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Family Bible and First Illustrated Bible Printed in America Both were King James Versions with All 80 Books 1808 AD Jane Aitken s Bible Daughter of Robert Aitken The First Bible to be Printed by a Woman 1833 AD Noah Webster s Bible After Producing his Famous Dictionary Webster Printed his Own Revision of the King James Bible
Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. 2 Timothy 3 16 17 All Scripture is given by inspiration of. God and is profitable for doctrine for reproof for correction. for instruction in righteousness that the man of God may be. complete thoroughly equipped for every good work, What is being referred to here as Scripture is the original Hebrew. Aramaic and Greek text that was given to writers by inspiration of God. What this means exactly is difficult to say however it was not a trance. like thing or a robotic writing God chose specific individuals and gave. them inspiration through the Holy Spirit to record certain texts of the. Bible Translation Types, We read translations of the bible which are not exactly the same as. inspired scripture however they are usually close enough to be. doctrinally equivalent There are good and bad translations. 1 Literal Word for word as close to the original Hebrew Greek as. 2 Dynamic thought for thought each verse is a general meaning of. the original text, 3 Free Translation Paraphrase the translator changed the verses. into story like or easy reader form,Good Bible Translations Include. King James Version KJV,New King James Version NKJV. New American Standard Bible NASB,English Standard Version ESV. Canon The word canon comes from the Greek Kanon, meaning rule or measuring stick The current 66 books of the bible are. the canon 39 books in the Old Testament called the Tanakh by Jews. and 27 books in the New Testament, There have been many important milestones with respect to the. transmission recording copying and translating of the bible Let s do a. quick review of some of the more important ones,Page 2 of 17. Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Approximate Timeline of Bible History, 1 400 BC The Ten Commandments which was the first written word of. God was delivered to Moses, 500 BC Completion of All Original Hebrew Manuscripts which make up. The 39 Books of the Old Testament, 200 BC Completion of the Septuagint Greek Manuscripts which contain. The 39 Old Testament Books AND 14 Apocrypha Books, 1st Century AD Completion of All Original Greek Manuscripts which. make up The 27 Books of the New Testament, 315 AD Athenasius the Bishop of Alexandria identifies the 27 books of. the New Testament which are today recognized as the canon of scripture. 382 AD Jerome s Latin Vulgate Manuscripts Produced which contain All. 80 Books 39 Old Test 14 Apocrypha 27 New Test, 500 AD Some scripture has been translated into over 500 languages. 600 AD LATIN was the Only Language Allowed for Scripture. 995 AD Anglo Saxon Early Roots of English Language Translations of. The New Testament Produced, 1384 AD Wycliffe is the First Person to Produce a Hand Written. manuscript Copy of the Complete Bible All 80 Books. 1455 AD Gutenberg Invents the Printing Press Books May Now be mass. Produced Instead of Individually Hand Written The First Book Ever. Printed is Gutenberg s Bible in Latin, 1516 AD Erasmus Produces a Greek Latin Parallel New Testament. 1522 AD Martin Luther s German New Testament, 1526 AD William Tyndale s New Testament The First New Testament. printed in the English Language,Page 3 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. 1535 AD Myles Coverdale s Bible The First Complete Bible printed in the. English Language 80 Books O T N T Apocrypha, 1537 AD Tyndale Matthews Bible The Second Complete Bible printed in. English Done by John Thomas Matthew Rogers 80 Books. 1539 AD The Great Bible Printed The First English Language Bible. Authorized for Public Use 80 Books, 1560 AD The Geneva Bible Printed The First English Language Bible to. add Numbered Verses to Each Chapter 80 Books, 1568 AD The Bishops Bible Printed The Bible of which the King James. was a Revision 80 Books, 1609 AD The Douay Old Testament is added to the Rheims New. Testament of 1582 Making the First Complete English Catholic Bible. Translated from the Latin Vulgate 80 Books, 1611 AD The King James Bible Printed Originally with All 80 Books The. Apocrypha was Officially Removed in 1885 Leaving Only 66 Books. 1782 AD Robert Aitken s Bible The First English Language Bible KJV. Printed in America, 1791 AD Isaac Collins and Isaiah Thomas Respectively Produce the First. Family Bible and First Illustrated Bible Printed in America Both were King. James Versions with All 80 Books, 1808 AD Jane Aitken s Bible Daughter of Robert Aitken The First Bible. to be Printed by a Woman, 1833 AD Noah Webster s Bible After Producing his Famous Dictionary. Webster Printed his Own Revision of the King James Bible. 1841 AD English Hexapla New Testament an Early Textual Comparison. showing the Greek and 6 Famous English Translations in Parallel Columns. 1846 AD The Illuminated Bible The Most Lavishly Illustrated Bible. printed in America A King James Version with All 80 Books. Page 4 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. 1863 AD Robert Young s Literal Translation often criticized for being. so literal that it sometimes obscures the contextual English meaning. 1885 AD The English Revised Version Bible The First Major English. Revision of the KJV, 1901 AD The American Standard Version The First Major American. Revision of the KJV, 1952 AD The Revised Standard Version RSV said to be a Revision of. the 1901 American Standard Version though more highly criticized. 1971 AD The New American Standard Bible NASB is Published as a. Modern and Accurate Word for Word English Translation of the Bible. 1973 AD The New International Version NIV is Published as a. Modern and Accurate Phrase for Phrase English Translation of the Bible. 1982 AD The New King James Version NKJV is Published as a. Modern English Version Maintaining the Original Style of the King. 1990 AD The New Revised Standard Version NRSV further revision. of 1952 RSV itself a revision of 1901 ASV criticized for gender. inclusiveness, 2002 AD The English Standard Version ESV is Published as a. translation to bridge the gap between the accuracy of the NASB and the. readability of the NIV,The Old Testament OT, The OT was written over a fairly long period of time It is estimated that it. was written between 1445 B C and 424 B C by more than 24 different. authors The authorship of several of the OT books is unknown The OT. was written almost entirely in Hebrew with the exception of certain sections. of Ezra Jeremiah and Daniel which were written in Aramaic Aramaic was. specifically used when the author wanted to impart information to the. gentile or non Hebrew people of the time and area that the book was being. written because it was the common language,Page 5 of 17. Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. The texts of the OT were meticulously copied and transmitted from. generation to generation by chosen Hebrew scribes in the B C time period. and Jewish scribe scholars known as Masoretes which means tradition. keeper between the 5th and 10th centuries All of these scribes took great. care in counting letters and words in order to preserve perfect copies They. also had very extreme traditions and methods for their transcriptions which. included changing their clothing and bathing before writing the name of. God YHWH The OT is also referred to as the Masoretic Text. OT manuscripts are written either on single pages of papyri parchment. scrolls animal hides or in codex books, papyrus sheet on left and parchment scroll on right. Page 6 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Codex Book Sinaiticus,Version Examples Language Composition Oldest Copy. Hebrew Aramaic,Dead Sea Tanakh at,and Greek 150 BC 70 AD 150 BC 70 AD. Scrolls Qumran,Septuagint,2nd century BC,Vaticanus Codex. Septuagint Sinaiticus and Greek 300 100 BC,4th century AD. other earlier,early 5th century,Peshitta Syriac,early 5th century. Vulgate Codex Amiatinus Latin,early 8th century,AD complete. Masoretic Codex Leningrad Hebrew ca 100 CE 10th century AD. Codex and others,Oldest 11th,Samaritan Samaritan century AD. 200 100 BCE,Pentateuch alphabet oldest available,16th century AD. Targum Aramaic 500 1000 CE 5th century AD,Crosby Sch yen 3rd or 4th. Coptic Coptic,Codex century AD,Oldest Existing Hebrew Bible Tanakh Manuscripts. Page 7 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. The New Testament NT, The NT was written entirely in Koine Greek which was the every day. language of the Greeks as well as Eastern parts of Rome and others The. entire NT was written in approximately 50 years between 50 A D and 96. A D Unlike the Old Testament we know all of the authors of the NT texts. except for the book of Hebrews The sentence structure is actually similar to. that of Hebrew or Aramaic showing that the authors were more used to or. comfortable with these languages Jews of this time period used Aramaic. for most of their everyday communication however they would normally. know Greek and Latin as well, The NT was also transmitted to us through scribes who used very precise. letter by letter checks to assure accuracy There are both manuscripts and. lectionaries available A manuscript is any document that is written by. hand while a lectionary is a book that contains a collection of particular. scripture readings, Parts of the New Testament have been preserved in more manuscripts than. any other ancient work having over 5 800 complete or fragmented Greek. manuscripts 10 000 Latin manuscripts and 9 300 manuscripts in various. other ancient languages including Syriac Slavic Gothic Ethiopic Coptic. and Armenian, The various manuscripts are written in three major forms. 1 Papyri a copy of a portion of the NT made on papyrus. 2 Uncials a portion of the NT written using a type of script written. entirely in capital letters commonly used from the 4th to 8th. centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes, 3 Minuscules a copy of a portion of the NT written in a small. cursive Greek script,European Scribe,Page 8 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Greek New Testament Manuscripts Lectionaries, Century Papyri Uncials Minuscules Uncials Minuscules. 2nd 3rd 7 1,3rd 4th 36 4,4th 5th 22 22 1,5th 6th 6 46 1. 6th 7th 12 56 4,7th 8th 11 32 4,8th 9th 2 33 27,9th 10th 54 17 113 6. 10th 11th 20 132 111 42,11th 12th 1 462 15 240,12th 13th 581 6 503. 13th 14th 575 4 411,14th 15th 519 310,15th 16th 381 367. Total 96 Papyri 555 Uncials 4546 Minuscules,Codex Ebnerianus Miniscules of John 1 5 10. Page 9 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Book of Kells Uncials All Capitals,Codex Alexandrinus Gospel of Luke. Page 10 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Book Date Condition,Matthew c 200 Fragments,Mark c 250 Large Fragments. Luke c 200 Fragment,John c 125 160 Oldest Fragment. Acts early 3rd century Fragment,Romans c 175 225 Fragments. 1 Corinthians c 175 225 Fragments,2 Corinthians c 175 225 Fragments. Galatians c 175 225 Fragments,Ephesians c 175 225 Fragments. Philippians c 175 225 Fragments,Colossians c 175 225 Fragments. 1 Thessalonians c 175 225 Fragments,2 Thessalonians 3rd 4th century Fragment. 1 Timothy c 350 Complete,2 Timothy c 350 Complete,Titus c 200 Fragment. Philemon 3rd century Fragment,Hebrews c 175 225 Fragments. James 3rd century Fragment,1 Peter 3rd century Fragments. 2 Peter 3rd 4th century Fragments,1 John 3rd century Fragment. 2 John 3rd 4th century Fragment,3 John c 350 Complete. Jude 3rd 4th century Fragments,Revelation 2nd century Fragment. Earliest Known Manuscripts,Page 11 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Overall Manuscript Reliability, Manuscripts do differ slightly but it is only in spelling and punctuation and. not in doctrine Occasionally certain words or passages are missing from. certain manuscripts Examples Matthew 5 22 and Mark 16 9 20. however they do not change anything that is doctrinally important. The bible is the best preserved ancient book by far when compared to other. well known manuscripts see table below Most of these non biblical. manuscripts are just philosophical writings of the author. Date Earliest Years between of,Author Written Copy original copy Copies. Lucretius 55 or 53 B C 1100 2,Pliny 61 113 A D 850 A D 750 7. Plato 427 347 B C 900 A D 1200 7,Demosthenes 4th Cent B C 1100 A D 800 8. Herodotus 480 425 B C 900 A D 1300 8,Suetonius 75 160 A D 950 A D 800 8. Thucydides 460 400 B C 900 A D 1300 8,Euripides 480 406 B C 1100 A D 1300 9. Aristophanes 450 385 B C 900 A D 1200 10,Caesar 100 44 B C 900 A D 1000 10. Tacitus circa 100 A D 1100 A D 1000 20,Aristotle 384 322 B C 1100 A D 1400 49. Sophocles 496 406 B C 1000 A D 1400 193,Homer Iliad 900 B C 400 B C 500 643. New Testament 50 100 A D 130 A D less than 100 5600. The original scripture as well as original translations such as the Authorized. King James Version did not have chapter and verse divisions These were. added between 1250 A D chapters divisions added and 1500 A D verse. divisions added to make reference and reading easier There are also. words that show up in italics that indicate that they were added by the. translators to make the verse more readable in English. When determining how to interpret a verse or verses you must always. 1 Take it in context to surrounding verses, 2 Always find support elsewhere in the bible let scripture interpret. 3 Determine whether it is literal or figurative,Page 12 of 17. Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Hermeneutics The study of the way in which you interpret the bible. There are dozens of different techniques applied to the analysis of. scripture however for the typical reader they can be condensed to two. 1 Literal Interpretation This is the most common way to interpret. the majority of the bible It means exactly what it says. 2 Figurative Interpretation This is the second most common way. to interpret scripture Figurative language is whenever you describe. something by comparing it to something else This can be done is. several ways i e a simile using like or as metaphors direct. simile s personification onomatopoeia describing sounds or. hyperbole exaggeration, Bible Text There are 2 thoughts behind what was the best original text. 1 The oldest text is the most reliable ex Septuagint or Latin Vulgate. 2 the most common text is the most reliable ex Masoretic Texts. OT scripture translating has been ongoing since around 300 B C when 70. Jewish scholars were ordered by Ptolemy II to provide a Greek translation. of the Old Testament for Alexandrian Jews because they had gradually lost. touch with the Hebrew language The word Septuagint means seventy. LXX which stands for the 70 Jewish scholars who made the translation. The Septuagint is the first attempt to translate the Hebrew Old Testament. into another language and is based on Hebrew manuscripts 1 000 years. older than the Hebrew of the Masoretic text on which our Bibles are based. Another well known and influential translation was the fourth century. Latin Vulgate This was an entire Bible that was translated by Eusebius. Hieronymus who is also known as Jerome The Latin Vulgate was based on. the Hebrew and it became the standard of the Roman Catholic Church. Most modern bible translations are based on the Textus Receptus or the. received text This is an edition of the Greek New Testament that is based. on Byzantine manuscripts and was published by Desiderius Erasmus in. 1516 or a newer version of the Westcott Hort text of 1881. The key differences between translations is the choice of the original. source Typically Orthodox churches favor the Septuagint for the Old. Page 13 of 17, Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Testament and the Roman Catholic Church prefers the Latin Vulgate For. the New Testament conservative Protestant denominations tend toward. Byzantine manuscripts i e Textus Receptus The KJV came from the. Textus Receptus manuscripts Biblical researchers typically go with the. oldest manuscripts that are verifiable These include Alexandrian type. manuscripts for the NT and working from a mixture of Masoretic Qumran. and Septuagint LXX texts for the OT, One final note about gender before moving on Greek and Hebrew mark all. nouns just like Spanish and French do Several new translations including. the latest version of the New International Version NIV have been. removing gender and thus changing the original and intended meaning of. scripture For example they are changing the word man to person. Concordances, A word reference index for every word in the bible You can search for a. particular word and it will tell you every instance of that word in the bible. Strong s James Strong concordance is one of the most popular. Word English concordance Also called an exhaustive. concordance Lists typical definitions of a particular word and all of the. verses that the word is used in, Hebrew Concordance A number is assigned to every unique Hebrew. word in the bible as it was translated and the concordance lists the original. Hebrew definition as well as all the places the word is used. Greek Concordance A number is assigned to every unique Greek word. in the bible as it was translated and the concordance lists the original Greek. definition as well as all the places the word is used. There are also other important scriptural resources such as. Vine s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament. Brown Driver Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon,Bauer Arndt Gingrich Danker Dictionary. Theological Workbook of the Old testament,Page 14 of 17. Christian Resource Center New Hampshire www crcnh org. Bible Book Summary, Order Testament Book Title Chapters Author Language Book Type Date Written. 1 Old Genesis 50 Moses Hebrew Law Pentateuch 1445 1405 BC. 2 Old Exodus 40 Moses Hebrew Law Pentateuch 1445 1405 BC. 3 Old Leviticus 27 Moses Hebrew Law Pentateuch 1445 1405 BC. 4 Old Numbers 36 Moses Hebrew Law Pentateuch 1445 1405 BC. 5 Old Deuteronomy 34 Moses Hebrew Law Pentateuch 1445 1405 BC. 6 Old Joshua 24 Joshua Hebrew History Narrative 1405 1385 BC. 7 Old Judges 21 Samuel Hebrew History Narrative 1043 BC. 8 Old Ruth 4 Samuel Hebrew History Narrative 1030 1010 BC. 9 Old 1st Samuel 31 Unknown Hebrew History Narrative 931 722 BC. 10 Old 2nd Samuel 24 Unknown Hebrew History Narrative 931 722 BC. 11 Old 1st Kings 22 Unknown Hebrew History Narrative 561 538 BC. 12 Old 2nd Kings 25 Unknown Hebrew History Narrative 561 538 BC. 13 Old 1st Chronicles 29 Ezra Hebrew History Narrative 450 430 BC. 14 Old 2nd Chronicles 36 Ezra Hebrew History Narrative 450 430 BC. 15 Old Ezra 10 Ezra Hebrew Aramaic History Narrative 457 444 BC. 16 Old Nehemiah 13 Ezra Hebrew History Narrative 424 440 BC. 17 Old Esther 10 Unknown Hebrew History Narrative 450 331 BC. 18 Old Job 42 Unknown Hebrew Poetry Wisdom Unknown. 19 Old Psalms 150 Multiple Hebrew Poetry Wisdom 1410 450 BC. 20 Old Proverbs 31 Solomon Hebrew Poetry Wisdom 971 686 BC. 21 Old Ecclesiastes 12 Solomon Hebrew Poetry Wisdom 940 931 BC. 22 Old Song of Solomon 8 Solomon Hebrew Poetry Wisdom 971 965 BC. 23 Old Isaiah 66 Isaiah Hebrew Major Prophet 700 681 BC. 24 Old Jeremiah 52 Jeremiah Hebrew Aramaic Major Prophet 586 570 BC. 25 Old Lamentations 5 Jeremiah Hebrew Major Prophet 586 BC. 26 Old Ezekial 48 Ezekial Hebrew Major Prophet 590 570 BC. 27 Old Daniel 12 Daniel Hebrew Aramaic Major Prophet 536 530 BC. 28 Old Hosea 14 Hosea Hebrew Minor Prophet 755 710 BC. 29 Old Joel 3 Joel Hebrew Minor Prophet 835 796 BC. 30 Old Amos 9 Amos Hebrew Minor Prophet 755 BC, 31 Old Obadiah 1 Obadiah Hebrew Minor Prophet 850 840 BC. 32 Old Jonah 4 Jonah Hebrew Minor Prophet 760 BC, 33 Old Micah 7 Micah Hebrew Minor Prophet 735 710 BC. 34 Old Nahum 3 Nahum Hebrew Minor Prophet 650 BC, 35 Old Habakkuk 3 Habakkuk Hebrew Minor Prophet 615 605 BC. 36 Old Zephaniah 3 Zephaniah Hebrew Minor Prophet 635 625 BC. 37 Old Haggai 2 Haggai Hebrew Minor Prophet 520 BC. 38 Old Zechariah 14 Zechariah Hebrew Minor Prophet 480 470 BC. 39 Old Malachi 4 Malachi Hebrew Minor Prophet 433 424 BC. 40 New Matthew 28 Matthew Greek History Narrative 50 60 AD. 41 New Mark 16 Mark Greek History Narrative 50 60 AD. 42 New Luke 24 Luke Greek History Narrative 60 61 AD. 43 New John 21 John Greek History Narrative 80 90 AD. 44 New Acts 28 Luke Greek History Narrative 62 AD,45 New Romans 16 Paul Greek Epistle 56 AD. 46 New 1st Corinthians 16 Paul Greek Epistle 55 AD. 47 New 2nd Corinthians 13 Paul Greek Epistle 55 56 AD. 48 New Galatians 6 Paul Greek Epistle 49 50 AD,49 New Ephesians 6 Paul Greek Epistle 60 62 AD. 50 New Philippians 4 Paul Greek Epistle 60 62 AD,51 New Colossians 4 Paul Greek Epistle 60 62 AD. 52 New 1st Thessalonians 5 Paul Greek Epistle 51 AD. 53 New 2nd Thessalonians 3 Paul Greek Epistle 51 52 AD. 54 New 1st Timothy 6 Paul Greek Epistle 62 64 AD,55 New 2nd Timothy 4 Paul Greek Epistle 66 67 AD. 56 New Titus 3 Paul Greek Epistle 62 64 AD,57 New Philemon 1 Paul Greek Epistle 60 62 AD. 58 New Hebrews 13 Unknown Greek Epistle 67 69 AD,59 New James 5 James Greek Epistle 44 49 AD. 60 New 1st Peter 5 Peter Greek Epistle 64 65 AD,61 New 2nd Peter 3 Peter Greek Epistle 67 68 AD. 62 New 1st John 5 John Greek Epistle 90 95 AD,63 New 2nd John 1 John Greek Epistle 90 95 AD. 64 New 3rd John 1 John Greek Epistle 90 95 AD,65 New Jude 1 Jude Greek Epistle 68 70 AD. 66 New Revelation 22 John Greek Epistle 94 96 AD,Page 15 of 17.