Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Nisa Rachmania Mubarik Major Microbiology Department Of
Amino acids can be classified as glucogenic or ketogenic Glucogenic Amino Acids Glucogenic amino acids can be degraded to pyruvate or an intermediate in the Krebs Cycle They are named glucogenic because they can produce glucose under conditions of low glucose This process is also known as gluconeogenesis or the production of new glucose Amino
Nonessential Essential,Alanine Arginine,Asparagine Histidine. Aspartate Isoleucine,Cysteine Leucine,Glutamate Lysine. Glutamine Methionine,Glycine Phenylalanine,Proline Threonine. Serine Tyrptophan,Tyrosine Valine,Microbial Physiology 2. Nisa R Mubarik,http www personal psu edu, staff m b mbt102 bisci4online Microbial Physiology 3. chemistry chemistry8 htm Nisa R Mubarik,Four levels of protein structure. Primary exact sequence of,amino acids before folding. Secondary simple folding,create simple structures,Tertiary folding results in. complex 3D structures,Quaternary multiple 3D,subunits organized into a. bigger structure,Microbial Physiology 4,Nisa R Mubarik. Based on chemical similarities and only few starting compounds all amino. acids can be regarded as members of five families, 1 The glutamate family starting with alpha ketoglutarate. The amino acids glutamate glutamine proline and arginine are members. of this family, 2 The aspartate family with the starting compound oxaloacetate. The amino acids apartate asparagine threonine isoleucine and. methionine are counted among this group,3 The alanine valine leucine group pyruvate. 4 The serine glycine group 3 phosphoglycerate, 5 The family of aromatic amino acids phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose 4. phosphate an intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway. Microbial Physiology 5,Nisa R Mubarik,http www biologie u. ni hamburg de b,online e19 19e htm,Microbial Physiology 6. Nisa R Mubarik, http www biochemj org bj 388 Microbial Physiology 7. 0669 bj3880669 htm Nisa R Mubarik,The glutamate family. Glutamate is accordingly the amino acid generated first Glutamate itself can bind a. further ammonium ion to form glutamine a second amino acid Both reactions are. ATP dependent Very important for amino acid syntheses is a group of enzymes. called aminotransferases They are able to transfer an amino group mostly that of. glutamine to an alpha keto acid Accordingly they could also be said to be the. distributors of amino groups,Glutamate dehydrogenase. reaction The starting compounds,are alpha ketoglutarate and NH4. Glutamate synthetase reaction,starting compounds are. glutamate and NH4,Microbial Physiology 8,Nisa R Mubarik. Glutamate synthase reaction a transamination The amino group of an amino. acid glutamate is transferred to an alpha ketoacid alpha ketoglutarate. Proline is generated by a ring formation under consumption of one molecule of. NADH H NADPH H and ATP each,Microbial Physiology 9. Nisa R Mubarik, A pair of principal enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine. synthatase are found in all organisms and effect the conversion of ammonia. into the amino acids glutamate and glutamine respectively. Amino and amide groups from these 2 substances are freely transferred to. other carbon skeletons by transamination and transamidation reactions. Microbial Physiology 10,Nisa R Mubarik, The aspartate family with the starting compound oxaloacetate. The amino acids aspartate asparagine threonine isoleucine and. methionine are counted among this group Aspartate is generated by the. transamination, glutamate oxaloacetate alpha ketoglutarate aspartate. A cofactor in the methionine production is tetrahydrofolate THF that. transfers a methyl group to the SH group of homocysteine the precursor. of methionine The result is the terminal S CH3 group of methionine. Microbial Physiology 11,Nisa R Mubarik, Lysine synthesis Intermediates of the glutamate and the aspartate family. are coupled in just the same way as in the arginine and asparagine. synthesis Lysine can be generated in two ways Both are named according. to their most characteristic intermediates Green algae ferns and higher. plants take one pathway some green flagellates euglenophyta and fungi. Microbial Physiology 12,Nisa R Mubarik,Branched chain amino acid and lysine biosynthesis. Biosynthetic relationships among the branched chain amino acids. Microbial Physiology 13,Nisa R Mubarik,The alanine valine leucine group pyruvate. Pyruvate is the starting compound its amino derivative is alanine Valine and. leucine are synthesized independently of each other by elongation of the. pyruvate chain interconversion and subsequent transamination. This group of essential amino acids are identified as the branched chain. amino acids BCAAs Because this arrangement of carbon atoms cannot be. made by humans these amino acids are an essential element in the diet. Microbial Physiology 14,Nisa R Mubarik, Feedback inhibition of valine leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis.