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Author s personal copy Overcoming limited information through participatory watershed management Case study in Amhara Ethiopia Benjamin M Liua Yitayew Abebeb c Oloro V McHugha Amy S Collicka Brhane Gebrekidanc Tammo S Steenhuisa c a Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering Cornell University Ithaca NY United States b Swedish International Development Cooperation


Author s personal copy, 14 B M Liu et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 2008 13 21. Nyssen et al 2004 indicated that the stagnation of agricul datasets in developing countries are often available only. tural technology and lack of agricultural intensi cation in at very limited locations and data collection standards. the Ethiopian highlands is the origin of present land and can be inconsistent Integrated water management. resource degradation This degradation in turn becomes approaches that either require less information or make. the underlying root of poverty Thus the challenge of use of indigenous knowledge within the watershed are. breaking the poverty environment trap and initiating sus therefore needed One such approach is the Smallholder. tainable intensi cation requires policy incentives and tech System Innovations SSI programme in Tanzania and. nologies that confer short term bene ts to the poor while South Africa which concentrates on ways to increase food. conserving the resource base Only by improving the natu production improve rural livelihoods and safeguard criti. ral resource base can one increase food production and les cal ecological functions through participatory development. sen the need for external food supplies Shiferaw and and interdisciplinary research Rockstrom et al 2004. Holden 1998 Therefore to explore sustainable methods Similarly using the joint Vertisols project in Ethiopia as. towards increased food production and its connected eco a case study Jabbar et al 2001 described the need to tran. nomic development the goal of this study was to revitalize sition away from the traditional single discipline manner of. watersheds by keeping more rainwater green water on research if complex interrelationships between environ. the land and increasing fertility This revitalization is multi ment and human are to be addressed. dimensional and complex requiring interdisciplinary e ort Another reality of development work in Ethiopia is a. to carefully design development activities Since green dependency on food aid It has become a contentious issue. water development encompasses so many di erent activities for many developing countries with some o cials even. at various scales with each location having unique needs advocating the cessation of foreign aid After more than. an integrated approach is especially appropriate 25 years of Food for Work programs productivity of major. crops barley and wheat remained stagnant and local live. 1 1 Integrated watershed approaches lihoods in Ethiopia were not improved Herweg 1993 Shi. feraw and Holden 1998 Tekle 1999 Conservation, One integrated approach for watershed management is practices proposed under the Food for Work program were. through the use of computer models various attempts not seen by households as valuable means towards increas. have been made in Ethiopia to apply such methods The ing food production Farmers took part in the Food for. Agricultural Non Point Source Model AGNPS was tested Work programs because either they needed the grain or. on the highlands Augucho catchment by Haregeweyn and were forced to participate Tekle 1999 Tekle further. Yohannes 2003 but could not reproduce runo patterns showed in a study of South Wollo Ethiopia that the main. The Precipitation Runo Modeling System PRMS was problem with Food for Work programs was the lack of. similarly tested by Legesse et al 2003 for South Central attention given to attitudes of local people towards conser. Ethiopia and needed extensive calibration to predict the vation programs and what their priorities were In most. monthly runo Ayenew and Gebreegziabher 2006 tted programs local people were not consulted at all making it. a spreadsheet type water balance to predict water levels in impossible for these communities to accept any kind of. Lake Awassa of the Rift Valley but found that the model responsibility Public opposition to projects most often. did not perform well in more recent years possibly due to arises from either a lack of accurate knowledge or inade. changing land use and neotectonism Finally Hengsdijk quate involvement in the decision making process Plan. et al 2005 applied a suite of crop growth nutrient bal ning and Decision Making 1999 so the obvious solution. ance and water erosion models to conclude that common is to have farmers become involved in both the information. conservation practices such as bunds crop mulching and gathering and decision processes Therefore our integrated. reforestation may actually result in lower overall crop pro watershed management approach was to give local farming. ductivity in the highlands of northern Ethiopia communities control of both the planning and distribution. In response to Hengsdijk s conclusions Nyssen et al of Food for Work aid thus meeting short term food needs. 2006 compared Hengsdijk s predictions with eld obser while sustainably improving the resource base. vations from the same region and found that the models. over predicted crop yields while under predicting soil 1 2 Pilot watersheds. losses Although such models can be applied for policy. analysis they typically need extensive calibration and can With this in mind two pilot watersheds from food inse. not simulate the intricacies that farmers have to deal with cure areas of the Amhara region Yeku and Lenche Dima. on a day by day basis Nyssen et al 2006 When datasets were selected in conjunction with the Amhara Micro enter. are incomplete or of poor quality other integrated prise development Agricultural Research Extension and. approaches will likely be more e ective management tools Watershed Management Project AMAREW to test inte. The modeling techniques described above were typically grated watershed management techniques in Ethiopia. developed for conditions in the United States or Europe Locations of these sites are shown in Fig 1 Both water. where availability of datasets for both input and calibra sheds are almost entirely comprised of subsistence farming. tion was not a great limitation In contrast the required Rain fed crops mostly cereals are cultivated in the atter. Author s personal copy, B M Liu et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 2008 13 21 15. that all other e orts build upon This approach is especially. applicable to places like the pilot watersheds where known. information is limited and disparate Without accurate. data technical experts have no advantage over politicians. or stakeholders Steenhuis and Pfe er 2000 Yet without. these experts new ideas and management practices will. never be introduced Farmers knowledge must be supple. mented with scienti c data collection to properly identify. the needs of each watershed,1 4 Gathering information. Obtaining data and making it accessible to both plan. ners and communities is a crucial rst step in appropriate. watershed development In the initial watershed selection. for the 1999 USAID request for applications comprehen. sive feasibility studies were undertaken at the Yeku and. Lenche Dima watersheds A traveling technical team, formed a planning group with 30 representative farmers.
at each watershed then carried out exercises on describing. Fig 1 Ethiopia site map the watersheds identifying problems formulating solu. tions and developing community action plans for each. valley bottoms while the hillsides are used for free livestock subsystem of the watershed Gizaw et al 1999a b With. grazing Yeku watershed is more at risk of chronic food assistance the farmers also mapped available resources. shortage than Lenche Dima and was recently involved in land use and soils of their watersheds These in turn were. the government s resettlement scheme As shown in Table used by the technical team to create scienti c maps of the. 1 Yeku is higher in altitude receives less rain and is eco same watershed characteristics Results from the planning. nomically poorer as illustrated by smaller average land group were presented to the communities local govern. holdings While the only developments within each ments and cooperating agencies. watershed are small traditional villages and paths Lenche Unfortunately after such a promising start it took four. Dima is near the larger town of Woldiya so has easier years to begin the actual work During this break the com. access to outside resources and markets munities were not kept informed and lost con dence in the. Feasibility studies to select the pilot watersheds were project Other lapses in communication during this time led. carried out in the late 1990s with the project o cially start to important parts of the feasibility study such as soil. ing in September 2002 The rst community meetings to set maps being lost Cases like this underlined the recurring. watershed priorities were held in January and February of problems associated with participating agencies and groups. 2003 Leadership workshops were held then Community not sharing the same vision In a system accustomed to. Watershed Management Organizations CWMOs created directives coming from above grassroots initiatives require. in June With these formal community structures in place a daunting amount of inter agency communication to have. conservation projects both biological and physical began a chance at succeeding. and continue through the present Late in each calendar Due to di cult site access satellite imagery with GPS. year project progress is reviewed by the communities and registration was used to create detailed land use and eleva. the following year s activities planned Our involvement tion maps Heatwole 2003 These maps are very useful for. with AMAREW stopped at the end of 2005 presenting information to technical colleagues but the. technology has not been successfully made accessible to. 1 3 Watershed management design with limited data the stakeholders Further work needs to be done to let all. participating parties bene t from this expensive knowledge. When trying a grassroots approach to watershed man While remote sensing may one day provide the basic infor. agement local farmers knowledge forms the foundation mation needed for watershed management planning in. Pilot watershed characteristics, Altitude Yearly rainfall Rain Number of Average landholding Total area Cultivated Area. masl mm pattern households size ha ha ha,Yeku 2050 2360 400 800 Unimodal 285 0 75 582 230. Lenche 1520 1820 700 1000 Bimodal 865 1 56 1546 979. Author s personal copy, 16 B M Liu et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 2008 13 21. remote locations the lack of detailed data available for for Action COLTA program Upon returning these lead. Africa and extreme rainfall patterns mean that onsite data ers were able to hold elections and form the community. collection is the only real option for now watershed management organizations CWMOs Further. The climate data used in the feasibility studies was from trainings were conducted in con ict management consen. the nearest government weather stations but Ethiopia s sus building and community organization Without such. highland climate varies greatly both in space and time Col incremental steps the watershed management organiza. laborating with the AMAREW project the government tions would not have been able to organize themselves. research institution ARARI and graduate students sta coordinate food aid programs or plan watershed interven. tioned at each pilot watershed researched the e ectiveness tions. of interventions and collected basic scienti c data such as Any person receiving food aid automatically became a. rainfall stream ow temperature and evaporation Enlist member of the CWMO in their respective watershed but. ing local children allowed for the gathering of a more each of the four village clusters selected four males and. accurate spatial distribution of data and helped to ensure four females to form the organization s leadership Gender. long term interest in data collection Continual monitoring equity was a major concern in strengthening the commu. will be essential to successfully adapting management nity participation process Social and cultural norms com. strategies to rapidly changing conditions bined with a lack of land ownership discourage women. from participating in leadership positions After some ini. 2 Watershed management through leadership development tial opposition it has become acknowledged that the 50. rule resulted in a stronger organization This planning. Even if all the outputs from initial e orts had been aw group split into four focus committees natural resources. lessly preserved there still was not su cient information crop production livestock and social development Greatly. for a top down watershed development approach that enhancing extension possibilities the in uential watershed. relied on precise hard data for planning The only practical management organizations also serves as a conduit for fur. way to continue was to make full use of community knowl ther information dissemination such as soil and water con. edge To do this the communities needed to be cooperative servation post harvest storage and animal health. informed and organized such that data and feedback could. be relayed with ease Since time was limited a two pronged 2 3 Promoting con dence. approach was followed community problems were identi. ed and prioritized in workshops and at the same time The project also targeted households with small or no. the community was helped to develop leadership con landholdings for income generation through more informal. dence self help groups An example of the success achieved. through these programs is the Yeku women s energy, 2 1 Workshops group Increasing scarcity of fuel sources and the necessity. of alternative sources of income brought these women. Once the project started community problem identi ca together to produce and market improved wood stoves. tion and prioritization workshops were again held in each which reduce fuel use and curb smoke pollution They cur. watershed Yeku determined that soil erosion and water rently produce the stoves in the watershed and sell them. shortage were their most important priorities while Lenche throughout the Sekota area with the continued support. Dima was most concerned with water shortage and crop of the Sekota Agricultural and Rural Development O ce. productivity Given less priority were fodder shortage Involving women in new income generating activities and. pests livestock health deforestation erratic rainfall pat leadership opportunities are important emerging compo. terns and lack of access roads The communities then pro nents of integrated watershed management projects. posed solutions for each problem and based on their It must be noted that while stakeholder feedback is cen. farming timetables determined how much time could be tral to the participatory method new processes still require. spent each month on project tasks These estimates were the support of outside institutions to seem credible and. combined with eld visits by technical sta to formulate attainable Comparing the early progress of the two pilot. annual work plans and budget requirements watersheds made this apparent The Bureau of Agriculture. BoARD was the primary partner agency responsible for. 2 2 Organizing communities implementation of the AMAREW project acting as the. interchange point between the communities and outside. Farming communities have a high interest in improving agencies BoARD is understa ed and stretched thin yet. and protecting their natural resource base but do not at Yeku the supportive representative played a critical role. always have the capacity to e ectively address these issues in helping the watershed produce real gains from project. Developing leadership skills is essential to these communi works within months At Lenche Dima at least three dif. ties wishing to assume more responsibilities As an initial ferent Development Agents were assigned to the area dur. step various leaders from each community were enrolled ing the rst two years of the project and sometimes there. in the Community Organizing and Leadership Training were months when no one was responsible Despite the. Author s personal copy, B M Liu et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 2008 13 21 17.
community s interest very little was accomplished They distant rivers Water scarcity here has signi cantly. needed outside support to help jumpstart the process and impacted enrollment of school aged children One farmer. build con dence in sustainable development practices explained the situation as follows Since the opening of. elementary school at Woleh 5 km away the incidence. 3 Speci c achievements of leeches on our cattle has increased as we started sending. our children to school and our livestock are left unat. There are encouraging attitudinal changes within the tended I know sending children to school is a good thing. community In the last three years through the facilitating but I should give priority to my livestock as they are the. role of the CWMOs and the incremental successes of small ones on which my family s livelihood depends That is. individual achievements the communities now contribute why I made my children drop out of school and tend the. 30 40 free labor for watershed management tasks Main livestock to protect them from getting leeches. tenance of soil and water conservation structures tree In line with their prioritization exercises the community. planting and access road construction works are carried at Yeku developed potential water sources including. out through free community labor This was not the case springs and shallow hand dug wells with support from. prior to the AMAREW project and is a welcome change AMAREW Labor and locally available construction. from the much lamented dependency trap that food aid is materials such as sand stone gravel and water were pro. often associated with Increased community responsibility vided by the community while the project provided materi. was accomplished by promoting from the start that com als that were not locally available including cement. munities should own the watershed and its activities reinforcing iron rods pipes ttings and skilled labor. whereas outside projects contribute the nancial technical The major new source is the Bambaw spring comprising. and legal support necessary to create an enabling environ a spring box with sand ltering system separate water. ment and encourage local initiative delivery point for humans and livestock along with a pro. The vital monitoring of the pilot watershed development tected washing stand This spring provides clean potable. is also primarily the responsibility of the CWMO Each water for over 200 households and meets the water needs. year s activities are evaluated by the communities prior to of more than 600 livestock per day Water use is managed. the next work plan preparation Farmers identify technol and operated by a water committee established by the com. ogies that have performed well and should be scaled up munity with moderate usage fees collected to cover routine. along with those that should be dropped because of poor maintenance and security costs The newly developed. performance Increased con dence and responsibility spring has reduced workload for women and children. within the communities has the added bene t of strength and improved human and livestock health The farmer. ening partnerships between government institutions and quoted above commented the following Now that I have. the CWMOs access to ltered water from a spring which is leech free. To illustrate what can be achieved through community time has come for me to send my children back to school. participation speci c examples are given on water short. ages land degradation improved agricultural production 3 2 Land degradation. and gully rehabilitation, In addition to water shortage land degradation and. 3 1 Potable water shortages yield reduction were some of the primary concerns of the. pilot watersheds Extensive physical and biological conser. Communities in Yeku identi ed water shortage as their vation works were carried out in Yeku and Lenche Dima. primary constraint and their rst priority for an integrated through Food for Work and free community labor mobili. watershed development e ort in their watershed House zation Physical interventions included extensive hillside. holds in the watershed are forced to access on average more terracing check dams using stone gabion sand bags stone. than three di erent water sources during the course of the and soil bunds eyebrow and micro basins trenches sedi. year to ful ll their domestic and livestock water needs ment storage dams and rock ll dams Biological interven. Water sources include gully sand bed holes community tions mainly focused on area closure gully rehabilitation. earthen ponds rivers springs and hand dug shallow wells hillside planting and individual homestead plantations. Each source has its own constraints poor water quality Stabilization of farmland soil by direct sowing on bunds. and health problems are associated with the ponds and of forage species such as Sesbania Leucenea and pigeon. gully beds springs are especially susceptible to uctuations pea has shown very encouraging results Increased forage. in rainfall and wells can be prohibitively expensive to con production by bene ciaries allowed households to meet. struct Most of these sources dry up during the dry periods livestock feed requirements and enabled some to earn addi. so long distances have to be traversed in search of reliable tional money from the sale of forage seeds to the local. water Bureau of Agriculture BoARD and NGO o ces, It is women and children of school age particularly The closed area management system in Yeku is one of. girls who collect drinking water while boys are responsible the nest examples of the cooperative process Closing o. for watering livestock by collecting leech free water from grazing lands when livestock herds were already underfed. Author s personal copy, 18 B M Liu et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 2008 13 21. seemed like a preposterous solution to the communities so the project gullies had no value other than transportation. the project arranged for farmers other community leaders pathways constructing structures in other areas would. and local development agents to visit another watershed almost certainly involve a reduction in the amount of crop. where closed area management was practiced After dis or grazing lands. cussing with the more experienced community the di cul Therefore in 2004 a gully in the Kolo Kobo sub catch. ties and bene ts associated with closed areas Yeku decided ment of Lenche Dima was selected for a demonstration of. to try closing 25 ha of their land Management of these hill rehabilitation measures Community level discussions were. side areas was given to self help groups comprised of per held on how to rehabilitate gully areas within farm plots. sons with limited or no land holdings often youths or assessing traditional practices and new ideas It was. women headed households The hillsides showed very decided to use simple sand bag check dams since the stones. rapid regeneration of natural vegetation resulting in cut for gabion construction were scarce Sand bag check dams. and carry pro ts for the user groups decreased soil loss are not permanent structures but help trap silt washed from. and increased water in ltration and groundwater recharge surrounding hillsides Once adequate silt is accumulated. This led to seasonal stream ows at Yeku being extended usually after the rst three or four rains forage species. Due to the success of the trial the Yeku community has were directly sown on the silt layer Fig 2 shows the signif. voluntarily closed other grazing areas and become a show icant stabilization that occurred due to these physical and. piece watershed that holds Farmers Days to educate oth biological interventions. ers about closed area management The CWMO divided the entire gully length into small. sections usually the area between two sand bag check. 3 3 Agricultural productivity dams and allocated it to a farmer who had landholdings. adjacent to the gully The user has the right to utilize the. To increase crop yields experimental farms were estab vegetation employing the cut and carry system in return. lished within farmers plots to test improved varieties of for maintaining the physical structures before and after. traditional crops and new crops such as cotton groundnut the rains and planting trees and other plants as appropri. and garlic Some crops such as beets grew well but it was ate During the initial stage of construction frequent loot. quickly discovered that they did not have any market ing of bags eucalyptus poles and stone was common It. potential in the communities This kind of instant feedback was not possible to assign guards along the 600 m of gully. is not possible at farm trials in specialized outside research length and knowing that government decrees would have. sites Improved plowing techniques aimed at increased little e ect the CWMO turned to Shelegas religious lead. water in ltration and storage were also tested in a similar ers in this Muslim area who use their authority to resolve. fashion Subsistence farmers not sure of meeting their disputes in the community The project invited the Shelegas. required needs are unwilling to try new methods that could to visit the development e orts under way then a tradi. leave them with less food so aid incentives were used to tional chat chewing ceremony was arranged and the issue. decrease the risk of technology transfers such as seed stor of damages to the physical conservation works was. age improvement fruit tree propagation private nurseries brought to the attention of the Shelegas The Shelegas. beekeeping and poultry production Working with local uttered a warning statement locally recognized as Ergeman. knowledge to select the best locations small scale water stating that whoever in icts any damage on the commu. harvesting structures have also been constructed to enable nity s or project s structures or materials and supplies. organic vegetable gardens Progressive farmers such as Ato may invite Allah s severe punishment on him Since the. Wossen in Yeku now produce a variety of vegetables and warning there has not been any damage reported or mate. fruits such as garlic pepper onion pumpkin co ee rials stolen. papaya avocado and mango using this water Last year Gully rehabilitation has been associated with moderat. he was able to get 400 birr US 47 from the sale of his ing the extremely violent ow events that are associated. garlic crop alone so other farmers are becoming greatly with intense rainfall patterns increasing the duration of. interested in such improvements stream ow and lowering peak rates We investigated if this. was true for the Lenche Dima watershed Due to the rela. 3 4 Gully rehabilitation tively short duration of the study and remoteness of the. location examples are only illustrative The stream ow. Deforestation exacerbates excess run o and has caused patterns in the Kolo Kobo sub catchment were compared. severe gully erosion in productive farmlands at the foot of with a control sub catchment lacking gully stabilization. hillsides of both pilot watersheds Increasing amounts of improvements Although these two micro catchments. productive farmland are lost through gully erosion every within the Lenche Dima watershed were not identical the. year While gullies are not the only places in the landscape results still showed the bene ts of interventions The con. where erosion takes place they were the logical candidate trol sub catchment Hartibo was almost twice as large. to address rst since ow is concentrated in relatively small but had 120 m less of an elevation change as the Kolo. areas meaning less labor to construct and maintain conser Kobo sub catchment so standard logic would predict that. vation structures Another important point is that before it have smaller peak discharges and longer retention times. Author s personal copy, B M Liu et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 2008 13 21 19. Fig 2 Kolo Kobo gully rehabilitation photos Sandbag check dams constructed in main gullies of Kolo Kobo catchment a and c shortly after. installation of check dams and b and d three months later showing good vegetation cover and gully stabilization. Two runo events are plotted in Fig 3 the rst runo clearly be seen in Fig 2 a and c Most years see less than. event of the season a and b and an event during the mid 10 runo producing storms so it is worth the e ort to repair. dle of the rainy season c and d Both storms show the the check dams or construct new ones as the bed lls with. Kolo Kobo gully ow lasting 2 3 times longer than Har soil after each large event. tibo and the rst storm a shows Hartibo having a much. higher peak ow rate The increased retention time at Kolo 4 Discussion and conclusions. Kobo was due to the sandbag check dams holding back. water and silt The many peaks during the 8 14 04 event Bottom up participatory watershed development pro. b most notably the last one seen at 5 h were likely due cess can only be achieved with strong community. to one or more of the check dams being overtopped or giv watershed management organizations CWMOs which. ing way but even with such failures the constructed works facilitate the introduction of appropriate management. did a remarkable job of slowing down erosion The reten strategies and even more importantly continue this e ort. tion of sediment and moisture in the gully bed can also after outside help leaves Therefore our single most. Author s personal copy, 20 B M Liu et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 2008 13 21.
a 125 0 b 25 0,HB8 14 04 KK8 14 04,Rainfall 30 mm Rainfall 30 mm. Discharge mm d 1 I30 27 mm h 1 5 I30 23 mm h 1 5,Discharge mm d 1. Rainfall mm,Rainfall mm,0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 8 10 12. Time h Time h, Hartibo discharge 8 14 04 Kolo Kobo discharge 8 14 04. 0 d 50 KK9 13 04,Rainfall 15 mm Rainfall 21 mm,40 I30 22 mm h 1 40 I30 22 mm h 1.
Discharge mm d 1,Rainfall mm,Rainfall mm,0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6. Time h Time h, Hartibo discharge 9 13 04 Kolo Kobo discharge 9 13 04. Fig 3 Stream discharge and 15 min rainfall bar graph for two sub catchments in Lenche Dima control Hartibo HB and conserved Kolo Kobo. KK Measured values shown by a solid line with open circles and recession ts shown by a broken line. important result is that the community organizations have and project personnel We also found that communities. become strong enough to manage watershed development most at risk were also the most open to new ideas Lenche. themselves Lack of information at the beginning was Dima was close to a relatively well o town that o ered. transformed into a strength by allowing the project to alternative opportunities for income so the establishment. include farmers at a very early point Involvement in each of a committed CWMO in Lenche Dima was initially di. phase of planning has resulted in increased trust and con cult Only after a project manager stayed for a two month. dence This has in turn allowed introduced technologies period in the watershed demonstrating what could be. such as area closures and water harvesting basins to be achieved by cooperation did the CWMO take o In con. more readily accepted and such changes have become trast farming was the sole option for people in the more. desirable with or without outside funding Empowerment remote Yeku watershed so it was easy for them to see. of local organizations allows them to take control of their the importance of improving their natural resource base. own watershed problems and work towards meeting their Motivation was thus much stronger in Yeku and their. own livelihood needs CWMO immediately started making progress A good. Speci cally we have learned that 1 communities have measure of the strength of this community organization. high interest in development initiatives including sustain is that three years after its inception approximately 40. ing natural resources 2 only when people make real con of the conservation works labor was being implemented. tributions of their own resources will they strive to ensure through volunteer work instead of foreign aid We have. the implementation of the planned activities 3 emphasis not yet been back to Lenche Dima. must be given to e ective organization of communities Without ignoring the encouraging improvements. rather than only focusing on technology development 4 described above many challenges still exist for these pilot. including non technical leaders in the information loop watersheds In a society that is used to top down adminis. provides great bene ts at the community level tration having a strong community base is not by itself. Introduced ideas such as the fair representation of enough Since the government currently owns all land. women and poor in the management process women s communities and individuals will not be able to take full. micro enterprise groups and closing o areas to livestock responsibility for their natural resources until further. faced strong cultural opposition at the beginning but have reform of land rights is pursued In addition stakeholder. proven very successful thanks to trial tests and continued scientists and engineers are still required to draw upon their. collaboration e orts by farmers non technical leaders wider ranges of experience to ensure the sound design solid. Author s personal copy, B M Liu et al Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 33 2008 13 21 21. construction proper use and implementation and appro Haregeweyn N Yohannes F 2003 Testing and evaluation of the. priate maintenance of new technologies The project agricultural non point source pollution model AGNPS on Augucho. catchment western Hararghe Ethiopia Agr Ecosyst Environ 99 1. involves numerous government agencies and foreign uni 3 201 212. versities but all the partners do not have the same vision Heatwole Conrad 2003 QuickBird Satellite Image B 6 November 2003. Gains will quickly falter unless the project continues to AMAREW Project internal map. build organizational relationships and recognize changing Hengsdijk H Meijerink G W Mosugu M E 2005 Modeling the e ect. needs of three soil and water conservation practices in Tigray Ethiopia Agr. Ecosyst Environ 29 40 1 2, Luckily even localized successes such as the progress Herweg K 1993 Problems of acceptance and adoption of soil conser. seen in the pilot watersheds work like a positive feedback vation in Ethiopia In Baum E Wol P Zo bisch M A Eds. loop leaving those involved more capable of tackling lar Acceptance of soil and water conservation Strategies and technolo. ger problems Examples discussed from both watersheds gies In A Series on Soil and Water Conservation Strategies and. have illustrated the e ectiveness and in uence of small Technologies vol 3 Deutsches Institut fu r Tropische und Subtrop. ische Landwirtschaft pp 391 411, scale projects Projects at the local level are less likely to Jabbar M A Mohamed Saleem M A Li Pun Hugo 2001 Towards.
overwhelm the resources of an organization or exclude transdisciplinarity in technology and resource management research a. them and both the local communities and stakeholder project in Ethiopia Outlook Agr 30 4 257 260. organizations that work together in these projects improve Legesse D Vallet Coulomb C Gasse F 2003 Hydrological response. their decision making powers and sense of ownership The of a catchment to climate and land use changes in Tropical Africa case. study South Central Ethiopia J Hydrol 275 67 85, pilot watersheds of Yeku and Lenche Dima have become Nyssen J Poesen J Moeyersons J Deckers J Haile M Lang A. showpieces for watershed conservation motivating and 2004 Human impact on the environment in the Ethiopian and. teaching other communities that similar progress is within Eritrean highlands a state of the art Earth Sci Rev 64 3 4 273. their reach 320, Nyssen J Haregeweyn N Descheemaeker K Gebremichael D. Vancampenhout K Poesen J Haile M Moeyersons J Buytaert. Acknowledgements W Naudts J Deckers J Govers G 2006 Comment on Mod. elling the e ect of soil and water conservation practices in Ethiopia. The key ingredients for success in this project were the Agr Ecosyst Environ 105 29 40 Agric Ecosyst Environ 114 407. many hard working people in the watershed and the expe Planning and Decision Making 1999 New Strategies for America s. rience and knowledge of Yitayew Abebe and Tesfaye Habt Watersheds Committee on Watershed Management National. amu in promoting participatory watershed management Research Council. under supervision of Kent Reid In addition the help of Rockstrom J Folke C Gordon L Hatibu N Jewitt G de Vries. the personnel of BoARD ARARI and other partner agen F P Rwehumbiza F Sally H Savenije H Schulze R 2004 A. watershed approach to upgrade rainfed agriculture in water scarce. cies were instrumental in facilitating the project USAID regions through Water System Innovations an integrated research. provided the funding for the project to Virginia Tech Con initiative on water for food and rural livelihoods in balance with. tract No 663 C 00 02 00340 00 which subcontracted the ecosystem functions Phys Chem Earth 29 15 18 1109 1118. watershed component to Cornell University Shiferaw B Holden S T 1998 Resource degradation and adoption of. land conservation technologies in the Ethiopian highlands a case. study in Andit Tid North Shewa Agric Econ 18 233 247. References Special Report FAO WFP Crop and Food Supply Assessment Mission to. Ethiopia 2006 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United. Ayenew T Gebreegziabher Y 2006 Application of a spreadsheet Nations World Food Programme Rome 24 February. hydrological model for computing the long term water balance of Steenhuis T S Pfe er M J 2000 Sustainable and integrated manage. Lake Awassa Ethiopia Hydrolog Sci J J Sci Hydrolog 5 418 431 ment of water land and bio resources In Wu W S Chang S T. Gizaw S Mekonnen K Desta L 1999a Lenche Dima Integrated Guan B T Eds Proc Agriculture of the New Century Managing. Watershed Development Project Feasibility Study Report Amhara Bio Resources and Bio Diversity Nat Taiwan Univ Republic of. National Regional State Bahir Dar 19 May China pp 127 135. Gizaw S Mekonnen K Desta L 1999b Yeku Integrated Watershed Tekle K 1999 Land degradation problems and their implications for. Development Project Feasibility Study Report Amhara National food shortage in South Wello Ethiopia Environ Manage 23 419.

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