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Appendix F Satellite Transponders 363 Appendix G Bessel Coefficients for FM Modulation 369 Appendix H satellite SPUTNIK I on October 4 1957 the science of satellites and satellite communications has undergone an amazing evolution Today satellites play an essential role in global communications including telephony data networking video transporting and distribution as
Order no 86311 F0,First Edition,Revision level 05 2016. By the staff of Festo Didactic,Festo Didactic Lt e Ltd Quebec Canada 2014. Internet www festo didactic com,e mail did de festo com. Printed in Canada,All rights reserved,ISBN 978 2 89640 417 9 Printed version. ISBN 978 2 89747 109 5 CD ROM, Legal Deposit Biblioth que et Archives nationales du Qu bec 2014. Legal Deposit Library and Archives Canada 2014, The purchaser shall receive a single right of use which is non exclusive non time limited and limited. geographically to use at the purchaser s site location as follows. The purchaser shall be entitled to use the work to train his her staff at the purchaser s site location and. shall also be entitled to use parts of the copyright material as the basis for the production of his her own. training documentation for the training of his her staff at the purchaser s site location with. acknowledgement of source and to make copies for this purpose In the case of schools technical. colleges training centers and universities the right of use shall also include use by school and college. students and trainees at the purchaser s site location for teaching purposes. The right of use shall in all cases exclude the right to publish the copyright material or to make this. available for use on intranet Internet and LMS platforms and databases such as Moodle which allow. access by a wide variety of users including those outside of the purchaser s site location. Entitlement to other rights relating to reproductions copies adaptations translations microfilming and. transfer to and storage and processing in electronic systems no matter whether in whole or in part shall. require the prior consent of Festo Didactic GmbH Co KG. Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on. the part of Festo Didactic The Festo materials described in this document are furnished under a license. agreement or a nondisclosure agreement, Festo Didactic recognizes product names as trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners Other trademarks and trade names may. be used in this document to refer to either the entity claiming the marks and names or their products. Festo Didactic disclaims any proprietary interest in trademarks and trade names other than its own. Safety and Common Symbols, The following safety and common symbols may be used in this manual and on. the equipment,Symbol Description, DANGER indicates a hazard with a high level of risk which if not. avoided will result in death or serious injury, WARNING indicates a hazard with a medium level of risk which. if not avoided could result in death or serious injury. CAUTION indicates a hazard with a low level of risk which if not. avoided could result in minor or moderate injury, CAUTION used without the Caution risk of danger sign. indicates a hazard with a potentially hazardous situation which. if not avoided may result in property damage,Caution risk of electric shock. Caution hot surface,Caution risk of danger,Caution lifting hazard. Caution hand entanglement hazard,Notice non ionizing radiation. Direct current,Alternating current,Both direct and alternating current. Three phase alternating current,Earth ground terminal. Festo Didactic 86311 10 III,Safety and Common Symbols. Symbol Description,Protective conductor terminal,Frame or chassis terminal. Equipotentiality,Off supply, Equipment protected throughout by double insulation or. reinforced insulation,In position of a bi stable push control. Out position of a bi stable push control,IV Festo Didactic 86311 10. Table of Contents,Preface XIII,About This Manual XV. To the Instructor XVII,List of Equipment Required XIX. Unit 1 Satellite Communication Fundamentals 1,DISCUSSION OF FUNDAMENTALS 1. The concept of satellite communications 1,Advantages and disadvantages of satellite. communications 3,Some milestones in satellite communications 4. The capacity cost relationship 12,Ex 1 1 Satellite Communication Systems 13. DISCUSSION 13, Segmentation of a satellite communications system 13. Ground segment 14,Space segment 17,Control segment 21. Satellite communications services and frequency bands 21. Types of satellite services 21,Quality of Service QoS 25. The Satellite Communications Training System 25,The Earth Station Transmitter 26. The Earth Station Receiver 27,The Satellite Repeater 28. Power Sensors 29,The Telemetry and Instrumentation Add On 30. Symbols and abbreviations used on the module front panels 32. Frequency converters 33,Signal levels 34,Safety with RF fields 35. PROCEDURE 37,System startup 37,Connection Diagrams 38. Optimizing antenna alignment 40,Measuring voltage and power 41. Analog communications 44, Transmitting analog signals from external sources 47. Digital communications 50, The QPSK Costas Loop in the Digital Demodulator 50. Transmitting digital signals 57,Data transfer 60,Festo Didactic 86311 10 V. Table of Contents,Ex 1 2 Satellite Earth Stations 65. DISCUSSION 65,Types of earth stations 65,Transportability 65. Purpose 69,Function 70,Earth station organization 70. Baseband section 72,IF section 72,RF section 72,Antenna subsystem 73. The Earth Station Transmitter and Receiver 78,Analog signal processing and modulation 79. Digital signal processing and modulation 81,Frequency conversion 84. PROCEDURE 85,System startup 85,IF and RF frequencies and power levels 86. Frequency converters 95,Power Sensors 95,Ex 1 3 Satellite Payloads and Telemetry 99. DISCUSSION 99,Functions and characteristics of the payload 99. Repeater organization 100,Transparent repeater 100. Regenerative repeater 104,Redundancy 105,Antennas 106. Telemetry tracking and command TTC 107,PROCEDURE 108. System startup 108,Repeater organization 109,Repeater characteristics 110. Telemetry with the Satellite Repeater optional 116. Unit 2 Analog Transmission 123,DISCUSSION OF FUNDAMENTALS 123. Analog signals 123,Analog modulation 124,Noise in communication channels 125. Improving link quality and efficiency 125,VI Festo Didactic 86311 10. Table of Contents, Ex 2 1 Analog Baseband Processing and Modulation 127. DISCUSSION 127,FM modulation 127,FM spectra 130,Carson s rule 134. FM demodulation 135,Threshold effect and capture effect 136. Baseband processing 136,Pre emphasis 136,Speech activation 138. Companding 138,Energy dispersion 139,Frequency division multiplexing 139. PROCEDURE 139,System startup 139,FM modulation 140. Unmodulated carrier 140,Spectrum Analyzer Time Window setting 142. Modulated carrier 142,Modulator sensitivity 144,Carson s rule 146. Demodulation threshold 150,Pre emphasis 151,Unit 3 Digital Transmission 163. DISCUSSION OF FUNDAMENTALS 163,Digital signals 163. Sampling and quantization 164, Analog to digital and digital to analog conversion 165. Serial and parallel transmission 166,Digital modulation 167. M ary signaling 168,Spectral efficiency 170,Constellation diagrams 171. Improving link quality and efficiency 174,Ex 3 1 Digital Baseband Processing 175. DISCUSSION 175,Time division multiplexing TDM 175,The TDM MUX in the Earth Station Transmitter 177. Scrambling 177, The purpose of data scrambling and descrambling 177. Scrambling and descrambling circuits 178,The choice of polynomial 179. Festo Didactic 86311 10 VII,Table of Contents,Descrambler impulse response 180. Clock Encoding 181,Other types of digital baseband processing 181. Transmission rate of encoded signals 182,The Clock Frame Encoder in the Earth Station. Transmitter 183,PROCEDURE 183,System startup 183,Using the binary sequence generators 184. Probe compensation adjustment 184,Time division multiplexing TDM 186. TDM MUX 186,TDM DEMUX 203,Clock and frame encoding 206. Scrambling 212, The effect of scrambling observed in the time domain 213. Determining the scrambler and descrambler polynomial 215. The effect of scrambling on the QPSK constellation 218. The effect of scrambling observed in the frequency domain 221. Ex 3 2 Digital Modulation 223,DISCUSSION 223,PSK digital modulation 223. The M ary PSK waveform 224,QPSK constellations 224. A typical QPSK modulator 225,Symbol rate and bandwidth 227. Demodulation and detection 229,QPSK demodulation 231. Detection and conversion of the raw data signals 233. Carrier recovery 233,PROCEDURE 234,System startup 234. Symbol generation 235,The Serial to Parallel Converter 237. The Serial to Parallel Converter signals 239,Differential encoding 243. Level converters and low pass filters 244,Identifying the QPSK constellation points 246. Digital demodulation 250,Signal spectrum and bandwidth 254. VIII Festo Didactic 86311 10,Table of Contents,Ex 3 3 Differential Encoding 261. DISCUSSION 261,Phase ambiguity 261,Differential encoding 262. Differential QPSK DQPSK 263, Advantages and disadvantages of differential encoding 265. Differential encoding in the Earth Station Transmitter 265. PROCEDURE 265,Set up and connections 265,Differential encoding 266. Phase ambiguity 274, Adjusting the receiver to minimize drift in the Costas loop 278. Observing phase ambiguity 281,Unit 4 Troubleshooting 291. DISCUSSION OF FUNDAMENTALS 291,Troubleshooting communications equipment 291. Troubleshooting activities 291, Ex 4 1 Troubleshooting the Earth Station Transmitter 293. DISCUSSION 293,Signal flow tracing 293,The divide in half method 294. A systematic troubleshooting procedure 295,Troubleshooting the Earth Station Transmitter 295. PROCEDURE 296,System startup 296,Observing normal operation 297. Troubleshooting an unknown fault 297, Ex 4 2 Troubleshooting the Earth Station Receiver 301. DISCUSSION 301,Troubleshooting the Earth Station Receiver 301. PROCEDURE 301,System startup 301,Observing normal operation 302. Troubleshooting an unknown fault 303, Ex 4 3 Troubleshooting the Satellite Repeater using Telemetry 307. DISCUSSION 307,Troubleshooting the Satellite Repeater 307. Festo Didactic 86311 10 IX,Table of Contents,PROCEDURE 307. System startup 307,Observing normal operation 308,Troubleshooting an unknown fault 309. Ex 4 4 Troubleshooting a Satellite Communication Link 311. DISCUSSION 311, Troubleshooting a satellite communication link 311. PROCEDURE 311,System startup 311,Observing normal operation 312. Troubleshooting an unknown fault 313,Appendix A Glossary of New Terms 317. Appendix B Setting Up the Satellite Communications Training System 329. Set up the modules 330,Align the antennas 334,Connect the power supplies 334. USB connections to the Telemetry and Instrumentation. Add On 335,Appendix C Care of Microwave Cables 337. Appendix D Using the Telemetry and Instrumentation Add On 339. Virtual Instruments 339,Data Generation Acquisition Interface 339. Spectrum Analyzer Interface 340,Digital Inputs 341. Digital Outputs 341,USB Connectors 341,Virtual Instrument package 342. Using the Binary Sequence Generators 343,Symbols used in the manuals 343. Generator Settings 344,Digital Output Settings and connections 345. Using the Waveform Generator 347,Symbol used in the manuals 347. Settings and connections 347,Using the Oscilloscope 348. Symbols used in the manuals 348,Settings and connections 349. Using the Spectrum Analyzer 350,Symbol used in the manuals 350. Settings and connections 350,X Festo Didactic 86311 10. Table of Contents,Using the True RMS Voltmeter Power Meter 353. Symbols used in the manuals 353,Settings and connections 353. Using the Bit Error Ratio Tester 354,Symbol used in the manuals 355. Settings and connections 355,Appendix E Using Conventional Instruments 357. Instrument symbols and terms 357, Signal levels in the Satellite Communications Training. System 357,Power Sensors 359,Oscilloscope 360,Spectrum analyzer 361. Analog waveform generator 362,Binary sequence generators 362. Appendix F Satellite Transponders 363, Appendix G Bessel Coefficients for FM Modulation 369. Appendix H System Faults for Troubleshooting 373,Index of New Terms 375. Acronyms 379,Bibliography 381,Festo Didactic 86311 10 XI. Since the Soviet Union shocked the western world by launching the first artificial. satellite SPUTNIK I on October 4 1957 the science of satellites and satellite. communications has undergone an amazing evolution Today satellites play an. essential role in global communications including telephony data networking. video transporting and distribution as well as television and radio broadcasting. directly to the consumer They fulfill critical missions for governments the military. and other organizations that require reliable communications links throughout the. world and generate billions of dollars annually in revenue for private enterprise. Communications satellites offer several important advantages over other types of. long range communications systems the capability of direct communication. between two points on earth with only one intermediate relay the satellite the. ability to broadcast or collect signals and data to or from any area ranging up to. the entire surface of the world and the ability to provide services to remote. regions where ground based point to point communications would be impractical. or impossible, One of the greatest advantages of satellite communications systems is the ratio. of capacity versus cost Although satellites are expensive to develop launch and. maintain their tremendous capacity makes them very attractive for many. applications INTELSAT I launched in 1965 had a capacity of only 240 two way. telephone channels or one two way television channel and an annual cost of. 32 500 per channel Since then the capacity and lifetime of communication. satellites have increased tremendously resulting in a drastic reduction in the cost. per channel Communications satellites now have capacities sufficient for several. hundred video channels or tens of thousands of voice or data links. In addition to applications designed specifically for communications purposes. satellites are used extensively for navigation systems scientific research. mapping remote sensing military reconnaissance disaster detection and relief. and for many other applications All of these applications however require at. least one communications link between the satellite and one or more earth. The Satellite Communications Training System is a state of the art training. system for the field of satellite communications Specifically designed for hands. on training the system covers modern satellite communication technologies. including analog and digital modulation It is designed to use realistic satellite. uplink and downlink frequencies at safe power levels and to reflect the standards. commonly used in modern satellite communications systems. The Orbit Simulator provides interactive visualization of satellite orbital. mechanics and coverage and the theory behind antenna alignment with. geostationary satellites The optional Dish Antenna and Accessories provides. hands on experience in aligning a typical antenna with real geostationary. satellites,Festo Didactic 86311 10 XIII, We invite readers of this manual to send us their tips feedback and. suggestions for improving the book,Please send these to did de festo com. The authors and Festo Didactic look forward to your comments. XIV Festo Didactic 86311 10,About This Manual,Manual Objective. When you have completed this manual you will be familiar with the principles of. satellite communications You will be familiar with the different segments of a. satellite communications system and the main components and characteristics of. each segment, You will be familiar with the main baseband processing and. modulation demodulation techniques used in both analog and digital satellite. communications You will also be familiar with the basic troubleshooting. techniques applicable to satellite communication systems including remote. troubleshooting of the satellite repeater using telemetry. Description,Each exercise contains,x A clearly defined Exercise Objective. x A Discussion Outline listing the main points presented in the Discussion. x A Discussion of the theory involved, x A Procedure Outline listing the main sections in the Procedure. x A step by step Procedure in which the student observes and measures. the important phenomena including questions to help in understanding. the important principles,x A Conclusion,x Review Questions. a In this manual all New Terms are defined in the Glossary of New Terms In. addition an index of New Terms is provided at the end of this manual. Systems of units,Units are expressed using the SI system of units. Safety considerations, Safety symbols that may be used in this manual and on the equipment are listed. in the Safety Symbols table at the beginning of the manual. Safety procedures related to the tasks that you will be asked to perform are. indicated in each exercise, Make sure that you are wearing appropriate protective equipment when. performing the tasks You should never perform a task if you have any reason to. think that a manipulation could be dangerous for you or your teammates. When studying communications systems it is very important to develop good. safety habits Although microwaves are invisible they can be dangerous at high.