Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Prince Edward Island National Park Bat Inventory And
Prince Edward Island National Park Bat Inventory and Monitoring 2015 2 3 Building surveys
CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. Table of Contents,Table of Contents i,Executive Summary 1. 1 Introduction 3, 1 1 Linking bat monitoring to Parks Canada s integrated mandate 4. 1 2 Components of this technical report 5,1 3 NABat 5. 1 4 Responsibilities team and deadline 6,2 Methods 7. 2 1 Stationary Acoustic Surveys for NABat Monitoring Program 7. 2 1 1 Monitoring objectives 7,2 1 2 Sampling timeframe and study design 7. 2 1 3 Equipment 8,2 1 4 Site description and detector placement 8. 2 2 Mobile Acoustic Surveys for NABat Monitoring Program 14. 2 2 1 Monitoring objectives 14,2 2 2 Study design 15. 2 2 3 Equipment 15,2 3 Building surveys 16,2 3 1 Study design 16. 2 3 2 Equipment 16,2 3 3 Buildings Monitored 16,2 4 Emergence counts at potential roosts 21. 2 5 Visual inspections of potential roosts 21,2 6 Other acoustic monitoring sites 22. 2 6 1 Study design 22,2 6 2 Equipment requirements 22. 2 6 3 Cavendish Homestead Trail Well 22,2 6 4 Dalvay Woodland trail 23. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. 2 7 Detector settings and data analysis 24,3 RESULTS 25. 3 1 Stationary Acoustic Surveys for NABat Monitoring Program 25. 3 1 1 Species diversity 25,3 1 2 Spatial and temporal comparison 26. 3 1 3 Inter annual comparison 27, 3 2 Mobile Acoustic Surveys for NABat Monitoring Program 28. 3 3 Building surveys 28,3 3 1 Brackley 28,3 3 2 Dalvay 28. 3 3 3 Cavendish 28,3 3 4 Fort Amherst 29,3 4 Emergence counts at potential roosts 32. 3 5 Visual surveys of potential roosts 32,3 6 Other acoustic monitoring sites 32. 3 6 1 Cavendish Homestead Trail Well 32,3 6 2 Dalvay Woodland Trail 33. 3 7 Discrepancies in Planned Monitoring Methodology 33. 4 Discussion 34, 4 1 Stationary Acoustic Surveys for NABat Monitoring Program 34. 4 1 1 Species diversity 34,4 1 2 Spatial and temporal comparison 35. 4 1 3 Inter annual comparison 36, 4 2 Mobile Acoustic Surveys for NABat Monitoring Program 36. 4 3 Building surveys 37,4 4 Emergence counts at potential roosts 37. 4 5 Visual surveys of potential roosts 37,4 6 Other acoustic monitoring sites 37. 4 6 1 Cavendish Homestead Trail Well 37,CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE. University of Prince Edward Island,550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3. PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca,4 6 2 Dalvay Woodland Trail 38. 4 7 Discrepancies in Planned Monitoring Methodology 38. 5 Recommendations 38, Appendix I Stationary acoustic survey for NABat Monitoring Program detector locations microphone. positioning and relevant NABat data 40,Appendix II Mobile transects routes 41. Appendix III Building surveys detector locations and microphone positioning 45. Appendix IV Other acoustic monitoring sites detector locations and microphone positioning 46. Appendix V SM2 Bat and SM3 detector settings 47, Appendix VI Landscape detector deployment dates number of bat passes recorded nightly average. bat passes and species identified 48,Acknowledgements 50. References 51,CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. Executive Summary, A bat inventory and monitoring study was conducted in Prince Edward Island National Park PEINP. during the summer of 2015 to provide a better understanding of the species diversity and habitat. associations of bats in the park Additionally the use of buildings as potential roosting sites for bats was. investigated Four sites monitored in 2004 were selected for monitoring again in 2015 so temporal. comparisons could be made The North American Bat Monitoring NABat program was adapted for. PEINP to enable acoustic monitoring of bats at different habitat types i e fresh water coastal dune. wetland and forest edge in all three areas of PEINP i e from west to east Cavendish Brackley Dalvay. and Greenwich Buildings scheduled for demolition were acoustically and visually monitored to. determine if they were used as roosts Some additional anthropogenic structures and natural habitats. were acoustically monitored to establish their potential use as roosting swarming or hibernation sites. for bats The results of this study will assist PEINP staff in making management decisions as they relate. to the conservation of bats and their habitat, Acoustic monitoring indicated the magnitude of activity of bats in PEINP is relatively high in some. habitats and there is a diversity of species of bats The vast majority of bat passes recorded were from. the endangered Myotis spp i e little brown and or Northern myotis but non endangered migratory. species were also detected including hoary bats and silver haired or big brown bats but at a much. lower magnitude of activity In general the magnitude of bat activity was highest at habitats associated. with water i e fresh water and wetland habitats and in the late summer monitoring period Since. habitats associated with water are also good habitat for aquatic insects that are some of the preferred. dietary species for bats it is not surprising that the activity of bats was higher in these habitats The. increase in the late summer activity of bats is more difficult to attribute to any one specific factor with. confidence However it is well documented that this is the period that young of the year begin flying. and foraging on their own and while this suggests the possibility of successful reproduction in the Park s. bat populations this hypothesis cannot be confirmed with acoustic monitoring alone The temporal. trends in activity between 2004 and 2015 were not consistent with a substantial decline or increase in. activity Table I Acoustic activity at monitored buildings was not compatible with any of them being a. roosting site for bats Considerable acoustic activity of the endangered Northern myotis was detected at. a forest trail Lastly a well that was monitored did not have a sufficient magnitude of bat activity to. suggest that it was a swarming or hibernation site. To have better information for management decisions regarding the endangered little brown bat and. Northern myotis in PEINP it is highly recommended that the standard acoustic monitoring program. that was developed for PEINP be continued for at least another two consecutive years It is also. recommended that a trapping and radio tagging study of endangered little brown bats and Northern. myotis be added to the acoustic monitoring program so that critical roosting habitat for these species. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. can be identified on any land controlled by PEINP for appropriate protection and management. Table I Summary of bat inventory and monitoring results for Prince Edward Island National Park for the. summer 2015,Species Detection,Name Code SAR Location Habitat Peak Temporal. Category Type1 Abundance2 Trend,Brackley Dalvay,Myotis spp 4 Myotis spp Endangered Greenwich. Bracklay Dalvay 3 LS N A,Hoary bat LACI None,Cavendish 2 LS N A. Silver haired Greenwich 3 ES N A,bat Big LANO EPFU None N A. Cavendish 3 LS, 1 Fresh water 2 Coastal dune 3 Wetland 4 Forest edge. LS Late Summer ES Early Summer, increasing temporal trend in bat activity a decreasing temporal trend in bat activity N A not. applicable because not all sites monitored in 2015 were previously monitored in 2004 and in the past. Silver and Big brown bats were not detected in PEINP. Myotis spp includes the little brown bat and Northern myotis both of which are endangered species. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. 1 Introduction, Since the emergence of white nose syndrome WNS in North America there is growing concern for the. conservation and management of bats and as a consequence there is heightened interest in the. monitoring and inventory of bat populations Pseudogymnoascus destructans formerly Geomyces. destructans an epizootic fungal pathogen believed to have been introduced from Europe Leopardi et. al 2015 is the etiology of the disease WNS that has been causing mass mortality of bat populations in. eastern North America since 2006 and continues to emerge in new North American geographic locations. Gargas et al 2009 Minnis Lindner 2013 Besides WNS additional threats to bat populations have. been documented and in particular the wind turbines of the rapidly developing wind power industry. have been identified as a growing threat to migrating bats Johnson et al 2003 Since all species of bats. in Canada are insectivorous they may also be vulnerable to direct pesticide toxicity Geluso et al 1976. and or suffer indirect effects from pesticides such as reduced prey abundance and availability Lastly. bats are highly mobile on the landscape and some species are migratory As a result while some species. of bats may use protected areas to meet certain requirements of their life histories they may encounter. threats when it becomes necessary to leave those areas to access resources for other aspects of their. ecology This combination of threats has heightened awareness about the health of bat populations but. in particular the emergence of WNS has raised concern for the three Canadian bat species most. affected by the disease such that in 2012 the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. COSEWIC completed emergency status assessments for the Tri colored Bat Perimyotis subflavus. Northern Myotis Myotis septentrionalis and Little Brown Myotis Myotis lucifugus that resulted in a. recommendation to list these species as endangered Subsequently these three species were listed. under the Species at Risk Act SARA in December 2014 enacting legal protections on individuals and. their residences e g roosts and hibernacula SARA 2015 Two additional species of bats found in. British Columbia are also listed on schedule 1 of SARA Pallid Bat Antrozous pallidus threatened and. Spotted Bat Euderma maculatum special concern SARA 2015 and all species of bats that hibernate. in Canada are vulnerable to WNS and may become threatened or endangered as the disease continues. to spread in this country, While some species of bats were among the most widespread and common mammals of Canada and are. closely associated with humans routinely using anthropogenic structures as roosts and breeding sites. e g buildings kiosks and bridges Lunde and Harestad 1986 Keeley and Tuttle 1999 many aspects of. their life histories and ecology remain relatively poorly understood The 20 bat species recorded in. Canada Naughton 2012 are almost entirely nocturnal and during summer they typically use concealed. hard to access daytime roost sites Kunz 1982 Fenton 1990 During the winter some species hibernate. in underground openings e g caves and mines which can be dangerous difficult or impossible to. access and while additional overwintering habitat may exist e g wells buildings and other natural and. anthropogenic structures the use of these sites by bats in the winter is poorly documented Whitaker. and Gummer 2000 In general many Canadian bat species are similar in appearance and size and. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. vocalize outside the range of sounds audible to humans the combination of which makes them difficult. to identify without appropriate equipment Adam 2003 Naughton 2012 As a result of these life history. characteristics bats are among the least understood vertebrates in Canada and this lack of information. may present challenges to Parks Canada sites in their efforts to protect bats. The significant threats bat populations are currently experiencing and dearth of knowledge about them. highlights the need to improve our understanding of the ecology population status and conservation of. all Canadian bat species This is especially true for those populations found in National Parks and. National Historic Sites because of the high degree of protection these locations offer Developing and. implementing inventory and monitoring programs play a key role in this process by producing. scientifically rigorous and accurate species specific baseline data on the abundance distribution and. population trends of bats Precise information on the locations of bat summer roosts and winter. hibernacula as well as the patterns of habitat use for other aspects of their life histories e g foraging. and swarming is integral for the protection of critical habitats for bats and ultimately those species of. bats that rely upon them, The specific objectives of this monitoring study were to. 1 Identify the species of bats currently present in Prince Edward Island National Park PEINP. 2 Collect preliminary data on the spatial and temporal distribution of these species to better. understand what might be key habitat or critical areas for those species of bats in PEINP. 1 1 Linking bat monitoring to Parks Canada s integrated mandate. Bat monitoring helps National Parks address other aspects of the Parks Canada Agency s integrated. mandate Because bats are long lived species are dependent upon specific habitats and landscape. features including roost and hibernation sites e g snags caves and possibly anthropogenic. structures and are sensitive to a variety of ecosystem stressors they may be good indicators of. ecosystem health Parks Canada 2015 Consequently bat communities are important to the ecological. integrity of many National Parks and if a Park identifies it as a need a standardised bat monitoring. program can serve as one component of a Park s broader ecological integrity monitoring program Parks. Canada has developed comprehensive ecological integrity monitoring guidelines Parks Canada 2011. These guidelines were used to provide guidance on the sampling design and quantitative analysis used. for this study, Bats can also play an important role in a National Park s visitor programs and education and outreach. efforts Most people are fascinated with bats because are associated with the outdoors healthy. environments and conservation but their cryptic behaviour makes observation of them difficult adding. to their mysterious appeal No doubt the widespread use of bats in popular culture also adds to this. curiosity for example their association with well known superheroes monsters and villains This. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. common interest in bats makes them particularly amenable to engaging the public in visitor programs. including campfire programs or night walks and education and outreach activities These programs can. make effective use of the information gained through a bat monitoring programs particularly if. presented in the context of conservation needs Aboriginal knowledge and popular culture. Opportunities for public education and outreach were welcomed during this study and in particular. local media requests were accommodated,1 2 Components of this technical report. Bats require diverse resources and exhibit dramatically different behaviours during the distinct periods. of their annual cycle Consequently a variety of monitoring approaches were considered in the context. of the time of year and the PEINP s obligations outlined in the Multi Species at Risk MSAR Action Plan. Giroux Personal communication, Section 2 describes the acoustic survey methods used in this study to monitor the magnitude of activity. of flying bats during summer at different habitat types and buildings and the methods used to conduct. potential roost emergence counts and visual surveys The methods that were chosen are the most. common and recommended current techniques for monitoring the status of bat populations Battersby. 2010 Britzke et al 2013 Loeb et al 2015, Section 3 presents the results of the bat monitoring and inventory study in PEINP Habitat use by bats is. described and in addition the use of various anthropogenic structures in the park as roosting sites for. bats is reviewed, Section 4 discusses the significance of the bat inventory and monitoring study s results. Section 5 summarizes the main conclusions of the study and proposes future directions that could be. explored to obtain a better understanding of the ecology of the bat populations in PEINP. Lastly appendices are included These provide details on bat detector settings road transects for mobile. acoustic surveys and additional findings, The current bat conservation concerns have accelerated the need for precise information on the. population distribution status and trends of bat species across North America Therefore the North. American Bat Monitoring Program NABat was developed to ensure a consistent approach to the. collection of this data throughout the continent Loeb et al 2015 In particular NABat is a continental. initiative being developed cooperatively by a broad range of government departments and. nongovernmental organizations interested in bat conservation see. https my usgs gov bpd main nabat NABat has the goal of leading coordinated bat monitoring to. support regional and continental range wide inferences about changes in the distributions and sizes of. all North American bat populations Therefore this inventory and monitoring study for PEINP was. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. designed to be compatible with NABat so that site level data could be attributed to the aggregated. NABat database However since the land and adjacent crown properties managed by PEINP constitute a. narrow strip of coastal habitat consisting of three separate areas for the most part the typical NABat. methodology which involves sampling in 10x10 km cells could not be implemented only on land directly. managed by PEINP Therefore the NABat protocol was adapted for PEINP and this study incorporated. one standard NABat cell which had one stationary acoustic monitoring site on land not managed by. PEINP and two additional NABat cells that were modified to only include land directly managed by PEINP. while still remaining applicable to the NABat protocol This approach supports continental bat. conservation efforts and helps PEINP interpret its observations in the context of broader regional. national and continental trends in bat populations Additionally since other organizations and agencies. are also using the NABat protocol to monitor provincial bat populations in Prince Edward Island the. data collected in PEINP will be compatible with those collected outside of the Park and collaborating. with these stakeholders will permit PEINP s Resource Conservation Staff to understand their data in the. context of the local or provincial scale Lastly the inventory and monitoring study was developed so. that it would be consistent with the standards set out in Parks Canada s consolidated guidelines for. ecological integrity monitoring Parks Canada 2011,1 4 Responsibilities team and deadline. A Memorandum of Understanding between Parks Canada Agency and the University of Prince Edward. Island UPEI facilitated the development of a proposal to monitor and inventory the bat populations of. PEINP The proposal for the study was produced by staff of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative. CWHC Atlantic Region Department of Pathology and Microbiology Atlantic Veterinary College UPEI. specifically Dr Scott McBurney and Mr Jordi Segers as co investigators in collaboration with Dr Hugh. Broders Department of Biology Saint Mary s University and with input guidance and oversight. provided by PEINP Field Unit Staff members Mr Paul Giroux Resource Conservation Manager and Mr. Rick Hawkins Ecologist Fieldwork and data analyses were performed by CWHC Atlantic Region staff. PEINP Field Unit staff were actively engaged in the early stages of the inventory and monitoring study. proposal and first week of fieldwork i e June 1 5 and were kept up to date on any major. developments and all preliminary results Dr Broders was consulted for his expertise on Atlantic. Canadian bat populations throughout the entirety of the study Lastly Ms Lauren Grant was hired as a. summer student field technician to do the field component of the study Table 1. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. Table 1 Team members affiliation and responsibilities during the completion of the bat inventory and. monitoring study for PEINP,Team member Affiliation Responsibilities. Scott McBurney CWHC UPEI Co investigator,Jordi Segers CWHC UPEI Co investigator. Lauren Grant CWHC UPEI Field technician, Hugh Broders Saint Mary s University Collaborator proposal development data collection data analysis. Rick Hawkins Parks Canada PEINP Ecologist, Paul Giroux Parks Canada PEINP Resource Conservation Manager. Paul Ayles Parks Canada PEINP Geomatics specialist and site consultant. Acoustic monitoring provides information on the identification local activity levels and distribution of. bat species in the active season Two approaches to acoustic surveys are employed in NABat including. stationary point acoustic surveys and mobile transect acoustic surveys Loeb et al 2015 One. generalized random tessellation stratified GRTS cell i e a predetermined 100 km2 unit of land. surveyed with four stationary detectors and a mobile transect was surveyed explicitly following the. methodology of the NABat protocol and included a stationary acoustic monitoring site and a portion of. mobile acoustic transect outside of the land managed by PEINP The NABat methodology was adapted. for two additional land units which did not follow the recommended standard 10 km X 10 km grid cell. and was developed specifically for application to the narrow coastal land base solely managed by PEINP. The primary rationale for departure from the NABat protocol was to enhance the sampling design to. yield sufficient data to make meaningful inferences about the status and trends of bats at the entire. scale of PEINP Buildings scheduled for demolishing were surveyed using acoustic detectors emergence. counts or visual surveys Additionally some other key sites i e a well and forested trail were. acoustically monitored at the request of field unit staff. 2 1 Stationary Acoustic Surveys for NABat Monitoring Program. 2 1 1 Monitoring objectives, The primary goal of the stationary point acoustic surveys was to identify diversity of species of bats. spatial and temporal bat activity and critical habitat for the bat species in PEINP. 2 1 2 Sampling timeframe and study design, Acoustic monitoring covered a representative sample of the entire area of PEINP including the. Cavendish Brackley Dalvay and the Greenwich areas Each area was sampled with four Wildlife. Acoustics SM3 Bat Detectors each at a different habitat type i e coastal dune forest edge fresh water. and wetland for six to nine consecutive nights at two separate times in the field season i e early and. late summer monitoring periods After six to nine nights the detectors were collected from each site. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. and deployed with full batteries and formatted empty memory cards at the selected sites representing. the four habitat types in the next area of the park scheduled for acoustic monitoring Each night all. detectors were set to record the entire night from 15 minutes before sunset until 15 minutes after. sunrise Site selection for the acoustic detectors focused on maximizing bat detection at different. habitat types i e most likely commuting corridors and foraging sites chosen based on literature and. professional experience This study design was developed to permit a spatial and temporal i e early. and late summer monitoring periods comparison for magnitude of bat activity between the areas and. habitat types of PEINP Previous bat monitoring work in PEINP was reviewed Henderson et al 2009. Corning 2005 and the unpublished data of Corning Henderson and Broders 2004 was used to select. the stationary acoustic monitoring sites for some of the habitat types included in this study as long as. these sites were compatible with our monitoring objectives This resulted in four acoustically sampled. sites in 2004 being included in this current study as part of the NABat Program described above. 2 1 3 Equipment, The following equipment was used to conduct this study. 4 Wildlife Acoustics SM3 Bat Detectors, 4 omnidirectional Wildlife Acoustics SM3 microphones. Wildlife Acoustics Microphone Calibrator,9 32GB Kingston SDHC Cards. 1 Garmin handheld GPS set to datum WGS84,Suunto MC 2 Compass. Wildlife Acoustics Kaleidoscope Pro software,2 1 4 Site description and detector placement. Omnidirectional microphones were affixed to natural or anthropogenic structures e g trees posts etc. at a height of 1 3 meters from the ground using non destructive methods The microphones were. pointed away from cluttered habitat e g forest interior dunes etc and angled near horizontal but. slightly downwards to remain weatherproof in inclement or rainy weather. 2 1 4 1 Brackley Dalvay Area, The Brackley Dalvay area stretches across the northern shore of PEI from the Western tip of Robinson s. Island to the park boundary near Tracadie Harbour and is the central portion of PEINP This portion of. the Park also includes Blooming Point but since it is predominately a sand spit surrounded by ocean it. was not considered suitable habitat for bats and thus was not included in this study The Brackley. Dalvay area of PEINP includes 1453 4ha of land Figure 1 summarizes approximate detector locations. and Appendix I summarizes exact detector locations microphone positioning and NABat relevant data. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. 2 1 4 1 1 Fresh Water Habitat Type, The site chosen for the fresh water habitat type is located on land not managed by PEINP It is beside a. man made pond behind a farmer s field located on Kentyre Road in the town of Harrington PE The. water body is 0 035 ha and surrounded on three sides by a predominantly deciduous forest The. microphone was fastened to an uncovered root system of a downed tree on the edge of the water body. 2 1 4 1 2 Forest Edge Habitat Type, The site for the forest habitat type is located on Robinson s Island and is surrounded by a lightly used. hiking trail The microphone was placed on the edge of a deciduous forest 56 4ha This forest is. surrounded by a narrow coastal dune system on its eastern and western aspects and salt water on its. northern and western aspects The microphone was attached to a dead deciduous tree branch facing. into a narrow trail on the forest edge,2 1 4 1 3 Coastal Dune Habitat Type. The microphone was placed on a small tree in the middle of a concave dune The surrounding dune area. is 32 8ha and is at the eastern base of the sand spit connecting Robinson s Island to the remainder of. the Brackley Dalvay area This habitat type is separated from a larger dune system by a road to the. 2 1 4 1 4 Wetland Habitat Type, The Brackely Dalvay area wetland is 6 3ha with an inconsistent water level Throughout the acoustic. monitoring period the water level declined producing mudflats with small amount of remaining. brackish water The wetland is surrounded by fragmented deciduous forest and is separated from a. small cottage community by a road and narrow strip of coastal dunes The microphone was fastened to. a coniferous tree branch at the edge of the mudflat This location was selected because it was. acoustically monitored by Corning Henderson and Broders unpublished data for 1 night on August 19. 2004 which represents 31 and 59 nights after acoustic monitoring at this site in the current study. CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE,University of Prince Edward Island. 550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3,PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca. Figure 1 Detector locations in each habitat type green is forest edge yellow is coastal dune blue is. fresh water orange is wetland in the Brackley Dalvay area of PEINP NABat GRTS 214732 Blue squares. represent NABat GRTS cells Map sources National Geographic Esri DeLorme HERE UNEP WCMC. NASA ESA METI NRCAN GEBCO NOAA NGA USGS,CWHC ATLANTIC OFFICE. University of Prince Edward Island,550 University Avenue Charlottetown PE C1A 4P3. PH 1 902 566 0959 EM info cwhc rcsf ca,2 1 4 2 Greenwich Area. Greenwich is the smallest and most eastern section of PEINP and contains a beach hiking trail sand spit. parabolic sand dune system forested wetlands and fresh water bodies The Greenwich portion of PEINP. includes 628ha of land Figure 2 summarizes approximate detector locations and Appendix I summarizes. exact detector locations microphone positioning and NABat relevant data. 2 1 4 2 1 Fresh Water Habitat Type, The fresh water habitat type in Greenwich is a 9 2ha narrow lake called Schooner Pond and is located. south of a coastal dune system It is surrounded on three sides by a mixed deciduous and coniferous. forest The microphone was attached to the branches of a shrub on the southeastern shore of the pond. 2 1 4 2 2 Forest Edge Habitat Type, The forest edge habitat type in Greenwich was adjacent to a parking lot and hiking trail The microphone. was placed on a coniferous tree pointing towards a large open area of grassland that is surrounded by. forest on its northern and western aspects the coast on its southern aspect and a parking lot on its. eastern aspect The size of the forest area is 59 2ha This location was selected because it was. acoustically monitored by Corning Henderson and Broders unpublished data for 1 night on August 14. 2004 which represents 17 and 47 nights after acoustic monitoring of this site in the current study. 2 1 4 2 3 Coastal Dune Habitat Type, The coastal dune habitat type in Greenwich is a 233ha peninsula with St Peter s Bay bordering its. southern side and the Gulf of St Lawrence bordering its northern side It terminates in the west at the. entrance to St Peter s Bay and is connected to a beach and dune system on its southern aspect The. microphone was placed on a small tree at the top of a dune. 2 1 4 2 4 Wetland Habitat Type, The 28 23ha wetland habitat type runs adjacent to the coastal dunes to the south of Greenwich beach. and is surrounded by deciduous forest on its eastern western and southern aspects Some areas of the. deciduous forest are flooded by the wetland The microphone was attached to the branches of a shrub. on the northeastern shore of the wetland adjacent to the dunes.