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encouraged multinational corporations companies with divisions in more than two countries to come to Latin America This made these Latin American coun tries even more dependent on industrialized nations In the 1970s Latin American nations grew more dependent as they attempted to maintain their weak economies by borrowing money Between 1970 and 1982 debt to foreigners grew from 27
Sugarloaf Mountain overlooks Rio de Janeiro one of Brazil s most populous cities. Ch Guevara,1990 HISTORY,1967 Violeta Barrios de 2002. Ch Guevara Chamorro elected Brazilians elect Lula, dies in Bolivia president of Nicaragua president Chapter Overview. Visit the Glencoe World,History Modern,Times Web site at. 1970 1980 1990 2000,wh mt glencoe com,and click on Chapter 22. Chapter Overview to,1989 2000 preview chapter information. United States Vicente Fox,invades Panama becomes,Arrest of Panamanian president of. leader Manuel Noriega Mexico, A victorious Fidel Castro rides through the streets of Havana in 1959. The Castro Brothers, On January 1 1959 Fidel Castro and his revolutionary forces. overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista,In the years before the revolu Why It Matters. tion Castro had promised a Gu l f o f Florida Since 1945 the nations of Latin. return to the constitution land America have followed different. reform and improved health Moncada Havana paths of change In some countries. and welfare services Many CUBA military dictators have maintained. Cubans were overjoyed at his political stability and initiated eco. victory We were walking on a Caribbean Sea nomic changes A few nations like. cloud one Cuban said Cuba have used Marxist revolutions. At first Castro s government did become a source of hope for to create a new political economic. many Cubans He confiscated land and redistributed it among and social order Many Latin Ameri. can nations have struggled to build, poor farmers He set up health clinics and made education a pri. democratic systems especially since, ority for everyone Castro did not follow through on his promise. the late 1980s The Cold War has, of political freedom however When elections were held people also had an impact on Latin America. were able to vote only from a list of approved candidates Politi. cal dissent was not allowed History and You As you read. Soon after the revolution many well to do Cubans who had this chapter document the struggle. lost their property migrated to the United States often settling in between democracy and dictator. Florida Since then Cubans of all classes have often tried to emi ship in the Latin American states. grate to find a better life and greater freedom Make a chart or diagram comparing. Castro s efforts to establish a functioning centralized economy the different states their leadership. failed despite help from Cuba s main ally the Soviet Union That and reasons why the regimes were. help ended in 1989 when the Soviet Communist Party fell from able to gain power. power Cuban conditions worsened and the high hopes of the. Cuban revolution were left unfulfilled,General Trends. in Latin America,Guide to Reading,Main Ideas People to Identify Reading Strategy. Exporting raw materials and importing Gabriel Garc a M rquez Oscar Niemeyer Categorizing Information Use a chart. manufactured goods has led to eco like the one below to identify social and. nomic and political troubles for Latin Places to Locate political challenges in Latin America since. American nations Chile Brazil Bolivia Peru Colombia 1945. Many Latin American nations began to Preview Questions. build democratic systems in the late 1 What factors undermined the stability. 1980s Social Political,of Latin American countries Challenges Challenges. Key Terms 2 How did the roles of women change, multinational corporation magic realism in Latin America after 1945. Preview of Events,1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990,1948 1980 1982 1990. The Organization of A movement toward democracy Gabriel Garc a M rquez wins Twenty nine Latin American. American States is formed takes place in Latin America the Nobel Prize for literature cities have over a million people. Voices from the Past, One Latin American observer discussed the United States s invasion of Panama in. 1989 in the following words, The first official U S reason for the invasion of Panama was to protect American. lives there This pretext was not credible for the cry of wolf wolf has been used. before in Latin America The danger to American lives is a hundred times greater. every day and night in Washington D C the murder capital of the United States and. in other American cities to which President Bush has hardly applied his policy of pro. tecting North American lives and waging war against drugs he prefers to wage that. war on foreign battlefields, Latin American Civilization History and Society 1492 to the Present. Benjamin Keen 1996, U S soldiers in Panama U S intervention in Latin American affairs has been a general trend in Latin Ameri. can history since 1945,Economic and Political Developments. Since the nineteenth century Latin Americans had exported raw materials. while buying manufactured goods from industrialized countries As a result of the. Great Depression however exports fell and the revenues that had been used to. buy manufactured goods declined In response many Latin American countries. developed industries to produce goods that were formerly imported. CHAPTER 22 Latin America 683,U S Involvement in Latin. America since 1945,UNITED STATES S 5 CHILE 30 N,1940s 1970 Support for left leaning parties grows. 1970 President Allende nationalizes some industry and. institutes land reform,1973 Army overthrows Allende General Pinochet. becomes dictator, 1989 Pinochet forced out Azocar elected president by. 6 popular vote,HAITI 6 CUBA,BELIZE 1959 Marxist Castro overthrows. dictator Batista,NICARAGUA 1960 U S declares trade embargo. 2 1961 U S supports Bay of Pigs invasion, 1946 One party rule by PRI 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. PANAMA 1989 Soviet military subsidies to Cuba 10 N. 1950s 1960s Industrialization,3 GUYANA end hurting Cuban economy. under way often with COSTA 4 1996 U S continues trade embargo. U S capital RICA,1986 continuing wave of COLOMBIA FRENCH GUIANA Fr. immigrants prompts new,U S law SURINAME EQUATOR,1994 U S Mexico and Canada ECUADOR. form NAFTA Atlantic,2000 Vicente Fox elected,ending 70 years of PRI rule Ocean. 2 NICARAGUA PERU 7,1947 1979 Somoza family with strong. U S support controls country BRAZIL,1979 Marxist Sandinistas overthrow. Somoza regime BOLIVIA 10 S,1981 1990 U S aids right wing contras. against Sandinistas,1990 Moderate Chamorro elected U S. lifts trade embargo, 3 PANAMA PARAGUAY 1946 1980s Industrial development. 1968 1981 military junta controls country 20 S,begins surging in the 1970s. 1977 By treaty canal reverts to Panama in 1999 and 1980s. 1983 Dictator Noriega profits from illegal drug trade 1964 85 military dictatorship rules. 1989 U S invades Panama and captures Noriega 1989 first direct election held. 1999 Canal reverts to Panama 1994 95 new president introduces. ARGENTINA reforms,Pacific Ocean CHILE,1995 annual rate of deforestation of. 4 COLOMBIA Amazon rain forests estimated, 1960s present guerrillas illegal drug gangs and at 29 000 sq kilometers 30. paramilitary groups create violence and chaos, 2003 U S forces protecting oil pipeline from 8 ARGENTINA. terrorist attacks 1946 Peron begins to nationalize industry and. 0 1 000 miles,expand unions economic growth is slow. 1976 83 period of military rule and Dirty War,thousands disappear. 0 1 000 kilometers,1982 Argentina invades British Falkland Islands. Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area projection,FALKLAND defeat leads to political reform. ISLANDS 2003 International Monetary Fund approves S. U K 6 78 million loan for financial crisis, 130 W 120 W 110 W 100 W 90 W 80 W 70 W 60 W 50 W 40 W 30 W 20 W 10 W 0. By the 1960s however Latin American countries with divisions in more than two countries to come to. were still experiencing economic problems They Latin America This made these Latin American coun. were dependent on the United States Europe and tries even more dependent on industrialized nations. Japan especially for the advanced technology In the 1970s Latin American nations grew more. needed for modern industries Also many Latin dependent as they attempted to maintain their weak. American countries had failed to find markets economies by borrowing money Between 1970 and. abroad to sell their manufactured products 1982 debt to foreigners grew from 27 billion to. These economic failures led to instability and 315 3 billion By 1982 a number of Latin American. reliance on military regimes In the 1960s repressive economies had begun to crumble Wages fell and. military regimes in Chile Brazil and Argentina abol unemployment and inflation skyrocketed. ished political parties and returned to export import To get new loans Latin American governments. economies financed by foreigners These regimes also were now forced to make basic reforms During this. encouraged multinational corporations companies process however many people came to believe that. 684 CHAPTER 22 Latin America, Gross Domestic Product per Capita Main Exports 1990s. TROPIC OF CANCER,CUBA DOMINICAN,7299 BELIZE HAITI REPUBLIC. Argentina HONDURAS Caribbean Atlantic,GUATEMALA NICARAGUA Sea Ocean. EL SALVADOR,4911 COSTA RICA GUYANA,Brazil PacificPANAMA. 5060 FRENCH,COLOMBIA GUIANA,9089 ECUADOR,SURINAME EQUATOR. 5521 A m a zon R,5299 BRAZIL,Colombia 10 S,4158 Main exports 1990s N. N A Bananas BOLIVIA W E,Cuba Cattle,N A CHILE PARAGUAY. 6041 Copper CAPRICOOF,Mexico Fish fish,6488 products. URUGUAY 30 S,1571 Manufactured,Nicaragua goods,Oil petroleum. 2506 1996 0 1 000 miles,5452 1980 products 40,Panama Sugar cane 0 1 000 kilometers S. 5114 Tobacco,Lambert Azimuthal,Equal Area projection. 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 Wheat,110 W 100 W 90 W 70 W 60 W 50 W 40 W 30 W 20 W. Dollar Amount, In constant international U S dollars Population of Latin America. Population in millions, Over the past 50 to 60 years the United States has been 600 586. actively involved in Latin American affairs 500 520. 1 Interpreting Maps Based on information from the 443. map on page 684 describe the economic relationship 362. between the United States and many Latin American 300 286. countries 200 218, 2 Applying Geography Skills Create a time line based. on the map on page 684 Then pose and answer a ques. tion about the patterns you find 0, 3 Applying Geography Skills Create a database for 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020. Latin America that includes elements from the maps and Year. the graph on pages 684 and 685 Analyze your data in a Source U S Bureau of the Census. paragraph Note Populations for 2010 and 2020 are projections. government had taken control of too many indus At the same time many people realized that military. tries Trying to industrialize too quickly had led to power without popular consent could not maintain a. the decline of the economy in the countryside as well strong state By the mid 1990s several democratic. Many hoped that encouraging peasants to grow regimes had been established. food for home consumption rather than export The movement toward democracy was the most. would stop the flow of people from the countryside noticable trend of the 1980s and the early 1990s in. to the cities At the same time they believed that Latin America This revival of democracy was fragile. more people would now be able to buy the products In 1992 President Alberto Fujimori returned Peru to. from Latin American industries an authoritarian system. With the debt crisis in the 1980s came a movement, toward democracy Some military leaders were Reading Check Explaining Why did the debt crisis. unwilling to deal with the monstrous debt problems of the 1980s create a movement toward democracy. CHAPTER 22 Latin America 685,Latin American Society The United States and. Latin America s economic problems were made Latin America. worse by dramatic growth in population By the mid The United States has always played a large role in. 1980s the population in Latin America had grown Latin America For years the United States had sent. from about 165 million people in 1950 to 400 million troops into Latin American countries to protect U S. With the increase in population came a rapid rise in interests and bolster friendly dictators. the size of cities By 2000 50 cities in Latin America In 1948 the states of the Western Hemisphere. and the Caribbean had more than one million people formed the Organization of American States OAS. Slums and shantytowns were found in many cities which called for an end to military action by one state. The gap between the poor and the rich remained in the affairs of any other state The formation of the. enormous in Latin America Landholding and urban OAS however did not end U S involvement in Latin. elites owned huge estates and businesses while peas American affairs. ants and the urban poor struggled just to survive As the Cold War developed so too did the anxi. The traditional role of homemaker continues for ety of American policy makers about the possibility. women who have also moved into new jobs In addi of Communist regimes in Latin America As a result. tion to farm labor women have found jobs in indus the United States returned to a policy of taking action. try and as teachers professors doctors and lawyers when it believed that Soviet agents were trying to. The international drug trade brought crime and cor establish Communist governments or governments. ruption to some Latin American countries undermin hostile to United States interests The United States. ing their stability Bolivia Peru and Colombia were also provided massive amounts of military aid to. especially big producers of cocaine and marijuana anti Communist regimes. Reading Check Evaluating Describe the effect s Reading Check Examining How did the Cold War. of Latin America s dramatic increase in population impact United States policy in Latin America. International Women s Conferences Latin America Africa and Asia focused on bringing an. end to the violence hunger and disease that haunt,As women around the world organized movements. their lives, to change the conditions of their lives an international. At the International Women s Year Tribunal in Mexico. women s movement emerged Especially in the 1970s, in 1974 sponsored by the United Nations Dimitila Bar. much attention was paid to a series of international. rios de Chungara a miner s wife from Bolivia expressed. conferences on women s issues Between 1975 and, her lack of patience with professional women at the. 1985 the United Nations celebrated the Decade for,conference She said So I went up and spoke I made. Women by holding conferences in such cities as Mexico. them see that they don t live in our world I made them. City Copenhagen and Nairobi,see that in Bolivia human rights aren t respected. The conferences made clear how women in both,Women like us housewives who get organized to bet. industrialized and developing nations were organizing. ter our people well they the Bolivian police beat us up. to make people aware of women s issues They also,and persecute us. made clear the differences between women from West. ern and non Western countries,Women from Western,countries spoke about. political economic cul Women from industrialized and developing nations. tural and sexual rights In focus on very different issues. contrast women from 1 Which concerns of women are most important. developing countries in 2 Do you think women s conferences are needed. Latin American mother What purposes might conferences serve other. with children than raising issues,Latin American Culture. Writers and artists have played important roles,Gabriela Mistral. 1889 1957 Chilean poet,in Latin American society They have been given a. public status granted to very few writers and artists. in other countries In Latin America writers and Gabriela Mistral whose real name. artists are seen as people who can express the hopes was Lucila Godoy Alcayaga was a. poet and educator She was trained, of the people One celebrated Latin American writer. to be a teacher and became the direc,is the Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral. tor of a school for girls in Santiago, In literature Latin Americans developed a unique Chile In 1922 she was invited by the. form of expression called magic realism Magic real Mexican government to introduce educational. ism brings together realistic events with dreamlike or programs for the poor in that country Later she took up. fantastic backgrounds residence in the United States and taught at Middlebury. Perhaps the foremost example of magic realism is and Barnard Colleges. One Hundred Years of Solitude a novel by Gabriel Gar In 1945 she became the first Latin American author. c a M rquez In this story of the fictional town of to win the Nobel Prize for literature Her poems explored. Macondo the point of view slips back and forth the many dimensions of love tinged with an element of. between fact and fantasy Villagers are not surprised sadness. when a local priest rises into the air and floats How. ever when these villagers are introduced to magnets. Latin American art and architecture were strongly,telescopes and magnifying glasses they are dumb. influenced by international styles after World War II. founded by what they see as magic According to, In painting abstract styles were especially important. Garc a M rquez fantasy and fact depend on one s,Perhaps the most notable example of modern archi. point of view, tecture can be seen in Bras lia the capital city of. Garc a M rquez a Colombian was the most, Brazil built in the 1950s and 1960s Latin America s. famous of the Latin American novelists He was a,greatest modern architect Oscar Niemeyer designed. former journalist who took up writing when he,some of the major buildings in Bras lia. became angered by the negative reviews Latin Amer, ican authors were receiving He was awarded the Reading Check Identifying What novel is the fore. Nobel Prize for literature in 1982 most example of magic realism. Checking for Understanding Critical Thinking Analyzing Visuals. 1 Define multinational corporation 6 Analyze Why did the rapid rate of 8 Examine the photograph of a Latin. magic realism population growth in many Latin Amer American mother with her children. ican countries cause problems for their shown on page 686 of the text How. 2 Identify Organization of American political and economic systems does this photograph reflect the con. States OAS Gabriel Garc a M rquez cerns faced by many Latin American. Oscar Niemeyer 7 Organizing Information Draw a chart women. like the one below to list economic, 3 Locate Chile Brazil Bolivia Peru challenges in Latin America since 1945. Colombia On your chart use dates and names of, 4 Explain how the Great Depression hurt countries from the text to make each. entry as specific as possible 9 Descriptive Writing A uniquely. Latin American economies Have these, economies recovered from the prob Latin American literary form is magic. lems caused by the Great Depression Economic realism which combines realistic. Challenges events with elements of magic and, 5 List two well known Latin American fantasy Research further the ele. writers Why are writers and artists held ments of magic realism and then. in such high regard in Latin America write a short story about a real or. imagined event using that style,CHAPTER 22 Latin America 687. Mexico Cuba and,Central America,Guide to Reading,Main Ideas People to Identify Reading Strategy. Mexico and Central America faced polit Vicente Fox Fidel Castro Manuel Noriega Categorizing Information Use a table. ical and economic crises after World like the one below to identify the political. War II Places to Locate and economic challenges faced by El Sal. The United States feared the spread of Havana El Salvador Nicaragua Panama vador Nicaragua and Panama after. communism in Central American coun Preview Questions 1945. tries which led to active American 1 What problems did Mexico and the. involvement in the region El Salvador Nicaragua Panama. nations of Central America face after,Key Terms 1945. privatization trade embargo contra 2 What were the chief features and. impact of the Cuban Revolution,Preview of Events,1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000. 1959 1961 1979 1983 2000, Castro s revolution United States breaks diplo The Sandinistas overthrow Noriega takes Vicente Fox defeats the PRI candi. aries seize Havana matic relations with Cuba Somoza rule in Nicaragua control of Panama date for the presidency of Mexico. Voices from the Past, Nancy Donovan a Catholic missionary in Nicaragua described her encounter with. the military forces known as the contras, It is not easy to live in a war zone The least of it was my being kidnapped by con. tras early this year The hard part is seeing people die and consoling families In. those eight hours I was held as I walked in a column of 60 or so men and a few. women all in uniform I could hear shooting and realized that people I knew were. being killed Earlier I had seen bodies brought back to town some burned some cut to. Latin American Civilization History and Society 1492 to the Present. Benjamin Keen 1996, Contra soldiers Financed by the United States the contras were trying to overthrow the Sandinista. rulers of Nicaragua in one of several bloody wars fought in Central America. The Mexican Way, The Mexican Revolution at the beginning of the twentieth century created a. political order that remained stable for many years The official political party of. the Mexican Revolution the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI came to. dominate Mexico Every six years leaders of the PRI chose the party s presiden. tial candidate who was then elected by the people,688 CHAPTER 22 Latin America. During the 1950s and 1960s steady economic prohibiting trade with. growth led to real gains in wages for more and more Cuba and just three HISTORY. people in Mexico At the end of the 1960s however months later on January 3. students began to protest Mexico s one party gov 1961 broke all diplomatic Web Activity Visit. ernment system On October 2 1968 university stu relations with Cuba the Glencoe World. History Modern, dents gathered in Mexico City to protest government Soon after that in April. Times Web site at, policies Police forces opened fire and killed hun 1961 the American presi. wh mt glencoe com, dreds Leaders of the PRI grew concerned about the dent John F Kennedy and click on Chapter 22. need for change in the system supported an attempt to Student Web Activity. The next two presidents Lu s Echeverr a and Jos overthrow Castro s gov to learn more about. L pez Portillo made political reforms and opened ernment When the inva Fidel Castro. the door to the emergence of new political parties sion at the Bay of Pigs. Greater freedom of debate in the press and universi failed the Soviets were encouraged to make an even. ties was allowed Economic problems however greater commitment to Cuba In December 1961 Cas. would soon reappear tro declared himself a Marxist drawing ever closer to. In the late 1970s vast new reserves of oil were dis the Soviet Union The Soviets began placing nuclear. covered in Mexico The sale of oil abroad increased missiles in Cuba in 1962 an act that led to a show. dramatically and the government became more down with the United States see Chapter 20. dependent on oil revenues When world oil prices The Cuban missile crisis caused Castro to realize. dropped in the mid 1980s Mexico was no longer able that the Soviet Union had been unreliable If the rev. to make payments on its foreign debt The govern olutionary movement in Cuba was to survive the. ment was forced to adopt new economic policies Cubans would have to start a social revolution in the. One of these policies was privatization the sale of rest of Latin America They would do this by starting. government owned companies to private firms guerrilla wars and encouraging peasants to over. The debt crisis and rising unemployment throw the old regimes Ernesto Ch Guevara an. increased dissatisfaction with the government Sup Argentinian and an ally of Castro led such a war in. port for the PRI dropped and in 2000 Vicente Fox,defeated the PRI candidate for the presidency. Reading Check Evaluating How was Mexico s econ,omy affected by its oil industry. The Cuban Revolution,As you will learn the Bay of Pigs. invasion was an attempt by the United States to move. forcefully against Fidel Castro and the threat of com. munism that he represented,In the 1950s a strong opposition movement arose. in Cuba Led by Fidel Castro the movement aimed, to overthrow the government of the dictator Fulgen. cio Batista who had controlled Cuba since 1934 Cas. tro s army used guerrilla warfare against Batista s. regime As the rebels gained more support the,regime collapsed Castro s revolutionaries seized. Havana on January 3 1959 Many Cubans who dis History. agreed with Castro fled to the United States, Relations between Cuba and the United States A Cuban refugee is carried ashore by a U S Marine. quickly deteriorated when the Castro regime began in 1975 Over the past few decades thousands of. to receive aid from the Soviet Union Arms from East Cuban refugees have entered the United States. In what year did the United States break, ern Europe also began to arrive in Cuba In October. diplomatic relations with Cuba,1960 the United States declared a trade embargo. CHAPTER 22 Latin America 689,Government Reforms in Latin America. Argentina Brazil Chile El Salvador Nicaragua Panama Peru. Military 1955 Military 1964 Military 1973 Military 1972 Military 1979 1983 National 1968 Military. Regime overthrows seizes control under Pinochet prevents free Sandinistas Guard under under Alvarado. Per n 1982 Severe overthrows elections Marxist Noriega seizes takes over. 1973 Per n recession Marxist Allende 1979 Military guerrilla forces control 1975 Military. is reelected undermines and establishes takes over bring down 1989 Noriega removes. 1976 Military military control regime dictatorship nullifies election Alvarado. takes over of Somoza results,again family, Civilian 1983 Civilian 1985 1989 Pinochet 1984 1990 1989 1980 Civilian. Rule rule returns Free elections is defeated Moderate Sandinistas U S troops rule returns. Alfons n is held in free Duarte is lose free arrest Noriega 1990 2000. elected 1989 80 million elections elected but civil elections but democracy Fujimori is. 1994 Brazilians vote 2000 Socialist war continues remain returns dictatorial. Constitution is 1999 Ricardo Lagos 1992 Peace strongest party 1999 Female president. reformed Military put Escobar elected settlement ends 1996 Mireya Moscoso 2001 Toledo. under civilian president civil war Elections result de Gruber wins free. control in peaceful elected elections,transfer of president. Many Latin American countries have had problems, maintaining stable governments Belize and Guatemala Economically Central Amer. 1 Problem Solving Use a problem solving ica has depended on the export of bananas coffee. process and the information in this chapter to list and cotton Prices for these products have varied. options and choose possible solutions to suggest over time however creating economic crises In. how these countries might avoid takeovers by addition an enormous gulf between a wealthy elite. military regimes in the future and poor peasants has created a climate of instability. Fear in the United States of the spread of commu,nism often led to American support for repressive. regimes in the area American involvement was espe, Bolivia but was killed by the Bolivian army in the fall. cially evident in El Salvador Nicaragua and Panama. of 1967 The Cuban strategy failed,Nevertheless in Cuba Castro s Marxist regime. El Salvador After World War II the wealthy elite,continued but with mixed results The Cuban people. and the military controlled the government in El Sal. did secure some social gains The regime provided, vador The rise of an urban middle class led to some. free medical services for all citizens and illiteracy. hopes for a more democratic government The army,was nearly eliminated. however refused to accept the results of free elections. The Cuban economy continued to rely on the pro,that were held in 1972. duction and sale of sugar Economic problems forced. In the late 1970s and the 1980s El Salvador was,the Castro regime to depend on Soviet aid and the. rocked by a bitter civil war Marxist led leftist guer. purchase of Cuban sugar by Soviet bloc countries,rillas and right wing groups battled one another. After the collapse of these Communist regimes in,During the presidency of Ronald Reagan the United. 1989 Cuba lost their support Economic conditions in. States provided weapons and training to the Sal,Cuba have steadily declined Nevertheless Castro. vadoran army to defeat the guerrillas,has managed to remain in power. In 1984 a moderate Jos Duarte was elected pres, Reading Check Describing How was Castro s Cuba ident However the elections failed to stop the sav. affected by the collapse of Communist governments in Eastern age killing By the early 1990s the civil war had led. Europe to the deaths of at least 75 000 people Finally in 1992. a peace settlement brought the war to an end, Upheaval in Central America Nicaragua In Nicaragua the Somoza family seized. Central America includes seven countries Costa control of the government in 1937 and kept control for. Rica Nicaragua Honduras El Salvador Panama the next 42 years Over most of this period the Somoza. 690 CHAPTER 22 Latin America,regime had the support of the United States The. Somozas enriched themselves at the nation s expense Rigoberta Mench. and used murder and torture to silence opposition 1959 Guatemalan activist. By 1979 the United States under President Jimmy,Carter had grown unwilling to support the corrupt. regime In that same year Marxist guerrilla forces,R igoberta Mench is a reformer. who worked to save her fellow, known as the Sandinista National Liberation Front Quich Indians from the murder. won a number of military victories against govern squads of the Guatemalan govern. ment forces and gained virtual control of the country ment She grew up in a poor family. The Sandinistas inherited a poverty stricken nation Her father helped organize a peasant. Soon a group opposed to the Sandinistas policies movement but he and other family members. called the contras began to try to overthrow the new were killed by government troops. government The Reagan and Bush administrations in Rigoberta Mench then began to play an active role. the United States worried by the Sandinistas align in her father s movement Condemned by the. Guatemalan government she fled to Mexico Her auto,ment with the Soviet Union supported the contras. biography I Rigoberta Mench brought world atten,The war waged by the contras undermined sup. tion to the fact that 150 000 Native Americans had been. port for the Sandinistas In 1990 the Sandinistas killed by the Guatemalan authorities In 1992 she. agreed to free elections and they lost to a coalition received the Nobel Peace Prize and used the money. headed by Violeta Barrios de Chamorro They lost from the award to set up a foundation to help Native. again in 2001 but remained one of the strongest par Americans. ties in Nicaragua,Panama Panama became a nation in 1903 when it. broke away from Colombia with help from the United 1989 Noriega was later sent to prison in the United. States In return for this aid the United States was States for drug trafficking. able to build the Panama Canal and gained influence A major issue for Panamanians was finally settled. over the government and economy of Panama A in 1999 when the canal was returned to Panama The. wealthy oligarchy ruled with American support terms for its return were set in a 1977 treaty with the. After 1968 military leaders of Panama s National United States. Guard were in control One of these Manuel Nor, iega became so involved in the drug trade that Pres Reading Check Summarizing What factors led to. ident George Bush sent U S troops to Panama in conflicts in Central America from the 1970s to the 1990s. Checking for Understanding Critical Thinking Analyzing Visuals. 1 Define privatization trade embargo 6 Evaluate Why did relations between 8 Examine the photo of Castro on page. contra the Soviet Union and Cuba become 682 and the photo of a Cuban refugee. more difficult after 1962 on page 689 What inferences can you. 2 Identify Vicente Fox Fidel Castro draw about Castro s reign in Cuba from. Manuel Noriega 7 Cause and Effect Use a chart like the looking at these photos. one below to show how Mexico has, 3 Locate Havana Nicaragua Panama reacted to political and economic crises. El Salvador since World War II, 4 Explain why the Cubans attempted to Crisis Reaction. 9 Persuasive Writing The United,spur revolution in the rest of Latin. States has increasingly tried to nego,tiate conflicts using economic tools. 5 List the political reforms enacted by rather than military force Research. Mexican presidents Lu s Echeverr a and the trade embargo imposed upon. Jos L pez Portillo Cuba Write a persuasive argument. for or against this embargo,CHAPTER 22 Latin America 691. Student Revolt in Mexico,A GROWING CONFLICT BETWEEN THE. government and university students in Mexico,came to a violent climax on October 2 1968 just. before the Olympic Games were to,UNITED STATES,begin in Mexico City The official. government report said that Mexican, authorities were fired upon and they MEXICO Gulf of. returned the gunfire This excerpt is Mexico,PACIFIC City. taken from an account of the events by,the student National Strike Council. After an hour and a half of a peaceful meeting,attended by 10 000 people and witnessed by scores. of domestic and foreign reporters a helicopter gave. the army the signal to attack by dropping flares Student demonstrators in Mexico City. into the crowd Simultaneously the plaza was sur, rounded and attacked by members of the army and the area and thousands of violent arrests It. police forces should be added that members of the National. The local papers have given the following infor Strike Council who were captured were stripped. mation confirmed by firsthand witnesses about and herded into a small archaeological excava. the attack tion at Tlatelolco converted for the moment. 1 Numerous secret policemen had infiltrated the into a dungeon Some of them were put up. meeting in order to attack it from within with against a wall and shot. orders to kill They were known to each other All this has occurred only ten days before the. by the use of a white handkerchief tied around start of the Olympics The repression is expected to. their right hands become even greater after the Games. 2 High caliber weapons and expansion bullets We are not against the Olympic Games Welcome. were used Seven hours after the massacre,began tanks cleaned up the residential build. Account of the Clash Between the Govern, ings of Nonoalco Tlatelolco with short cannon ment and Students in Mexico October 2 1968. blasts and machine gun fire,3 On the morning of October 3 the apartments. of supposedly guilty individuals were still being,Analyzing Primary Sources. searched without a search warrant,1 What was the reason for the military attack. 4 Doctors in the emergency wards of the city hos,on the students. pitals were under extreme pressure being forced,2 Why do you think the government. to forego attention to the victims until they had,reacted with such violence. been interrogated and placed under guard,3 Do you think the government handled. 5 The results of this brutal military operation,the situation well Why or why not. include hundreds of dead including women,and children thousands of wounded an. unwarranted search of all the apartments in,The Nations of. South America,Guide to Reading,Main Ideas People to Identify Reading Strategy. South American nations have experi Juan Per n Salvador Allende Augusto Categorizing Information Use a table. enced economic social and political Pinochet Juan Velasco Alvarado like the one below to describe the factors. problems leading to the change from military rule, Democracy has advanced in South Places to Locate to civilian rule in Argentina Brazil and. America since the late 1980s Argentina Falkland Islands Chile. Key Terms Preview Questions Argentina Brazil Chile. cooperative Shining Path 1 What obstacles does the new demo. cratic government in Brazil face,2 What factors have been the greatest. causes of South American instability,Preview of Events. 1945 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005,1946 1973 1982 2001. Juan Per n is elected Military forces overthrow Argentina sends troops Alejandro Toledo is. president of Argentina Allende presidency in Chile to the Falkland Islands elected president of Peru. Voices from the Past, In 1974 a group of Brazilian Catholic priests talked about an economic miracle that. had taken place in Brazil, Beginning in 1968 Brazil s gross domestic product grew at an annual rate of about. 10 percent The consequences of this miracle were the impoverishment of the. Brazilian people Between 1960 and 1970 the 20 percent of the population with the. highest income increased its share of the national income from 54 5 percent to 64 1. percent while the remaining 80 percent saw its share reduced from 45 5 percent. to 36 8 percent In the same period the 1 percent of the population that repre. sents the richest group increased its share of the national income from 11 7 percent. to 17 percent, Latin American Civilization History and Society 1492 to the Present. Benjamin Keen 1996, The countries of South America shared in the economic political and social prob. Brazilian city 1971 lems that plagued Latin America after 1945 Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia and. Peru provide examples of these problems, Argentina is Latin America s second largest country For years it had been. ruled by a powerful oligarchy whose wealth was based on growing wheat and. CHAPTER 22 Latin America 693, raising cattle Support from the army was crucial to Per n s regime was authoritarian He created. the continuing power of the oligarchy Fascist gangs modeled after Hitler s Brownshirts. In 1943 in the midst of World War II a group of The gangs used violent means to terrify Per n s. army officers overthrew the oligarchy The new mili opponents. tary regime was unsure of how to deal with the Fearing Per n s power the military overthrew. working classes until one of its members Juan the Argentinian leader in September 1955 Per n. Per n devised a new strategy went into exile in Spain Overwhelmed by prob. Using his position as labor secretary in the mili lems however military leaders later allowed Per n. tary government Per n sought to win over the work to return He was reelected as president in 1973 but. ers known as the descamisados the shirtless ones died a year later. He encouraged them to join labor unions He also In 1976 the military once again took over power. increased job benefits as well as the number of paid The new regime tolerated no opposition Perhaps. holidays and vacations 36 000 people were killed, In 1944 Per n became vice president of the mili At the same time economic ATLANTIC. tary government and made sure that people knew he problems plagued the nation OCEAN. was responsible for the better conditions for workers To divert people s attention SOUTH. As Per n grew more popular however other army the military regime invaded AMERICA. officers began to fear his power and they arrested the Falkland Islands off the PACIFIC. him An uprising by workers forced the officers to coast of Argentina in April Buenos Aires. back down 1982 Great Britain which had ARGENTINA, Per n was elected president of Argentina in 1946 controlled the islands since the Falkland. His chief support came from labor and the urban nineteenth century sent ships U K. middle class and to please them he followed a pol and troops and took the. icy of increased industrialization At the same time islands back The loss discred. he sought to free Argentina from foreign investors ited the military and opened the door to civilian rule. The government bought the railways and took over in Argentina. the banking insurance shipping and communica In 1983 Ra l Alfons n was elected president and. tions industries worked to restore democratic practices The Per. nist Carlos Sa l Menem won the presidential elec, tions of 1989 This peaceful transfer of power gave. rise to the hope that Argentina was moving on a,democratic path. Eva Per n Reading Check Explaining How did Juan Per n free. 1919 1952 Argentine first lady,Argentina from foreign investors. Eva Per n known as Evita to her,followers was the first lady of Brazil. Argentina from 1946 to 1952 Raised,Like other Latin American countries Brazil expe. in poverty Eva dreamed of being an,rienced severe economic problems following World. actress At 15 she moved to Buenos, Aires Argentina s largest city where she War II When democratically elected governments. eventually gained fame as a radio performer proved unable to solve these problems the military. Eva met Juan Per n in 1944 and became his wife a stepped in and seized control in 1964. year later She was an important force in her husband s The armed forces remained in direct control of the. rise to power Together they courted the working class country for the next 20 years The military set a new. poor with promises of higher wages and better working economic direction reducing government interfer. conditions As first lady Eva Per n formed a charitable ence in the economy and stressing free market forces. organization that built hospitals schools and orphan Beginning in 1968 the new policies seemed to be. ages She campaigned for women s rights The masses working Brazil experienced an economic miracle. adored her To this day monuments and street names in as its economy grew spectacularly. Argentina keep her memory alive The American musical. Ordinary Brazilians benefited little from this eco. and movie Evita are based on her life,nomic growth Furthermore rapid development led. to an inflation rate of 100 percent a year Over,694 CHAPTER 22 Latin America.