of teacher education in European countries. This survey analyses processes for evaluating and accrediting initial and in service teacher education. programmes and institutions It provides a general overview of the existence of regulations on external. and internal evaluation in different countries as well as specific information on the main features of these. processes and the use made of their findings A review of the main debates and reforms concerning this. issue is also included,Quality Assurance in Teacher Education in Europe. In order to measure improvements in teacher education the creation of quality control measures is. doubtless an important step however there is a risk of bureaucratic overregulation and in many. European countries these quality control measures are relatively new so their actual effectiveness and. impact in maintaining and improving the quality of provision still remains unclear This situation calls for. additional commitment and efforts on behalf of all players in the coming years. The Eurydice European Unit is very grateful to all National Units in the Network for providing relevant. information within a very short time We hope that this comparative analysis will allow greater insight. into the organisation of quality assurance measures for teacher education and pave the way to further. investigations,Patricia Wastiau Schl ter,Head of the Eurydice European Unit. March 2006,Contents 5,Introduction 7, Chapter 1 The Organisation of Evaluation Processes. for Initial Teacher Education,1 1 General and specific official regulations 10. 1 2 External and internal components of the evaluation process 11. Chapter 2 External Evaluation of Initial Teacher Education 15. 2 1 Responsible bodies and qualifications required of evaluators 15. 2 2 Official documents establishing criteria 18,2 3 Scope 20. 2 4 Procedures and mechanisms 22,2 5 Frequency 24, Chapter 3 Internal Evaluation of Initial Teacher Education 27. 3 1 Bodies responsible for coordination 27,3 2 Participants 30. 3 3 Official documents establishing evaluation criteria 33. 3 4 Scope 35,3 5 Procedures and mechanisms 38,3 6 Frequency 40. Chapter 4 Use made of Evaluation Findings 43,4 1 Possible consequences of evaluation 43. 4 2 Publication and availability of findings 47, 4 3 Monitoring by means of indicators and national reports 49. Quality Assurance in Teacher Education in Europe, Chapter 5 Accreditation and Evaluation of In Service Teacher 51. 5 1 Types of provider and existence of regulations 51. 5 2 Main procedures 54, 5 3 External bodies undertaking accreditation and or evaluation 56. 5 4 Scope 59,5 5 Frequency 61,5 6 Use made of findings 62. Chapter 6 Reforms and Debate 65, 6 1 Re defining the aims and content of teacher education and 65. changing evaluation procedures accordingly,6 2 Debate on evaluation procedures 66. Main results 67,Glossary 71,Table of Figures 87,Acknowledgements 89. INTRODUCTION, This study is concerned with processes for evaluating and accrediting institutions and programmes for. initial and in service teacher education The evaluations concerned result in reports or recommendations. drawn up for each institution or programme evaluated Evaluations of the education system as a whole. that lead solely to general reports on the state of that system are not a central aspect of the study. Only types of evaluation focusing on the quality of provision of teacher education are taken into. account These may be related to aspects such as the content and organisation of teacher education the. qualification profiles of teacher educators how students are assessed or their achievements Financial. audits and safety security or environmental controls are not taken into account. The education of teachers in primary and general secondary education ISCED levels 1 3 see glossary. who will be employed in the public and grant aided private sectors of education has been covered The. education and training of teachers for vocational education is not included. The reference year for data is 2005 06 Recent and forthcoming reforms are also considered. In all cases the information shown in the Figures relates to official regulations or recommendations. Where countries have no regulations governing a particular aspect of the evaluation of institutions or. programmes for teacher education or indeed the process as a whole information on current practices. has whenever available been included in the text or in a note. Methodology and definitions, The questionnaire prepared by the Eurydice European Unit for gathering the necessary information is. available on the Eurydice website see www eurydice org The questionnaire was devised for gathering. similar and readily comparable information from all countries but also included spaces for describing. special national characteristics The present comparative study carried out with reference to the replies. obtained from these questionnaires has been commented on and checked by the 30 Eurydice Network. member countries 1 Some information of specifically national relevance has been included for. illustrative purposes, Information gathering was concerned with official regulations or recommendations relating to the. evaluation and or accreditation of institutions programmes for initial and in service teacher education as. well as to ongoing non regulated practices and debates and reforms in this same area. For the purposes of this study evaluation and accreditation have been defined as follows. Evaluation is a general process of systematic and critical analysis leading to judgments and or. recommendations for improvement regarding the quality of a teacher education institution or. Accreditation is a process by which an institution or a programme is judged by the relevant legislative. and professional authorities as having met predetermined standards in order to provide teacher. education or training and to award the corresponding qualifications where they exist The accreditation. procedure presupposes that the programmes or institutions to be accredited are evaluated. 1 Turkey which has been a member of the Eurydice Network since 2004 did not take part in this study. Quality Assurance in Teacher Education in Europe,Structure and content. The first four chapters are concerned with the evaluation and or the accreditation of institutions and. programmes for initial teacher education, More specifically Chapter 1 provides a general overview of the existence of regulations on external and. internal evaluation in the countries covered It also indicates whether these regulations are specific to. teacher education or generally applicable to all higher education institutions. Chapters 2 and 3 deal respectively with the main features of external and internal evaluation They. describe the various players involved as well as their qualifications the documents which have to be. used in identifying criteria the focus and procedures of evaluation and its frequency. Chapter 4 discusses use of the findings from external and internal evaluation It highlights the possible. consequences of evaluation for institutions or programmes as well as the circulation of its findings within. them or among the general public and in national reports on the state of initial teacher education or. higher education, Chapter 5 considers the evaluation and accreditation of institutions or programmes for in service. teacher education It examines whether regulations govern the evaluation or accreditation of the. various types of in service education providers in each country It then describes the bodies responsible. for this kind of evaluation and accreditation the procedures applied their focus frequency and the use. made of their findings, A review of the main debates and reforms concerning the evaluation of teacher education is provided in. Finally the main issues and results of the study are summarised. A glossary and an annex describing the various types of internal and external evaluation of initial. teacher education by country is included at the end of the study. CHAPTER 1 THE ORGANISATION OF EVALUATION PROCESSES FOR INITIAL. TEACHER EDUCATION, Out of the 30 countries considered in this report all except Luxembourg have a regulated system for. evaluating initial teacher education However the extent to which such evaluation procedures are. regulated may differ from one country to the next Evaluation may also occur without following any. officially binding regulations If information is available on current quality assurance practices it is. provided in the appropriate sections of this report. Normally initial teacher education for all three educational levels considered here ISCED 1 3 is. evaluated except in three countries The German speaking Community of Belgium provides initial. teacher education solely for primary education while in Cyprus only institutions training teachers for. primary level and some teachers of English at secondary level are evaluated In general teacher. education for secondary level is provided at universities for which there is currently no regulated system. of evaluation In contrast in Austria regulations on evaluation only exist for universities training teachers. for secondary level, Some countries evaluate their entire system of teacher education The purpose of a broader approach of. this kind is not to focus primarily on individual institutions but rather to monitor the whole system of. initial teacher education It may provide either a basis for reform or an evaluation of newly implemented. reforms as shown in the examples below As such procedures do not occur in all countries these. evaluations are not considered in detail in the present analysis. In Denmark in October 2003 the Danish Institute of Evaluation EVA published an evaluation of initial teacher. education programmes for compulsory education folkeskole The entire system including all 18 teacher. education colleges was evaluated based on the internal evaluation reports from all institutions The purpose of. the evaluation was to assess the programme in general and no individual recommendations were made. Although EVA conducted the evaluation on the basis of internal evaluation reports the latter were anonymised. in the final report in order to focus on the programme in general and not on the specific teacher training. In Malta the implementation of the teacher education programmes revised in 1999 is being evaluated in. In Sweden initial teacher education at all 25 institutions and the teacher education reform from 2001 in. particular were evaluated in 2004 and the results were reported back to the government in spring 2005 This. was part of the reform and is also a regular part of the evaluation system for all higher education. In the United Kingdom Wales a review of the provision of initial teacher education on behalf of the Welsh. Assembly Government has been underway since 2005 The aim of the review is to advise on how it may more. effectively meet the current and likely future needs of maintained schools in Wales in the context of the Welsh. Assembly Government s developing policies and aims The overall objective is to see how initial teacher. education provision could meet demands more appropriately and encourage under represented groups to. teach in future,Quality Assurance in Teacher Education in Europe. In the United Kingdom Scotland the Inspectorate of Education is also authorised to inspect initial teacher. education through a process known as Aspect Review This looks at how a certain aspect of initial teacher. education is being dealt with across the whole of the system rather than just within a specific institution. Following an Aspect Review comments may be made about individual institutions as well as at system level. Between 2004 and 2006 in Norway all general teacher education programmes will be evaluated as part of one. large project A similar though smaller project was carried out in 2001 when all types of teacher education. were evaluated with only a small sample of institutions taking part. 1 1 General and specific official regulations, In 24 countries or regions only general regulations for the evaluation of all higher education apply to the. evaluation of teacher education Figure 1 1 Apart from the legislative framework for the evaluation or. accreditation of higher education no specific evaluation systems are geared to teacher education The. extent to which these general regulations may take particular components into consideration and. examine the quality of specific content in greater detail largely depends on the documents from which. evaluation criteria are derived see Chapters 2 and 3 for further information In six countries evaluation of. teacher education is governed by both general and specific regulations In most cases specific. regulations apply to a particular stage of initial teacher education This may be the professional training. phase or a particular part of it in the consecutive model or the induction phase. In Germany specific regulations apply solely to the evaluation of the final on the job qualifying induction. phase which is organised by the teacher training institutes Studienseminare The situation is similar in France. where besides general regulations specific regulations apply to the evaluation of training provided by the. university institutes for teacher education Institut universitaire de formation des ma tres IUFMs In Ireland the. provision of final teaching practice is evaluated separately. In Poland teacher education provided by universities is evaluated in accordance with general regulations for. quality control in higher education whereas specific regulations apply in the case of teacher training colleges. In the United Kingdom there are arrangements for the review of all higher education institutions by the Quality. Assurance Agency QAA In England Wales and Northern Ireland there are separate arrangements established. by law for the school inspectorates to evaluate programmes of initial teacher education The situation is similar. in Scotland These specific arrangements cover programmes leading to teacher qualifications Both. undergraduate concurrent model and postgraduate consecutive model programmes are covered by these. specific arrangements but general education programmes leading to a bachelor s degree as required for entry. to a postgraduate programme are not These arrangements also cover employment based routes and in. England only programmes offered by school centred training consortia. Chapter 1 The Organisation of Evaluation Processes for Initial Teacher Education. Figure 1 1 Regulations for the evaluation of, initial teacher education for general education ISCED 1 3 2005 06. General regulations,Specific regulations,General and specific regulations. Initial teacher education abroad,No regulations,Source Eurydice. Additional notes, Belgium BE de The figure relates solely to the evaluation of institutions providing initial teacher education for. primary education Initial teacher training for general secondary education is provided outside the Community Most. teachers are trained in the French Community of Belgium. Greece A law on quality assurance in higher education was issued in August 2005. Cyprus The figure relates solely to the evaluation of colleges providing initial teacher education for primary. Luxembourg For secondary education the general component of teacher education has to be undertaken abroad. A quality assurance agency is planned but not yet operational. Austria The figure only refers to initial teacher education provided by universities The future law on the new. P dagogische Hochschulen also foresees evaluation for teacher education institutions. Explanatory note, General regulations apply to the evaluation of all higher education including initial teacher education. Specific regulations apply to the evaluation of initial teacher education programmes or institutions. 1 2 External and internal components of the evaluation process. An evaluation process may consist of external evaluation in which bodies or persons outside the. institution or programme concerned evaluate the provision Chapter 2 and internal or self evaluation. which is normally carried out by the provider itself Chapter 3. As will be explained in these chapters external and internal evaluations are often very closely. interrelated one type of evaluation might rely on the results of the other or each might draw on the. other s findings In some countries evaluation may be regarded as a single process consisting of one. stage completed by persons inside an institution and another stage carried out externally. In several countries regulations provide for more than one evaluation procedure including external. and or internal evaluation There are various reasons for this different components or stages of education. Quality Assurance in Teacher Education in Europe, are evaluated separately as in Germany and Ireland several bodies conduct evaluation independently. France organisational aspects of the institution and its programme content are evaluated separately. the Czech Republic Latvia Slovakia and Iceland initial teacher education and higher education. institutions are generally evaluated separately United Kingdom or evaluation procedures depend on. the kinds of institution offering initial teacher education Poland or on the educational level at which it is. provided Romania 1, Chapters 2 and 3 which deal with external and internal evaluation respectively take such differences into. account where necessary for more country specific details please refer to the Annex. External evaluation is compulsory in most countries and is recommended in Germany Spain and France. In Germany the presidents of universities or colleges of education may recommend an external evaluation if. their assessment of internal evaluation results convinces them of the necessity to do so. The ANECA National Agency for Quality Evaluation and Accreditation in Spain does not require higher. education institutions to undertake evaluation but allows them to apply voluntarily for external evaluation. following official calls for expressions of interest A 2004 Royal Decree establishes that universities must accredit. the proper development of all teaching corresponding to syllabuses being recognised and implemented from. the actual date on which this decree came into force In any case before October 2010 universities will have to. undergo an accreditation process, External evaluation is optional in Austrian universities which provide teacher education for academic. secondary schools The situation is similar in Denmark In Italy and Malta there is no reference to external. evaluation in official regulations However a committee at the Italian ministry analyses quantitative data. on the infrastructure and staffing of each programme and financial support is withheld if the figures fall. below prescribed levels, The situation is quite similar in the case of internal evaluation which is compulsory in the majority of. countries and recommended in Spain France Cyprus and Slovenia. In Spain internal evaluation is regulated by each institution s self evaluation plans as well as by the aims. activities and programmes currently developed and promoted by the ANECA. In France internal evaluation is recommended prior to external evaluations for contractual purposes. Universities in Slovenia strongly advise their member faculties to carry out internal evaluation The Rules on. Financing Higher Education Institutions 2003 stipulate that higher education institutions that have not. produced an evaluation report are not entitled to full payment for their services. 1 In Romania initial teacher education for primary school teachers may also be provided at upper secondary level. However the present report is limited to the evaluation of teacher education at tertiary level. Chapter 1 The Organisation of Evaluation Processes for Initial Teacher Education. Figure 1 2 Status of external and internal evaluation of. initial teacher education for general education ISCED 1 3 2005 06. External evaluation Internal evaluation,Initial teacher. Compulsory Recommended Optional No regulations,education abroad. Source Eurydice,Additional notes, Belgium BE de The figure relates solely to the evaluation of institutions providing initial teacher education for. primary education Initial teacher training for general secondary education is provided outside the Community Most. teachers are trained in the French Community of Belgium. Denmark For internal evaluation the information shown relates to universities only. Greece The information relates to the law on quality assurance in higher education issued in August 2005. Cyprus The information relates solely to the external evaluation of colleges providing initial teacher education for. primary education There is no external evaluation system for the university However in 2001 the university. requested the European University Association to organise an institutional quality review which was repeated in 2004. Luxembourg For secondary education the general component of teacher education has to be undertaken abroad. Austria The figure only refers to initial teacher education provided by universities The future law on the new. P dagogische Hochschulen also foresees external and internal evaluation for teacher education institutions However. several of them have carried out internal evaluations in recent years and have also been evaluated externally. United Kingdom There is no explicit directive to undertake internal evaluation for higher education institutions. They are autonomous and each has its own internal procedures for attaining appropriate standards and assuring the. quality of its provision All providers of initial teacher education must systematically monitor and evaluate all aspects.