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Review Article Volume 3 Issue 1 June 2017 DOI 10 19080 IJESNR 2017 03 555601 Plant Microbiomes and Its Beneficial Multifunctional Plant Growth Promoting Attributes Ajar Nath Yadav1 Priyanka Verma2 Divjot Kour1 Kusam Lata Rana 1 Vinod Kumar Bhanumati Singh3 Vinay Singh Chauahan3 TCK Sugitha4 Anil Kumar Saxena5 and Harcharan Singh Dhaliwal1 1Department of Biotechnology Akal
International Journal of Environmental Sciences Natural Resources. microbial species belonging to different genera Acinetobacter with small cracks caused by the emergence of lateral roots Root. Alcaligenes Arthrobacter Aspergillus Azospirillum Bacillus regions such as the differentiation zone and intercellular spaces. Burkholderia Enterobacter Erwinia Flavobacterium Haloarcula in the epidermis have been suggested to be preferential sites. Halobacterium Halococcus Haloferax Methylobacterium for microbial colonization as well Root cracks wounds caused. PaeniBacillus Penicillium Piriformospora Pseudomonas for instance by arthropods or nematodes and emergence sites. Rhizobium and Serratia were revealed from rhizosphere of of lateral roots are generally considered as the main doors. different crop plants 1 8 for microbial penetration Bacterial traits putatively involved. in endophytic colonization of plant roots For penetration. The phyllosphere is a common niche for synergism between. the bacteria have to produce cellulolytic enzymes required to. microbes and plant The leaf surface has been termed as. hydrolyse the exothermal walls such as endoglucanases and. Phyllosphere and zone of leaves inhabited by microorganisms. endopolygalacturonidases 18 These enzymes also seem to be. as phyllo sphere The plant part especially leaves are exposed. important for spreading through the intercellular space of the. to dust and air currents resulting in the establishments of. root cortex and beyond Endophytes usually do not enter plant. typical flora on their surface aided by the cuticles waxes and. cells Only a few of them can penetrate the endow dermal barrier. appendages which help in the anchorage of microorganisms. and invade the xylem vessels Endophytic microbes live in plant. The phyllospheric microbes may survive or proliferates on leaves. tissues without causing substantive harm to the host Endophytic. depending on extent of influences of material in leaf diffuseness. microbes exist within the living tissues of most plant species. or exudates The leaf diffuseness contains the principal nutrients. in form of symbiotic to slightly pathogenic A large number. factors amino acids glucose fructose and sucrose and such. of endophytic microbial species Achromobacter Azoarcus. specialized habitats may provide niche for nitrogen fixation. Burkholderia Collimonas Curtobacterium Enterobacter. and secretions of substances capable of promoting the growth. Flavobacterium Gluconoacetobacter Herbaspirillum Klebsiella. of plants The phyllospheric microbes may performs an effective. Microbiospora Micromomospora Nocardioides Pantoea, function in controlling the air borne pathogens inciting plant. Planomonospora Pseudomonas Serratia Streptomyces and. disease Microbes on leaf surface are said to be extremophiles. Thermomonospora have been identified from different host. as they can tolerate low high temperature 5 55 C and UV. plants 6 8 10 15 18 21, radiation Many microbes such as Achromobacter Agrobacterium. Azotobacter Bacillus Beijerinckia Brevibacterium Burkholderia. Diplococcus Flexibacterium Methylobacterium Microbiospora. Micrococcus Micromomospora Nocardioides Pantoea,Penicillium Planomonospora Pseudomonas Rhizobium. Streptomyces Thermomonospora and Xanthomonas have been. reported in the phyllosphere of different crop plants 9 15. The endophytic microbes are referred to those, microorganisms which colonizes in the interior of the plant. parts viz root stem or seeds without causing any harmful. effect on host plant The word endophyte means in the plant. and is derived of the Greek words end on within and python. plant Endophytic microbes enter in host plants mainly. through wounds naturally occurring as a result of plant. growth or through root hairs and at epidermal conjunctions. Endophytes may be transmitted either vertically directly from. parent to offspring or horizontally among individuals A given. endophytic microbiome can be modified by factors such as the. physicochemical structure of the soil plant growth phase and. plant physiological state as well as by diverse environmental Figure 1 Phylogenetic tree showed the relationship. among different groups of plant microbiome,factors 16 17. The main colonization route used by endophytes seems to be The study on microbial biodiversity of plant associated. the rhizosphere Microbes reach the rhizosphere by chemotaxis microbes revealed representative microbes from archaea. towards root exudates components followed by attachment Euryarchaeota bacteria Acidobacteria Actinobacteria. The lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide are bacterial Bacteroidetes Deinococcus Thermus Firmicutes and. components shown to play roles in attachment of endophytes Proteobacteria and fungi Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. to plant tissue The preferred site of attachment and subsequent Literature review suggested that the distribution of microbes. entry is the apical root zone with a thin walled surface root although varied in all bacterial phyla but Proteobacteria were. layer such as the cell elongation zone and the root hair zone most dominant and ubiquitous followed by Actinobacteria. How to cite this article Ajar N Y Priyanka V Divjot K Kusam L R et al Plant Microbiomes and Its Beneficial Multifunctional Plant Growth Promoting. Attributes Int J Environ Sci Nat Res 2017 3 1 555601 DOI 10 19080 IJESNR 2017 03 555601. International Journal of Environmental Sciences Natural Resources. Among different classes of Proteobacteria i e and nature and they are of great economic importance to humans. proteobacteria the members of proteobacteria were because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to. most dominant and have been reported from different soil systems Among different groups of microbes the member. crop plants Least number of microbes was reported from Bacillus and Bacillus derived genera are belonged to phylum. phylum Deinococcus Thermus and Acid bacteria followed by Firmicutes which most culturable and colonize with different. Bacteroidetes 18 22 26 Figure 1 There are very few reports plants such as wheat rice maize soybean and chickpea 33 37. of archaea as PGP including rhizospheric as well as endophytic The phylum Firmicutes have been further distributed into five. 27 29 families Bacillaceae Bacillales Incertae Sedis PaneniBacillaceae. Planococcaceae and Staphylococcaceae and reported from most. Actinobacteria is a phylum of gram positive bacteria and. of crop plants studies 6 8 10 12 15 Among different phylum the. divided into five classes viz Acidimicrobiia Actinobacteria. Proteobacteria one of the predominant phylum including many. Coriobacteriia Nitriliruptoria Rubrobacteria and, dominant genera including Brevundimonas terrae Bosea sp and. Thermoleophilia Members of class Actinobacteria are most. Methylobacterium sp from proteobacteria Burkholderia sp. dominant and found to associate with plants growing in. Burkholderia cepacia Variovorax ginsengisoli Janthinobacterium. different habitats as well as extreme environments It also. lividum and Janthinobacterium sp from proteobacteria and. contains one of the largest of bacterial genera Streptomyces. Aeromonas Pantoea Providencia Pseudomonas Psychrobacter. 30 32 The rhizospheric Actinobacteria are most dominant in. and Yersinia from proteobacteria class 6 8 18 38, Table 1 Microbes with multifarious plant growth promoting attributes. Microbes P NF IAA Sidero ACC Referencs,1 Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae BIHB 723 66. 2 Aeromonas hydrophila IARI R 6 49,3 Arthrobacter methylotrophus IARI HHS1 25 8. 4 Arthrobacter sulfonivorans IARI L 16 45,5 Bacillus altitudinis IARI HHS2 2 8. 6 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IARI HHS2 30 15,7 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IARI R 25 49. 8 Bacillus aryabhattai IARI HHS1 30 8,9 Bacillus firmus IARI L 21 45. 10 Bacillus licheniformis IARI AL38 43,11 Bacillus muralis IARI AR28 43. 12 Bacillus subtilis IARI L 69 45,13 Bordetella bronchiseptica IARI HHS2 29 8. 14 Cellulosimicrobium cellulans IARI ABL 30 45,15 Desemzia incerta IARI L 46 45. 16 Exiguobacterium antarcticum IARI HHS2 49 8,17 Flavobacterium psychrophilum HHS2 37 8. 18 Lysinibacillus sphaericus IARI AR11 43,19 Paenibacillus tylopili IARI AR36 43. 20 Pantoea agglomerans IARI R 87 49,21 Pantoea dispersa 1A 67. 22 Providencia rustigianii IARI R 91 49,23 Pseudomonas cedrina IARI R 53 49. 24 Pseudomonas fluorescens PPRs4 68,25 Pseudomonas fragi IARI R 57 49. 26 Pseudomonas geniculata IARI HHS1 19 8,27 Pseudomonas jessani PGRs1 68. 28 Pseudomonas koreensis PBRs7 68,29 Pseudomonas lurida M2RH3 69. 30 Pseudomonas lurida NPRs3 68, How to cite this article Ajar N Y Priyanka V Divjot K Kusam L R et al Plant Microbiomes and Its Beneficial Multifunctional Plant Growth Promoting. Attributes Int J Environ Sci Nat Res 2017 3 1 555601 DOI 10 19080 IJESNR 2017 03 555601. International Journal of Environmental Sciences Natural Resources. 31 Pseudomonas moraviensis IARI R 132 49,32 Pseudomonas putida IARI R 131 49. 33 Pseudomonas sp NARs9 70,34 Pseudomonas sp PGERs17 71. 35 Psychrobacter frigidicola IARI R 127 49,36 Rahnella sp BIHB 783 72. 37 Sanguibacter suarezii IARI R 7 49,38 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia IARI HHS1 20 8. P Phosphorus NF Nitrogen fixation IAA Indole acetic acids Sidero Siderophores ACC 1 aminocyclopropane 1 carboxylate ACC. 3 38 41 Biological nitrogen fixation BNF is one of the. possible biological alternatives to N fertilizers and could lead to. more productive and sustainable agriculture without harming. the environment Many associative microbes are now known. to fix atmospheric nitrogen and supply it to the associated host. plants A variety of nitrogen fixing microbes like Arthrobacter. Azoarcus Azospirillum Azotobacter Bacillus Enterobacter. Gluconoacetobacter Herbaspirillum Klebsiella Pseudomonas. and Serratia have been isolated from the rhizosphere of various. crops which contribute fixed nitrogen to the associated plants. 18 42 44 Figure 2 Table 1, Plant associated microbes typically produce plant growth. hormones such as auxins and gibberellins The gibberellins. production is most typical for the root associated microbes and. auxins production is common to all plant associated microbes. Auxins can promote the growth of roots and stems quickly by. increasing cell elongation or slowly through cell division and. differentiation The production of such growth regulators by. microbes provides numerous benefits to the host plant including. the facilitation of root system expansion which enhances the. absorption of water and nutrients and improves plant survival. The ability to synthesize these phytohormones is widely. distributed among plant associated microbes 45 47 Diverse. microbial species possess the ability to produce the auxins. phytohormone indole acetic acid IAA Reviewing the role of. bacterial IAA in different microorganism plant interactions. highlights the fact that microbes use this phytohormone to. interact with plants as part of their colonization strategy. including phyto stimulation and circumvention of basal plant. defense mechanisms The IAA application has also been. Figure 2 Diversity and relative distribution of microbes suggested to promote plant growth or suppress weed growth. isolated from different crops,Phosphorus P is major essential macronutrient for. biological growth and development Microbes offer a biological. Plant associated microbes have been shown be beneficial rescue system capable of solubilizing the insoluble inorganic P. by promoting plant growth either directly e g by fixation of soil and make it available to the plants The ability of some. of atmospheric nitrogen solubilization of minerals such microbes to convert insoluble P to an accessible form like. as phosphorus potassium and zinc production of Sidero orthophosphate is an important trait in PGP microbes for. pores and plant growth hormones such cytokinins auxins increasing plant yields The rhizospheric P utilizing microbes. and gibberellins or indirectly via production of antagonistic could be a promising source for plant growth promoting agent in. substances by inducing resistance against plant pathogens. How to cite this article Ajar N Y Priyanka V Divjot K Kusam L R et al Plant Microbiomes and Its Beneficial Multifunctional Plant Growth Promoting. Attributes Int J Environ Sci Nat Res 2017 3 1 555601 DOI 10 19080 IJESNR 2017 03 555601. International Journal of Environmental Sciences Natural Resources. agriculture P solubilization is a common trait among microbes microbes can control by releasing siderophore chitinases. associated with different crops For instance the majority of antibiotics fluorescent pigment or by cyanide production. microbial populations from wheat rice maize and legumes 73 74 Biocontrol systems are eco friendly cost efficient and. were able to solubilise mineral phosphates and a vast number involved in improving the soil consistency and maintenance. of PGP microbes with P solubilizing property have been reported of natural soil flora 75 77 To act efficiently the Biocontrol. which include members belonging to Burkholderia Enterobacter agent should remain active under large range of conditions. Halolamina Pantoea Pseudomonas Citrobacter and Azotobacter viz varying pH temperature and concentrations of different. 48 54 Table 1 Possible mechanisms for solubilization from ions Biocontrol agents limit growth of pathogen as well as few. organic bound P involve either enzymes namely C P lyase non nematodes and insects Biocontrol microbes can limit pathogens. specific phosphatases and phytases 55 56 However most directly by producing antagonistic substances competition. of the bacterial genera solubilize P through the production of for iron detoxification or degradation of virulence factors. organic acids such as gluconate ketogluconate acetate lactate or indirectly by Inducing Systemic Resistance ISR in plants. oxalate tartarate succinate citrate and glycolate Type of against certain diseases signal interference competition for. organic acid produced for P solubilization may depend upon the nutrients and niches and interference with activity survival. carbon source utilized as substrate Highest P solubilization has germination and speculation of the pathogen Iron is a necessary. been observed when glucose sucrose or galactose has been used cofactor for many enzymatic reactions and is an essential. as sole carbon source in the medium 27 57 nutrient for virtually all organisms In aerobic conditions iron. exists predominantly in its ferric state Fe3 and reacts to form. Ethylene is a stress induced plant hormone that can inhibit. highly insoluble hydroxides and ox hydroxides that are largely. plant growth Some microbes can lower the level of ethylene in. unavailable to plants and microorganisms To acquire sufficient. the plant by cleaving the plant produced ethylene precursor. iron siderophore produced by bacteria can bind Fe3 with a high. 1 aminocyclopropane 1 carboxylate ACC Inoculation of. affinity to solubilizing this metal for its efficient uptake. such microbes can mitigate the effect of various stressors by. sustaining plant growth in the face of ethylene ACC deaminase Bacterial siderophores are low molecular weight. producing microbes may play a role in regulating ethylene compounds with high Fe3 chelating affinities responsible for. levels after such bursts ensuring that ethylene levels stay the solubilization and transport of this element into bacterial. below the point where growth is impaired Ethylene is a key cells Some bacteria produce hydroxamate type siderophores. regulator of the colonization of plant tissue by bacteria which and others produce catecholate types 78 79 In a state of iron. in turn suggests that the ethylene inhibiting effects of ACC limitation the siderophore producing microorganisms are also. deaminase may be a microbial colonization strategy Generally able to bind and transport the iron siderophore complex by the. ethylene is an essential metabolite for the normal growth and expression of specific proteins The production of siderophores. development of plants 58 61 This plant growth hormone is by microorganisms is beneficial to plants because it can. produced endogenously by approximately all plants and is also inhibit the growth of plant pathogens siderophores have been. produced by different biotic and abiotic processes in soils and implicated for both direct and indirect enhancement of plant. is important in inducing multifarious physiological changes growth by plant growth promoting microbes. in plants Apart from being a plant growth regulator ethylene. Conclusion and Future Prospect, has also been established as a stress hormone Under stress. conditions like those generated by salinity drought water The microbes are capable of colonizing the rhizosphere. logging heavy metals and pathogenicity the endogenous level phyllosphere as well as living inside the plant tissues as. of ethylene is significantly increased which negatively affects the endophytes Biotechnology has opened up new possibilities. overall plant growth PGP microbes which possess the enzyme concerning the application of these microbes for the beneficial. 1 aminocyclopropane 1 carboxylate ACC deaminase facilitate applications in soil for the promotion of plant growth and the. plant growth and development by decreasing ethylene levels biological control of soil borne pathogens The nutritional and. inducing salt tolerance and reducing drought stress in plants environmental requirements of these microbes are very diverse. Microbial strains exhibiting ACC deaminase activity have been Due to the diverse range of activities as well as the number. identified in a wide range of genera such as Acinetobacter of microbes in varying habitats around the world these are. Achromobacter Agrobacterium Alcaligenes Azospirillum important bioresources towards rationalized use of chemicals. Bacillus Burkholderia Enterobacter Pseudomonas Ralstonia fertilizers in agriculture An understanding of plant microbiome. Serratia and Rhizobium 6 8 61 65 Figure 2 Table 1 for major crops will be of significant importance for exploring. efficient use of these microbes, The indirect mechanism of plant growth occurs when. microbes lessen or prevent the detrimental effects of pathogens Acknowledgement. on plants by production of inhibitory substances or by increasing The authors duly acknowledge the Department of. the natural resistance of the host 66 72 Phytopathogenic Biotechnology Govt of India for the financial support provided. How to cite this article Ajar N Y Priyanka V Divjot K Kusam L R et al Plant Microbiomes and Its Beneficial Multifunctional Plant Growth Promoting. Attributes Int J Environ Sci Nat Res 2017 3 1 555601 DOI 10 19080 IJESNR 2017 03 555601. International Journal of Environmental Sciences Natural Resources. Grant No BT AGR BIOFORTI PHII NIN 2011 Ministry of HHS2 30 an endophytic psychrotolerant K solubilizing bacterium. Food Processing Industries MoFPI Govt of India grant for from NW Indian Himalayas Natl J Life Sci 12 2 105 110. infrastructural facility development F No 5 11 2010 HRD and 16 Lian J Wang Z Zhou S 2008 Response of endophytic bacterial. Vice Chancellor Eternal University for providing the motivation communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt. pathogen infection J Gen Appl Microbiol 54 2 83 92. and research infrastructure, 17 Mitter B Pfaffenbichler N Flavell R Compant S Antonielli L 2017 A. 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How to cite this article Ajar N Y Priyanka V Divjot K Kusam L R et al Plant Microbiomes and Its Beneficial Multifunctional Plant Growth Promoting. Attributes Int J Environ Sci Nat Res 2017 3 1 555601 DOI 10 19080 IJESNR 2017 03 555601. International Journal of Environmental Sciences Natural Resources. psychrotolerant Pseudomonads from NW Himalayas Arch Microbiol 74 Yadav AN Sachan SG Verma P Kaushik R Saxena AK 2016 Cold active. 193 7 497 513 hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from. three sub glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas J Basic Microbiol. 69 Selvakumar G Joshi P Suyal P 2011 Pseudomonas lurida M2RH3 56 3 294 307. MTCC 9245 a psychrotolerant bacterium from the Uttarakhand. 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PGERs17 MTCC 9000 isolated from North Western Indian Himalayas in termite management potential role and strategies In Sustainable. Ann Microbiol 58 4 561 568 Termite Management pp 1 15 doi org 10 1016 B978 0 444 63501. 72 Vyas P Joshi R Sharma K Rahi P 2010 Cold adapted and rhizosphere. competent strain of Rahnella sp with broad spectrum plant growth 78 Neilands J 1995 Siderophores structure and function of microbial. promotion potential J Microbiol Biotechnol 20 12 1724 1734 iron transport compounds J Biol Chem 270 45 26723 26726. 73 Lottmann J Heuer H de Vries J Mahn A 2000 Establishment of 79 Ahmad F Ahmad I Khan M 2008 Screening of free living rhizospheric. introduced antagonistic bacteria in the rhizosphere of transgenic bacteria for their multiple plant growth promoting activities Microbiol. potatoes and their effect on the bacterial community FEMS Microbiol Res 163 2 173 181. Ecol 33 1 41 49,This work is licensed under Creative. 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