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Balzac et Fourier Socialistes Utopiques Marie Christine Aubin A Style So Worn and Bare Pheidias Praxiteles and the Eros of Robert


Kenneth E Hall,Ben L Collins,Creighton University,Louis Palanca. University DuI u U,Walter Swayze,University o Winnipeg lP If 0 a 1 llIHl G 5. EDITOR PROCEEDINGS fiB,Theodore Messenger,University o North Dakota IlU. ISSN 0075 9597,Published by the Institutional Members of. The Linguistic Circle of Manitoba and North Dakota. The University of Manitoba The University of North Dakota. o IF M A rNI Uu 0 IS A, The University of Winnipeg North Dakota State University.
Minot State University,Printed By, Century Creations Printing Services Grand Forks NO 58201. Arm J IHIO TlHI DAltO,TABLE OF CONTENTS, Balzac et Fourier Socialistes Utopiques Marie Christine Aubin. A Style So Worn and Bare Pheidias Praxiteles and the Eros of Robert Bridges The thirty fifth conference of the Linguistic Circle was convened at University. Mark W Brown 2 College The University of Manitoba on October 23 1992 at 1 00 p m Participants. I fWomen Hadde Writen Stories Chaucer s Wife of Bath s Tale Reconsidered were welcomed by Circle President Rol Egan and by Raymond F Currie Dean of. Muriel Brown 3, Arts University of Manitoba During the ensuing aftemoon sessions twenty four. Verne Melville snd the Lucubrations of Delirious Sailors Carter Caplan 4. Medieval Miracle Pageants in Modern Adaptation Ben L Collins 5 papers were read and discussed. The Old Man and the Revellers in Chaucer s The Pardoner s Tale Kathleen Rettig Collins 7 The Annual Banquet was held at 7 00 p m in the Concourse Lounge of University. Crossing with Lipsha The Berdache and Louise Erdrich s Love Medicine Steve Dalager 8 College President Egan delivered a lively talk entitled Going Around in Linguistic. Feminists Have Always Lived in the Castle A Feminist Approach to Shirley Jackson Circles Etymological Expedients from Adam and Eve to Martin Bemal The com. AKA The Virgins Woolf of Seance Fiction Christine Delea 9. pany was also treated to a series of astounding magic tricks performed by. The Poetic Encomia of Fray Luis De Leon Gene Dubois 10. Creating an Alternative Past Historiography in Louise Erdrich s Tracks Solveig Engh 10 Hartley husband of Circle member Esther Leser An after dinner gathering was. La Conciencia Como Narratario en InsolaciOn de Emilia Pardo Bazan in the Senior Common Room. Jose T Espinosa Jacome II During the Saturday morning sessions twenty one papers were read and discussed. The Multivoiced Narrator of Kate Chopin s The Awakening Linda M Ferderer 12. Contributors of the forty five papers presented during the conference represented. Ovid s Banishment Carmen et Error John Gahan 12, eleven American institutions from four states and five Canadian institutions from three. 25 Good Reasons Why Beer Is Better Than Women and Oiher Qualities of the Female. On the Non Seriousness of Jokes Pauline Greenhill 14 provinces. Cabrera Infante and Classical History Ken Hall 14 Those chairing sessions at the conference included Muriel Brown North Dakota. Re conceptualizing Re contiguring invention a Post Structural Alternative Dawson C Harms 15 State University Hubert Balcaen Richard Carter Gaby Divay Robert E Finnigan. Out On a Limb with Deadwood Dick A Possible Source for Huckkberry Finn and A G Gordon University of Manitoba Kenneth Hall University of North. Gary P Henrickson 16, Dakota and Neil Besner and lain McDougall University of Winnipeg.
Hornor and Narrative in the Old French Fabliaox Paul Homan 17. Elizabeth Cook Lynn and the Final Responsibility of a Native American Writer The Annual Business Meeting was called to order at 1 30 p m by President Rol. Chandice Johnson 18 Egan Minutes of the 1991 meeting were accepted as submitted as was the Treasurer s. When Marguerite Duras Text Becomes a Film Greenwood Johnson 18 report President Egan noted that the 1992 conference included the largest program ever. Aspects of Personal and Social Space in Fontane s Social Novels Edith H Krause 19. and thanked all the participants for their fme contributions. Thomas Mann s Joseph in Egypt Esther M Leser 20, Pronouns and Perspectives A Study of Ratliff s We and They in Spotted Horses Xian Liu 22 In his report Proceedings Editor Tim Messenger mentioned with gratitude the names. For Example Simone De Beauvoir s Parenthetical Presence in Lejeune s Theory of of several people who had helped him in the editorial process specifically Donna. Autobiography Marylea MacDonald 22 Norell William Holden and David Marshall Copies of the Proceedings have been sent. Phasal Analysis The Descriptive Framework of Communication Linguistics Karen Malcolm 23 to thirteen Canadian and seven American institutions Exchanges also exist between. L anglais du Fren ais Alan MacDonell 24 the Proceedings and two European journals the Bulletin ofthe International Association. The House on Mango Street Shades of Hockleberry Finn Thomas Matehie 25. for Semiotic Studies published in Vienna and Metalogicon published in Rome. Linguistic Focusing Lena McCouttie 26, Messenger also reported that during the past year the Proceedings had been evaluat. The Lapidary Art of Sue Tullos Theodore Messenger 27. Lost in the Lost Language of Cranes Michael E Moriarty 29 ed by the Modem Language Association to determine whether it was suitable for. Laquelle Est La Vraie Reflexions Sur La Venus Noire de Baudelaire Joseph Nnadi 30 inclusion in the MLA International Bibliography and MLA Directory of Periodicals. Willaim Trevor s Short Fiction Trauma and Tale Suzanne Morrow Paulson 32 Word of a final determination had not been received as of the date of the meeting. A Wash of Words A Baptism The Power of Language in Edna O Briens Time and Tide However a subsequent communication from the Coordinator of the MiA s Master List. Sandra Manoogian Pearce 33 and Directory of Periodicals stated with regret that the Proceedings could not be. Birth of a Pidgin A Study in Language Contact Between Deaf and Hearing Co workers listed since your journal includes only brief abstracts of papers presented and with. Marilyn Plumlee, the exception of Dissertation Abstracts International we do not index abstracts. Meaning and Language A Theory of Linguistic Genesis Donald Poochigan. Is Focalization a Useful Critical Concept Focusing on the Poor in Mary Barton and Bleak Hous President Egan reported that the University of Manitoba had offered to house the. Mavis Reimer Linguistic Circle s archives and the membership voted to accept this generous offer. The Influence of CH Douglas on Ezra Pound s Adams Cantos Lome A Reznowski. Etiological Parallels Between Homeric Purification Rituals and Dene Drum Dances. The following officers were elected Ben Collins and Walter Swayze Honorary. Clarence Rhymer Presidents for Life Kenneth Hall University of North Dakota President Neil Besner. Oak and Stone Again Edward Schmoll 39 University of Winnipeg Vice President and Gaby Divay University of Manitoba. Strategie Rhetorico Discursive Dans Bonheur D Occasion V L Schonberger 40 Secretary Treasurer. Le Cierico nationalisme DallS un Roman de Damase Potvin Restons Chez Nou. Harold 1 Smith 41 In other business several actions were taken with regard to conference programs. The Influence of Cervantes on Freud s Development of Psychoanalysis Patrick Smith 43 The Circle voted to give future presidents discretionary power to design programs as. Notes Toward a Private Language An Autobiographical Approach to the Reception of. Wallace Stevens Poetry Tony Steele 44,Johnson s Mosca The Real Lead Andrew Trump 44. The Voice of Women in French Canadian Literature Micheline Violi 45. Editor s Note 47, effectively as possible even if this should mean extending conferences into Saturday BALZAC ET FOURIER SOCIALISTES UTOPIQUES.
afternoon It was established that in future Calls for Papers should specify that papers. should have a reading time of twenty minutes leaving ten minutes for discussion. Marie Christine Aubin, Finally by a close vote the membership indicated a preference for having no more than College Universitaire de St Boniface. two concurrent sessions at any given time during a conference. The 1992 Business Meeting ended with a vote of thanks to the hosts and organiz Tout semble it premiere vue opposer Balzac I ecnvain reactionnaire it Fourier. ers of the conference for a successful and congenial gathering Ie socialiste utopique la vie les idees sociales et les convictions politiques Balzac. est connu pour ses prises de position nombreuses en faveur de I ordre et de la tradition. Fourier au contraire n a pour ainsi dire rien conserve de cette tradition issue selon lui. de la barbarie Dans ces circonstances comment trouver entre les deux hommes des. points de rencontre, Malgre des etiquettes politiques qui s opposent Balzac et Fourier font tous deux. Ie meme constat l echec social de la societe dite civilisee et Ie meme reve creer un. monde meilleur Leur critique de la societe dans laquelle ils vivent est acerbe et se. recoupe it divers points de vue tous deux croient par exemple que la passion est source. de desordres en contexte social tous deux croient aussi qu une societe qui accepte l indi. gence n a pas Ie droit de s estimer civilisee tous deux pensent enfm qu il extiste une. solution it ces problemes, L utopie fourieriste se fonde sur la creation d un monde ou les gouvemements. n auront plus de pouvoir et ou les personnes se regrouperont au sein de phalansteres. communautes composees d individus dont les passions sont complementaires et engen. drent grace it cette complementarite une societe plus humaine ou la qualite de vie est. I element essentiel beaute du cadre architectural pour Ie plaisir des yeux et Ie confort. suffisance et qualite de l alimentation pour tout Ie monde reduction et partage equitable. des travaux penibles faisant place it plus de loisirs et it l etude L utopie balzacienne. quant it elle est menee par un personnage central fort et instruit capable de guider Ie. peuple vers une amelioration de ses conditions d existence Ce personnage central peut. etre Mme de Mortsauf la bonne chatelaine ou Ie docteur Benaissis Ie medecin de cam. pagne Dans tous les cas il s agit de donner au peuple it tout Ie monde de quoi se nour. rir se loger et s instruire, Le respect des besoins fondamentaux de l etre humain se trouve donc au coeur des. reves de Fourier et de Balzac Marx et Engels ont qualifie Ie fourierisme d utopique. tout en reconnaissant qu il se fondait sur des principes socialistes puisqu i1 devait. mener it une repartition plus equitable du travail et des ressources lis ont aussi admire. Balzac pour la profondeur de son analyse de la societe capitaliste sauvage Dans Ie. contexte actuel ou les idees de Marx et Engels semblent bien avoir ete les plus utopo. ques de toutes il serait peut etre bon de revoir ce que leurs predecesseurs avaient it pro. poser Abien des titres en effet la vision du monde de Balzac et celle de Fourier se. rejoignent pour donner it notre epoque quelques IC90ns que celle ci ferait bien d couter. A STYLE SO WORN AND BARE I F WOMEN HADDE WRITEN STORIES. MO 0 014 PRAXITELES AND THE EROS OF,CHAUCER S WIFE OF BATH S TALE.
ROBERT BRIDGES RECONSIDERED,MarkWBrown Muriel Brown. Jamestown College North Dakota State University, Critics agree that the poem Eros by Robert Bridges is addressed to some repre In the Prologue to her tale the Wife of Bath gives an account of her life as a woman. sentation of the god presumably a statue But although more than one critic has in a world dominated by men She turns to experience as a basis for judging the five. observed that no record of any Pheidian Eros exists none has yet satisfactorily explained husbands that she has had in order to draw conclusions about the wo that is in. mariage but she also tries to fmd justification for her life in the traditional masculine. reference to the ancient sculptor lines 7 12, authorities When she tells us of Janekyn her fifth husband and his persistence in read. With the exuberant flesh so fair ing from his book of wikked wyves she exclaims against the male bias and asserts. That only Pheidias compare,By God if wommen hadde writen stories. Ere from his chaste marmoreal form,As clerkes han withinne hire oratories.
Time had decayed the colours warm,They wolde han writen of men moore wikkednesse. Like to his gods in thy proud dress,Than al the mark of Adam may redresse. Thy starry sheen of nakedness, Clearly the statue being addressed was not made by Pheidias Though the exis In the Prologue to her tale the Wife of Bath has demonstrated her familiarity with. tence of a Pheidian Eros had at the time Bridges wrote his poem been conjectured by many of the teachings of the church many of which are based on 51 Paul These teach. at least one eminent authority on the subject Bridges s statue of Eros has been more ings undoubtedly would have become familiar to her through her listening to sermons. plausibly identified with a famous replica of a Praxitelean original Pheidias was a sculp or perhaps listening to her husbands especially those who were clerks In any case. tor of the ethical school concerned with depicting what is permanent and essential she has been dependent on males for the exegesis of texts written by males Thus it. i e character Praxiteles belonged to the pathetic school preoccupied with pas is worth examining texts that are representative of the type that she undoubtedly has. sion which is transitory and accidental Inasmuch as the Eros of the poem embod heard explicated This paper proposes to turn first to 51 Paul and his account of the. ies pure physical passion and nothing else Bridges s reference to Pheidias enhances duties of husbands and wives and then to Chaucer s Parson s sermon and his under. standing of these duties to examine the male bias that the Wife objects to While St. his traditional theme evil as privation of being, Paul uses almost twice as much space explaining the duties of husbands as he does wives. This theme is further underscored by Bridges s allusion to the ancient practice of by the time the Parson interprets his words the proportions have been essentially. painting marble sculpture line 10 and by his articulation of the modem preference for reversed with the parson giving almost twice as much space to the duties of wives as. unpainted sculpture line 9 While it might be argued that from the point of view of he does to husbands This lack of balance seems to be reflected in the Wife s words. the ancients a colorless statue has been deprived of being the existence of Bridges s of protest If wommen hadde writen stories. Eros is even less complete it is all color and no form no character Indeed from a. purely ethical standpoint color like passion is neither permanent nor essential Her tale gives her the opportunity to create a story that presents a female point of. view to create a world in which a male is repeatedly dependent on women for his very. Bridges s preference for chaste marmoreal form is an aesthetic judgment as well survival and later for his happiness Her tale shows her using many of the same tech. as a moral judgment The aesthetic judgment moreover applies not only to sculpture niques in argument which have undoubtedly been used against her by her husbands and. but also to the art of poetry For Bridges uses the word chaste in the stylistic sense by others who have advised her about the proper role of women. given by the OED Without meretricious omament and Bridges s poetry has been. justly praised for such Pheidian virtues as purity and impersonality especially of dic Alisoun s tale is given over to the education of the young knight as he learns what. it is to be dependent on others for his very survival including the mercy of the queen. and the ladies of the court who request a temporary reprieve from his death sentence. Unfortunately neither Eros nor Bridges s poetry in general altogether live up to for his raping the young woman He learns the answer to the queen s question of. this ideal Most of his work is corrupted by poetical diction of one kind or another what it is that women desire most and in obtaining the answer from the loathly lady. This fact alone doubtless accounts for the disesteem in which Bridges still writing in that women want to have sovereignty in the marriage relationship he saves his life but. the same style as late as 1929 is held today Nevertheless there are passages in Eros must fulfill his rash promise to her He marries her and in so doing he leams what it. and in other poems in which Bridges s diction displays Pheidian virtues in abundance is like to listen to a sermon on gentillesse that disproportionately focuses on his. and his greatest poem Low Barometer is virtually flawless in this respect Such pas faults while ostensibly answering his charges that she is ugly old and lacking in social. sages like fragments of ancient sculpture which have survived the ravages of time are position After the old woman s sermon he shows that he has leamed to put into. worthy of preservation and deserving of our respect. words that he initially only parrots for he allows her to choose whether she Moby Dick As with Poe s novel did Verne see in Moby Dick the basis for a sequel. will be old ugly and faithful or young fair and perhaps unfaithful In allowing her Both 20 000 Leagues and Moby Dick are set against the backdrop of the sea and the. to choose he finds there is another alternative she becomes what he would have exotic forms it contains Both works portray the odd circumstance of an educated. desired her to be all along young fair and faithful And although she has sovereign gentleman and a super human harpooner brought together to solve ineffable myster. she also chooses to be obedient to him ies Both works contain mad or near mad captains obsessed with loathing vengeance. takes someone like the Wife of Bath who turns the world of masculine author and a quest for worldly justice And both works feature a wonderful monster. down to help males see that a world in which women have no control over The tenor of the first chapter of 20 000 Leagues strikes directly at the heart of. own welfare tums women into monsters It is in women regaining power Moby Dick for its inspiration A monster is discovered which very quickly comes. over their lives that a world of mutual dependence between men and women can be cre into conflict with humanity nautical communication and commerce All manner of. ated a world that turns out to be better for the men and women whom the Parson is debate arises in the world concerning the nature of this monster if that s what it is. for Alisoun and Janekyn and for the knight and his bride Bureaucrats naval officers politicians scientists and even philologists join in the. debate over the monster s nature and significance Is it a shifting reef a moving san. bar a luminescent sea serpent The newspapers print caricatures of every gigantic. and imaginary creature from the white whale the terrible Moby Dick of. borean regions to the immense kracken whose tentacles could entangle a ship. hundered tons and hurry it into the abyss of the ocean Controversy burst out. between the credulous and the incredulous in the societies of savants and scientific jour. LUCUBRATIONS OF nals Finally Verne reports satirical writers seize upon the question of the monster. SAILORS entreating their leamed contemporaries not to admit to the existence ofkrakens sea. serpents Moby Dicks and other lucubrations of delirious sailors. Carter Caplan But would Melville admit his Moby Dick to be a mere lucubration Or is Moby. University ofNorth Dakota Dick even more monstrous for being so. In chapter VII of 20 000 Leagues An Unknown Species of Whale Professor. J UUlIJUgllhe wrote in France and in French Jules Verne is arguably an American Aronnax Ned Land the harpooner and Conseil the servant finally not only meet with. writer His enthusiasm for the giant potentials and tragic shortcomings of the emerg but also tread upon the monster It is made of riveted steel plates Aronnax dicovers. America his techinque of detailed verisimilitude the manner of his wit and the cast what Melville perhaps suspected about his own monster There was no doubt about. of his orientation toward social and political realities firmly locate him among the it This monster 1his natural phenomenon that had puzzled the leamed world and over. great neo classical or are they post modem literary artists of the American thrown and misled the imagination of seamen of both hemispheres was it must be. renaissance Poe Melville and Hawthorne owned a still more astonishing phenomenon inasmuch as it was a simply human. construction, From these artists Verne leamed strict adherence to known science or psuedo sci.
ence a journalistic style ornamented by a wealth of technological detail and a curios. for radical character types existing at the fringes of conventional society And. what of course is so striking about Verne and these authors is that the character types. although marginalized socially are yet at the forefront of scientific tech i. moral or is it amoral progress, Verne s debt to Poe is particularly conspicuous in From the Earth to the Moon MEDIEVAL MIRACLE PAGEANTS IN. Verne s shrewd satire of post Civil War America and the military industrial complex. MODERN ADAPTATION, Poe is mentioned to ironically underline an illustration of mobocracy In the 1864 arti. cle Poe and his works Verne speculates on Poe s The Narrative ofArthur Gordon Ben L Collins. claiming the story adventures breaks off in mid air Who will take it Creighton University and The University ofNorth Dakota. up again Someone more daring than L who does not fear to launch himself into a sphere. of the impossible Thirty one years later having through his success out grown his. awe for the impossible legacy of his master Verne was completing his sequel to The After viewing the Omaha Community Theatre s presentation of THE CREATlON. Narrative ofArthur Gordon Pym published in France as Le Sphinx des Glaces The AND OTHER MYSTRIESjA SPRING FROLIC AND FAIR MAY 1485 which. Sphinx of the Ice fields attempted to reenact an entire pageant in two or three hours it became apparent that. Verne s 20 000 Leagues Under the Sea is another work with significant antecedents modem stage techniques as well as professional acting added much to the effect of the. traceable to a masterpiece of the American renaissance Herman Melville s perforrnance while still retaining much of the flavor of the original and communicated. to a sophisticated audience who1may no longer accept many of the miracles of Old The medieval plays however even without the modem embellishments are often. Testament lore both the historical and religious significance of the plays I feel cer sophisticated and it is not extravagant to say that they have come a long way from the. tain that the Guilds responsible for putting on the plays would have desired the 20th Quem Quaeritus One must agree with N Coghill that though the plays are. century materials and expertise judged in the study to be crudely written biblical scenes interspersed with occasion. In addition years of study research scholarship and criticism of the dramas added al knock about let anyone take the trouble to produce one and he will see how deep. to the ability of both directors and actors to flesh out the skimpy directions for stage busi a sense of worship can combine in the richly boistrous world of simple folk and. ness lighting sound and costuming among other things that lend verisimilitude to the Christian feeling One may feel it even in Bill Cosby s hilarious version of Noah. performance For example in The Creation and the Fall of Lucifer The Creation of It is perhaps most exciting to see adaptations of the mysteries in the modem world. Adam and Eve and The Fall of Man which were merged into one sequence God serving the same purpose they did in early times using biblical tales to educate. rules and descends and ascends by means of an elevator which resembles a huge pIe who had little or no schooling who could not even read the book that was. dumbwaiter His position and mobility emphasize His omniscience omnipresence and treasure house of their faith Marc Connelly Green Pastures is such a work Directed. even omnipotence Thunder and lightning though no doubt used to some extent on at the then many illiterate Southem Blacks of the early 1930s it created a biblical. the medieval stage are quite effective either to adumbrate some great calamity or to world much like their own with fish frys and other celebrations The Lord was like their. accompany a great fall or to illustrate God s wrath Lighting techniques which may own ministers Heaven was New Orleans the setting was rural Louisiana and the. be used symbolically or to designate day night or the transition necessary say for the archetypes were quite recognizable as individuals in the Black community 1 OI loW1n r. forty days lapse in the ark add to the effectiveness The stage itself in place of the the Creation and the rendering of much Old Testament lore in modem Southern Black. limited wagon allows for freer movement as witness Eve s joy in being as she cavorts context God begins to despair of the world He created Even after helping Moses out. about the stage and the gradual attraction of Adam and Eve for each other as they view of Egypt and after leading His people to the Promised Land He sees that sin is still preva. each other initially and later kneel to God in thankfulness There is even room for Noah lent And so God turns His back on the Chosen and vows nevermore to aid mankind. and his sons to construct a prefabricated ark on stage and for Satan to have a Hell s Urged later to visit Earth once more He arrives during a battle in which the Isreaelites. Mouth as home are facing insurmountable odds but will not give up God speaks with Hezdral one of. Although it is difficult to know what exactly the stage business was in early times their leaders and asks if they still believe in the God of Hosea and Moses Hezdral says. it is interesting to note what modem directors have added God and Adam talk and look that they now believe in a God of mercy not the old one of wrath and vengeance and. at the birds and animals God puts Adam to sleep while He creates Eve and allows Eve that they believe that suffering brings salvation Then the Isreaelites mount a final and. to acclimatize herself to life before meeting Adam The slapstick nature of Noah and desperate charge against the enemy. his wife may change to seriousness when the thunder announcing the deluge makes the A pensive God returns to heaven to look down upon Jesus bearing the Cross to. latter a grim reality The Omaha version of Abraham and Isaac though basically Calvary. faithful to the Brome MS adds a frame which depicts the joy of Abraham and Sarah. at the birth of their son This offers background and amplifies the greatness of the sac. rifice that Abraham may have to make, Other adaptations of the miracles that I have seen are two versions of The Second. Shepherds Play If performed on an ordinary lighted stage this best of all pageants l. loses much of its power However using lighting and sound to depict the bitter cold. and the sharp wind that the shepherds must endure on the heath as contrasted with the THE OLD MAN AND THE REVELLERS IN. comparative comfort ofMak s lighted cottage as he places the stolen lamb in the cra CHAUCER S THE PARDONER S TALE. dle but always with the audience s attention still on the sleeping shepherds and then. the dimming of Mak s domicile as he rejoins ColI Gib and Daw as dawn begins to Kathleen Rettig Collins. break allows the viewers further to empathize The dawn itself indicates both the Creighton University. eventual disclosure ofMak as thief and the dawning of a new world through the birth. of Christ When we return to the cottage where poor as they are the shepherds. bestow gifts on the newborn child we see their simple goodness and can understand The Old Man in Geoffrey Chaucer s The Pardoner s Tale appears in a total of 57. that Mak s punishment is light because of the holiness of the night This allows the trans lines Yet his direction provides the three revellers with the information they need to. fer from cottage to Manger with an attendant holy light from the lamb in the cradle to find death Critics have most often interpreted the Old Man s presence as ominous. the Lamb of God The luminosity of this scene may be enhanced by even brighter light or evil He is after all the one who provides the three rioters with the information that. ing and as was often done in medieval times the singing of the Gloria in Excelsis In directly leads each of them to plot and commit murder. another version of this play the director added a chorus who moved around the set From the first time we are introduced to the Old Man until the revellers leave. throwing white confetti and pumping a fireplace bellows at the shepherds to indicate him however Chaucer attributes only the highest of Christian virtues to him He is. snow and bitter wind described initially as poor and greets the revellers meekly Especially when the read. ertakes into account that the revellers repeatedly swear and curse tearing apart God s. body with such oaths as By God s bones or By God s teeth and that the revellers FEMINISTS HAVE ALWAYS LIVED IN THE CASTLE. meet their deaths because of their greed the Old Man s meekness and poverty seem A FEMINIST APPROACH TO. all the more virtuous SHIRLEY JACKSON AKA THE VIRGINIA WOOLF. Chaucer also includes the detail that the Old Man has just left the same place to which OF SEANCE FICTION. he directs the three men So if he had been tempted by the bushels of gold florins he. was able to resist the same temptation the three rioters and indeed the Pardoner him Christine Delea. self give in to University ofNorth Dakota, While the Old Man s appearance is brief Chaucer does use him as a human exam. ple of how human beings are given the capacity both through God s words the Old. Man paraphrases scripture and through Christ s example to lead a virtuous life Shirley Jackson best known for her short story The Lottery has beguiled crit. ics since her untimely death in 1965 Classified as an author of horror a fantasy writ. er a creator of books depicting psychological terror and a gothicist Jackson has. remained free of an easy assessment and unfortunately fame I would argue that any. of the above classifications are fitting for all elements of the above genres can be. j found in Jackson s work However to ignore the feminism in these same works her. novels and short stories as opposed to her semi autobiographical domestic tales is to. CROSSING WITH LIPSHA misread Jackson, THE BERDACHE AND LOUISE ERDRICH S In The Haunting ofHill House and We Have Always Lived in the Castle Jackson.
used typical gothic techniques and infused them with elements found in feminist lit. LOVE MEDICINE erature These two works employ the alienation found in both gothic and feminist fic. Steve Dalager tion Eleanor and Merricat the two protagonists have questionable sanity but as is typ. ical in feminist literature this reaction to societal oppression is not unwarranted or. University of North Dakota surprising while the houses in these two novels are typically gothic the idea of fam. ily is typically feminist and issues that concem feminists are present in both of these. While reading Love Medicine for a second time I happened to encounter the enig novels and the supematural may be used as an extended metaphor for these issues. matic figure of the berdache elsewhere The berdache from what I d gathered had been As feminist critics and others re open and re evaluate the literary canon we are learn. a common figure in many Indian cultures but is largely absent today a male or female ing much that is surprising and new about forgotten neglected or even well read. figure that openly crossed gender boundaries in a variety of ways and in most cases authors However the feminism in Jackson s works is even more remarkable because. contrary to Westem culture held a position of honor I was also intrigued by Lipsha it predates both Kate Millet s Sexual Politics and Betty Friedan s Feminine Mystique. in the novel and the nature of his power which seems to grow until he becomes as Jackson was in many ways clearing new paths in uncharted territory with only the. Jim McKenzie notes the central figure and symbolic carrier of culture tradition of the female dominated gothic to guide her. r work with these two ideas the nature of Lipsha s power and berdachehood I begin In The Haunting ofHill House we can examine one protagonist who flees a soci. by discussing Paula Gunn Allen s general conceptions about feminine power in Indian ety in which she does not fit any of the feminine stereotypes available to her Carpenter. cultures and from there dig primarily into Callendar and Kochems The North 145 only to enter a world in which the gothic house takes on supernatural powers The. American Berdache and Love Medicine frrst establishing a connection between heroine and the house then enter into a relationship not unlike that of a stereotypical. Lipsha and the berdache and then theorizing about what such a connection might domestic violence situation. mean i e how it gives him power While I never actually claim that Lipsha is a The protagonist in We Have Always Lived in the Castle and her sister react fIrst to. berdache I make a strong case for his ability to cross traditional lines of gender as defined a domineering patriarchy within their own home and then to a society which fears them. by Westem culture lines imposed upon Indian cultures in the past hundred years I end Their reactions cause them to create a powerful community of women that is disrupt. with a broader cross cultural claim about the Westem nature of maleness connect ed and then almost dismantled when a man arrives. ing briefly with Robert Bly and discuss Lipsha s role as a berdache as an altemative. male role By pulling together elements of the gothic and feminist techniques along with. typical horror fantasy and psychological literary tools Jackson created fiction that. has yet to be classified I do not wish to label her here but I do wish to add to the debate. and have her recognized as a producer of Feminist Literature. ENCOMIA OF FRAY LUIS DE LEON events of Tracks reflect the simultaneous existence of diverse and complex forces which. act upon and accord with each other but which do not move toward eventual reso. Gene Dubois lution, University ofNorth Dakota The multiple narratives and the open ended conclusion reinforce the interdisci. plinary context of new historicism For example ErOOch cites the tribal folklore of her. family as source material in the Acknowledgements This background interacts. Hispanists have long recognized Fray Luis de Leon 1527 1591 as a preeminent with aspects of other disciplines such as anthropology mythology and religious. literary figure of the so called second generation of Renaissance Spanish writers This beliefs In addition the psychological study of character is subsumed in the sociolo. lofty status reflects scholarly appreciation of Fray Luis mastery in absorbing the tenets gy of conflicting cultures coming together in a representative family model that is. of the Italianate aesthetic as practiced by such predecessors as Garcilaso de la Vega unfamiliar to people of Westem European background All of the approaches are. while adapting them in response to the changing circumstances of Philip U s Spain cir interconnected to de center and destablize our perception of the received culture and. cumstances brought about chiefly by the Counter Reformation and the subsequent history of the Native Americans and to enable us to accept the alternative she presents. closing of Spain to outside influences Furthermore by inducing readers to accept her account Erdrich effectively changes. Although Spanish poetry of the period mirrors in its expression greater concern for the unwritten history of the future another new historicism concept Because today s. and nationalist sentiment it nonetheless continues to demonstrate through present will be the past of tomorrow the past is always in the process fo being creat. its models forms and technique the classical imprint which characterized the earlier ed In Tracks Erdrich creates tomorrow s past by creating a plausible history of Native. Renaissance As a scholar steeped in the Bible and literture of Antiquity Fray Luis Americans which creates new responses in her readers. combines vast erudition with an ear for the sublime. Evidence of his poetic art is found in his encomia verse in praise of his friends and. patrons The purpose of this paper is to explore how Fray Luis adopted this classical. form of composition for his own purposes and the startling results he achieved. LA CONCIENCIA COMO NARRATARIO EN,INSOLACION DE EMILIA PARDO BAZAN. f Jose T Espinosa Jacome,CREATING AN ALTERNATIVE PAST Concordia College. HISTORIOGRAPHY IN, LOUISE ERDRICH S TRACKS Existe en Insolaci6n la gran novela feminista del siglo XIX un aparente narrador. intradiegetico que a veces se confunde para ellector desapercibido con el relato de un. Solveig Engh segundo narrador que encama la protagonista principal Francisca de Asfs De Taboada. North Dakota State College of Science Es curioso observar en esta obra maestra del naturalismo espafiol una introspeccion. anfmica que refleja la influencia de Dostoyeuski y que neva a cabo con la herramienta. psicologica la propuesta de Zola quien concebia el arte como una realidad vista a traves. Tracks by Louise ErOOch provides an account of Native Americans on the Turtle de un temperamento La Pardo Bazan aprovecha la moda narrativa europea y Ie da la. Lake Indian reservation in the early 1900 s in contrast to accounts published in his vuelta alejandose del sentimentalismo empalagoso y de la descripcion de los objetos. tory books While the image of Native Americans that she creates incorporates wild deprimentes y pesimistas que no venfan a ser sino rezagos de las exageraciones roman. primitive behavior it also includes tenderness humor and dignity thereby promoting ticas y propone un naturalismo espafiol recobrando el realismo de La Celestina y El. a positive response from society at Iarge toward Native American history and instill Quijote donde 10 humano estlin a la par con 10 divino y las lagrimas y risas colorean. ing pride among the Native Americans themselves la obra En la soledad de su aposento Francisca de ASls reflexiona como un person. In order to redefine the traditional view of Native Americans ErOOch rejects a aje maduro sobre la resaca que Ie ha dejado un desliz amoroso y sin sentimiento de cul. closed system of history which arranges events in a neat sequential pattern instead pabilidad pero consciente del rechazo que puede provocar en su cfrculo social aris. she incorporates the assumptions of New Historicism to recreate the history of Native tocratico tal conducta dialoga con su propia conciencia manifestando un alma justa y. American lives Most obviously she illustrates co existing histories by using two liberada Sobre la tecnica naturalista y el valor moral puestos en juego en esta novelita. narrative voices one a Native American and one a mixed breed whose accounts not observados a traves del crisol de la relacion Narrador narratario nos proponemos. only disagree but whose viewpoints are in stark contrast Both record their version of hablar en el presente trabajo. a third Native American viewpoint and their version of white society As a result the. THE MULTIVOICED NARRATOR OF again to see the family and friends he had been forced to leave behind in Rome. Despite what Ovid says that his banishment was the result of carmen et error a. CHOPIN S THE AWAKENING poem and a mistake Tristia 2 207 4 1 25 26 scholars have never been able to. explain precisely what he meant Most now accept that the carmen was the famous. Ars Amatoria the Art of Love On the other hand although many attempts have been. made no one has come up with a completely satisfactory explanation for Ovid s error. even though the poet gives a further hint by insisting at e g Tr 1 2 97 100 and. Within the single narrator of Kate Chopin s The Awakening four distinct voices may 4 10 89 90 that it was a genuine mistake but not a crime scelus In fact the distin. be heard These voices are woven together KV the one narratorial voice That is there guished LatinistE J Kenney declared as long ago as 1970 that the problem of Ovid s. are not four separate narrators but rather one narrator with four closely connected error in default of further evidence must be regarded as insoluble. voices Because the labels typically applied when disussing narration do not accurately This paper offers no further evidence to solve the mystery of Ovid s mistake but. describe these voices names have been adopted to more accurately reflect the role of asks the question instead whether a specific explanation of the error is necessary. each of the narrator s voices They are the omniscient observer narrated monologue to understand why Ovid was banished from Augustan Rome On several occasions in. the mind reader and the social commentator From these voices readers may gain other his long career Augustus had legislation passed promoting moral and social reform. levels of understanding of the novel and the society which the author may well have part of which was designed to encourage marriage and procreation while discourag. been parodying ing adultery by making it a crime punishable by death At the same time the emper. The first voice the omniscient observer looks at characters and through their eyes or also attempted to instill in Rome s youth a sense of duty and respect by reviving the. seeing what they see and beyond It moves at will discriminately reporting events as memory of Rome s past heroes and promoting aretum to the values of the past The. they seemingly occur The characters narrated monologues reported within the nar problem was however that because of his early career and the way he had come to the. ration constitute the second voice These monologues reflect what was actually spo throne Augustus was hardly the paradigmatically virtuous individual he needed to. ken but has been embedded within the narration for ease of reading It is readily iden be in order to give substance to his legislation In this respect the emperor was vulnerable. tified by cues such as s he said asked etc Similar to the second the third voice and while Ovid never really attacks Augustus directly for his pretense he does in his. reports from the characters perspectives but discloses their private unspoken thoughts poetry refuse to toe the emperor s line and not only in theArs Am but in his Amores. At times the thoughts are unknown to but may be sensed by the characters and Heroides also by failing to offer support for much of the emperor s legislation the. Occasionally the mind reading voice penetrates a character s subconscious and reveals argumentum ex silentio or by subverting it by apparently proposing the contrary In. what lies there The last voice that of a social commentator and judge stems neither Am 3 4 Ovid wams a husband not to keep an eye on his wife so that she can appear. exclusively from the characters nor from the omniscient observer it draws on the that much more attractive to other men further in 3 4 but also 2 19 the poet s. observations perceptions and sensations of all to formulate its comments It is often Ovid s lover is a married woman The first two books of the Ars Am give advice. sardonic as it mocks particular types of individuals and ultimately the society as well to men as to where to pick up women in Rome how to win their affections and how. to keep them once won the third book instructs women in attracting men In Her 4. The complexity of the narration may well be a central cause of disagreement. Phaedra attempts to seduce Hippolytus by suggesting that there is nothing wrong with. among critics who when reading the novel interpret the voices differently With the. a stepson sleeping with his stepmother and that to think the contrary is old fashioned. recently discovered work of literary critc Mikhail Bakhtin such complex forms of. So much for the moral and social reforms of Augustus so much for his Dromotion of. narration are more easily approached and analyzed leading to a greater understanding. the return to past values,and appreciation of works such as The Awakening.
Ovid was banished from Rome because of a poem and a mistake The exact nature. of the mistake will likely never be known but the fact is that his poetry is his error. Augustus could afford to put up with Ovid and his poetic allusions his carping and his. jeering no more and he banished the poet We do however have the AI S Am the Am. i and the Her to read and we recognize the constraints on Roman society in the age of. Augustus To continue searching for Ovid s other error is futile and unnecessary. OVID S BANISHMENT CARMEN ET ERROR,University ofManitoba. In A D 8 at the height of his poetic career the Roman poet Ovid was suddenly ban. ished by the emperor Augustus to Tomis in modem Romania on the west shore of. the Black Sea There he was to stay for the nine or so years remaining of his life never. The importance of these allusions for Cabrera Infante is in part connected to his gen. 25 GOOD REASONS WHY BEER IS BETTER THAN eral interest in the classical period but the especial thrust of his use of these figures such. WOMEN AND OTHER QUALITIES OF THE as Herodotus and Thucydides relates strongly to the emphasis on history to be found. FEMALE ON THE NON SERIOUSNESS OF JOKES in many Cabrera Infante works The topic of history in the work of Cabrera Infante. has been examined probably in most exhaustive form in Lima Hernandez work and. Pauline Greenhill in a form more inimical to Cabrera Infante in studies or articles of an ideological cast. University oJWinnipeg such as the piece by Julio Rodriguez Luis But none of these commentators has. stressed the interesting appeal by Cabrera Infante to figures from classical history. such as Erostratus and Alexander and to classical historians themselves. We examine texts of Xerox lore and tellings of blonde jokes using a discourse The proposed paper will present some of the more important references by Cabrera. analysis sensitive to power dynamics between women and men to illustrate a patriar Infante to classical figures of history not exclusively of myth or of drama for instance. chal strategy the advocacy of mutual contradictions I understand patriarchy as an insti. and will then investigate some of the probable reasons for such interest Herodotus and. tution which structures interaction in such a way as to extend disproportionate power Thycydides for example have been figures with appeal for many authors and politi. to men It is informed by and informs other social institutions and interactions pris cians who are concerned with the nature of political institutions and with the revalu. ons families and so on but its operations like theirs are often subtle elusive and intri ation of history for political ends One purpose of Cabrera Infante in writing many of. cate These examples provide an evocative illustration of a Foucauldian exercise in cap the pieces to be collected in Mea Cuba is the debunking of myths positive ones. illary power produced through the operation of everyday spoken discourse and sug about the Cuban Revolution and in the process the constant deflating of the figure of. gest the enactment of such contradictions in everyday traditional language use Castro his interest in classical tyrants and in propaganda is thus clear enough Cabrera. In cross sex joking interactions initiated by men and involving misogynist mate Infante is also aware of his position as an articulate member of a generation which saw. rial like blonde jokes a woman s options for responding are limited and fundamentally a transition from the Cuban Republic long a dictatorship under Batista to the Cuban. unsatisfying Such material is particularly invasive pervasive and nearly invisible Revolutionary govemment still a dictatorship under Castro Much of his literary. because its generic context asserts that it should be taken non seriously Exposing the enterprise has concerned the chronicling not usually in factual or serious terms of the. joke s obscured misogyny by taking it seriously violates the implication that it is not transition period in the late 1950s The analogy to the change from Republic to Empire. serious a person who would do so has no sense of humour is a prude Some of the in Rome is not difficult to see nor is the reason for Cabrera s interest in writers like. examples of blonde joke tellings show how women employ responsive counter tactics Tacitus and Suetonius chroniclers of political character and caricature. but analysis indicates why these strategies women develop to counter blonde jokes In the process of elucidating the presentation by Cabrera Infante of classical writ. misogyny are limited and problematic compelling them to make choices between ers and historical figures it is hoped that a relatively neglected aspect of his work will. equally undesirable options The result is often a kind of communicative paralysis. be better understood, options are so limited that even making a choice is oppressive. CABRERA INFANTE AND CLASSICAL HISTORY RE CONCEPTUALIZING RE CONFIGURING. INVENTION A POST STRUCTURAL ALTERNATIVE,Dawson C Harms. University oj North Dakota,University o Winnipeg, Critics of the work of Cuban expatriate writer Guillermo Cabrera Infante have. noted his interest in the classical period of Greece and Rome Most extensive in the Radical changes and challenges in post modem literary theory are forcing a response. critical corpus of this area is the study by Ardis Nelson Cabrera Infante in the from pedagogues and intellectuals committed to literacy education Although ideas asso. Menippean Tradition 1983 The significant work by Nelson however concentrates ciated with contemporary literary theory are often perceived as threatening to estab. on satire and parody as these derivations from classical tradition are found in Cabrera lished norms literary theory can in fact provide a powerful basis for highly signif. Infante and in particular on his indebtedness to the work and the career of the Roman icant and productive textual effort. satirist Petronius Arbiter Nelson and other critics do not emphasize the interest of Many varieties of contemporary literary theory are currently in existence howev. Cabrera Infante in classical historians but such an interest is repeatedly evident in er this presentation will take only one of these options into consideration This. works such as Un oficio del siglo 20 1963 and in the forthcoming Mea Cuba. presentation will examine the possible benefits of a post structural deconstructive HUMOR AND NARRATIVE IN. approach to writing curricularization In particular it will take into consideration the. currently popular writing process movement engaging in a critique of the movement THE OLD FRENCH FABLIAUX. and suggesting possible altematives Paul Homan, Contrary to certain reacations deconstructive literary theory is not a destructive force North Dakota State University.
or presence Rather it is a profoundly sophisticated and constructive means of recon. sidering the range of alternative configurations which any supposedly established sys. tem or entity might accommodate As a cunicular maneuver in particular deconstruction Short humorous stories in verse the Old French fabliaux of the 13th and 14th cen. can provide an effective means of re opening ideas and images commonly thought to turies have been called the best narrative art of the Middle Ages They have also been. have achieved closure called obscene until very recently many were considered unprintable owing to gen. Thus invention reconceived from a post structural perspective becomes more eral bawdiness of theme and especially to frequent graphic references to bodily func. than a static and predictable pre writing function it becomes an active exploratory and tions Much has been written on the obscenity of these tales particularly as it relates. self effacing maneuver an image of discourse a textual event an inquiring and self to their so called realism and many attempts have been made to defme the literary genre. parodying non presence which both writes and un writes itself as it writes the to which they belong However comparatively little attention has been given to devel. other oping a comprehensive view of their humor Because the fabliaux are more than. anything elaborately told jokes it is important to better understand the connection. The session will conclude with practical ideas and instances of what a re con between their humor and narration in order to discover the sophistication of these. ceived inventions might look like in various teaching leaming situations tales nearly always discounted as mere curiosities. The lack of appreciation for their artfulness arises from the traditional treatment of. fabliau hurnor as a collection of comic devices caricature puns etc My specific inter. est is to show that more important than such devices is the narration itself that the hurnor. i of the fabliaux depends ultimately on the narrator s skill in manipulating his audi. ence much the way the fableor s modem descendant the stand up comic lives or. OUT ON A LIMB WITH DEADWOOD DICK dies by his timing. A POSSmLE SOURCE FOR HUCKLEBERRY FINN If the fabliau is fundamentally an extended joke form then its effectiveness lies in. a process of transference similar to that which operates in metaphor whose workings. Gary P Henrickson can be conceptualized as a manipulation of mental space It is possible for exam. Concordia College ple to map the mental coordinates of the tenor and vehicle of metaphor in three dimen. sions in which the third represents the analogical leap or spatial quality required to com. plete the figure There are analogous spatial features in the mechanisms ofhurnor illus. This paper argues that a half dime novel Deadwood Dick s Dream or The trated frequently in the fableor s construction of his narrative which show that the. Rivals of the Road by Edward L Wheeler might be a source for the Sherburn Boggs fabliaux are not made hurnorous simply by the imposition of some funny business cornic. episode of The Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn Samuel Clemens had the opportunity devices on a well made plot but that humor and narrative form a figure which. to read the Deadwood Dick novel at precisely the time when he was writing the operates through the manipulation and resolution of a kind of mental geometry The. Sherburn Boggs episode he also had a demonstrated predilection for such hogwash fabliaux are sold short if we see them as comic largely for being ribald Rather the audi. In addition Wheeler s novel shares a similar incident attempted lynching a similar ence laughs because it has been tricked by the narrative and such laughter is qualita. theme one man against many similar wording and similar illustration tively different from that provoked by mere indelicacy. j commercial film making in which the viewer is a passive participant who goes to a movie. ELIZABETH COOK LYNN AND to be distracted or to forget. FINAL RESPONSIBILITY OF A When a text by Marguerite Duras becomes a film by Marguerite Duras the result. NATIVE AMERICAN WRITER is a different kind of cinema hermetic disturbing and at times outrageous that has tra. dionally been shown only in art theatres for the happy few Among her more. Chandice lohnson startling innovations are the use of the voices off technique with its disjunction between. North Dakota State University sound and image in films such as Agatha and India Song the exploration of the sen. sual power of voice over image that leads in L Homme atlantique to the total destruc. tion of the image and its replacement by a black screen and the filming of Duras and. Writing in I Tell You Now a collection of autobiographical essays by Native Gerard Depardieu reading and improvising the text of a film that might have been in. American writers Elizabeth Cook Lynn a member of the Crow Wing South Dakota LeCamion. Sioux tribe says Marguerite Duras recent collaboration with Jean Jacques Annaud marks the first. The final responsibility of a writer like me and an essential reason to move time since the 1960 s that a Duras text has become a film at the hands of another. on from wanting to be a writer to actually writing is to commit something director given the autobiographical nature of The Lover it also meant giving her own. to paper in the modem world which supports the inexhaustible legacy left life s story to an outsider From Duras point of view Annaud s multimillion dollar. us i e Native Americans by our ancestors on site shooting lush cinematography and precise historical documentation obscure the. Cook Lynn has recently published two books a collection of short stories The Power voice of her text and leave little to the imagination As if to refute Annaud s filmic ren. ofHorses and Other Stories 1990 and a novel From the River s Edge 1991 In my dering of her text Duras wrote The North China Lover a year ago initially as notes toward. paper I discuss Cook Lynn s work as it relates to what she considers the Native her own film script for The Lover but the book serves also as a documentary of the crud. American writer s final responsibility and attempt to determine whether or not she has er more violent passions that dominated her Indochinese childhood and that were. fulfilled this responsibility merely hinted at in the former book Duras has said that a word is worth a thousand. pictures With the publication of this latest work Duras has reinforced the primacy. of the text of word over image What evolves is a threefold transformation a Duras. text becomes film and the film serves as the impetus for yet another textual transfor. mation of the original text In the text image dichotomy Marguerite Duras intends it. Cl would seem to have the last word,WHEN MARGUERITE DURAS TEXT. BECOMES A FILM,Greenwood lohnson j,Moorhead State University. ASPECTS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL SPACE,IN FONTANE S SOCIAL NOVELS. Contemporary French novelist Marguerite Duras has burst upon the American. and Canadian scene this fall in both movie houses and bookstores at the same time as Edith H Krause. Jean Jacques Annaud s film version of her 1984 Concourt prize winning novel The Lover Moorhead State University. overwhelms viewers with its Indochinese local color and lavish sensuality the new. English translation of her 1991 novelistic rebuttal to Annaud s fIlm which she calls The. North China Lover reclaims for Duras the primacy of written word over image which Traditionally critics have attributed the conciliatory note in the ending of Fontane s. is the hallmark of her own cinematic experimentation social novels to the passive and contemplative attitude in the characters which makes. Duras cinematic career began in 1959 when Alain Renais asked her to write a sce them unfit for rebellion and leads to acquiescent identification with and subordination. nario for his film on the bombing of Hiroshima Hiroshima mon amour is doubtless to the empirical world around them Views along these lines have not only produced. one ofDuras best known works yet only the scenario and dialogues are hers the movie a limited understanding regarding the full potential of the characters involved and the. is Renais In a similar fashion many ofDuras novels of the 1950 s inspired other pres complex interrelatedness of individual freedom and civic responsibility they have. tigious film makers such as Rene Clement Jules Dassin and Peter Brook Disillusioned also perpetuated a negative image of Fontane s widely discussed ambivalence and. by what she felt to be a distortion of her texts by other directors Duras all but aban affected judgments of his status as a significant realist on the European scene. doned literature for film making during the decade of the 1970 s and thus created her A certain lack of political analysis leading to the portrayal of a diffuse unhistori. own particular brand of avant garde cinema characterized by a dislike of high budget cal social reality has been observed in Fontane Thus the notion of society as irrational. fate which escapes active appropriation has been correlated with a resignation and famine and attains his existential desire happiness a condition indicative of the world. lJUu aLJlUl1 on the part of the individual who faces strictly oppressive circumstances ly term success no matter which version we read. However critics who measure realism by the amount of stark social facts as they In Thomas Mann s version the seemingly contradictory phenomena called Life and. are presented in Dickens or Balzac for example ignore the fact that it is also the pres Death become the subject of an exacting parody The sight of the blood soaked col. ence of values conventions suppositions and assumptions which designate a text s ref ored dream coat wounds Joseph s grieving father who assumes his beloved son has. vlC HU Ul Y regarding the empirical world These values are exhibited in Fontane s perished This occurs just at the moment at which Joseph steps into the Totenland of. characters whose social and psychological matrix affords us a penetrating view of the Egypt resurrected as Usarsiph the seemingly dead individual in the realm of Death. ridges and abysses of the reality of his time This paper attempts to refute the notion which was the ruling life power of ancient Egypt Joseph the newly born chosen. of passive contemplation as the sole distinctive feature ofFontane s characters who are one lives out his life there as U sarsiph so that one day he may give life and prosperi. said to merely succumb to a non alterable petrified and petrifying facticity It shows ty to the family who thought him dead Through the image of the blood soaked gar. how these individuals dutifully respond to the challenge of making sense out of the world ment that pierced Jacob s heart and catalyzed the total action Thomas Mann achieved. in which they fmd themselves Fontane s novels his characters are por transcendence the reality of the relative mystery in the sense of mystery play of Life. against the background of their quarters where we find them in the pro and Death. to carve out a niche in which to feel at home Consequently the activ. Richard Strauss s ballet music the Joseph Legende was conunented on by John. installing themselves in their environment carry a considerable. Neumeier as follows I was inclined to agree with Nijinski who was reputed to have. and demand renewed critical attention This is especially true since. said that not even if God came down to earth could he dance to this music The dis. we also have to view these activities connected to concrete personal space as foil to the. crepancy between the simplicity of the Genesis story and the profound complexity of. more comprehensive social space and its demands on the persons involved. Strauss s score seemed paradoxical, Andrew Lloyd Webber utilized Dionysian chaos as his form of expression his. sensual and primordial rhythms floating the dream coat like a fantastic balloon lift. ing Joseph Usarsiph to infinite heights Is the huge colored balloon a cheap circus trick. or the genuine style expression of the twentieth century Is it barbarism or the deep. reality of timelessness that causes Webber to represent the decadent sun worship. IN ping pharaoh Akhenaten by the king Elvis Presley And his audience old and. young are they drunk upon Dionysus wine in a moment of rhythmic rapturous. respite from conunonplace dreaming while wide awake through a synthesis of the. University ofNorth Dakota arts that extends from rock music to religious ritual. Actually Mann Strauss and Webber all introduced an element of hope and faith. into the Bible story Mann s Joseph Usarsiph has a dual nature both as a mortal man. The Joseph story Genesis 36 inspired not only Thomas Mann s Joseph in Egypt and as God s instrument Strauss included a deus ex machina dream personification. the third volume of his tetralogy Joseph and his Brothers but also Richard Strauss s. a figure in golden armor to rescue Joseph from wordly distractions Dance music poet. ballet for his Joseph Legende Hugo von Hofmannsthal s libretto and Andrew Lloyd ry the essence of symbolism needed setting costumes choreography and the direc. Webber s Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat Thomas Mann like tion of Max Reinhardt for Strauss s creation to approach religious mystery and legend. Strauss and Webber focuses on the period from young Joseph s abduction from his Webber gives us his own dream and makes it an experience. father Jacob to his encounter with Potiphar s wife Joseph s ability to interpret dreams. estranged him from his brothers but was God s means of directing Joseph whose Does not all this become mystery in all senses when Joseph s mundane dream coat. fidelity simplicty of heart and steadfastness enabled him to accomplish God s will and blends into the task God chose him to accomplish We can at least sketch an answer. thereby achieve his own fulfillment After his penances in the pit and then in prison Sometimes we cannot grasp great concepts because we have no time to see with our. Joseph achieved maturity and God s sanction of his services Mann Strauss and imperfect vision what is essential which is dignified by its simplicity and obviousness. Webber share a common orientation to the metaphysical message the tale expresses. Joseph deeply conunitted to his monotheistic patriarchal Weltanschauung and. endowed with personal integrity and disciplined conscience was able to follow his. Father Creator s wishes and alter the course of history His symbolic descents flrst. his three days in the well and later his prison term both inflicted on him despite his inno. cence together with his dream and faith guided activities defme him as a Christ fig. ure Joseph s personality his faith his capacity for entering the dream world and. above all his selection by God all made him God s instrument a power to shape his. tory and moral principle He involuntarily becomes the giver oflife during Egypt s great. PRONOUNS AND PERSPECTIVES A STUDY OF PHASAL ANALYSIS. RATLIFF S WE AND THEY IN SPOTTED HORSES THE DESCRIPTIVE FRAMEWORK OF. COMMUNICATION LINGUISTICS,Drury College Karen Malcolm.
i University oJWinnipeg, V K Ratliff is one of the most talked about character narrators in Faulkner criticism. not because his ancestors are pioneers like the Sartorises and the Compsons nor J As long as writers have been writing readers have been intrigued not only by. because he has ruthless ambitions like Thomas Sutpen His prominence rests on his what they have read but also by how it has been creatively concocted The man. occupation of retailing news as well as sewing machines Such a profession has made ner of describing an author s style has changed considerably over the the past sev. him an effective structural device in Faulkner s fictional world where he can be a eral hundred years Subjective and impressionistic adjectives facile and hard. detached narrator and an involved character at the same time vehement staccato and masculine have been replaced by more objective con. As a narrator in Faulkner s best known short story Spotted Horses Ratliff dis sistent and replicable terms borrowed from linguistics. regards one of the basic rules that every English handbook advises pertaining to the ref Following the Communication Linguisitcs framework introduced in 1981 Gregory. erent of pronouns Avoid an ambiguous reference They or we each has its noticed chunks oftri functional consistency in a soliloquy by Hamlet An encoder s. different referent not only from paragraph to paragraph but also within a paragraph wording sounding and meaning choices reflecting his her experiential interpersonal. Surprisingly the result is not confusion but an added perspective from which Ratliff and medium relationships were momentarily consistent And Gregory and Malcolm. becomes a character as well as a reader of his own story Though seldom at the cen observed that these phases captured the spontaneous and unconscious organization. ter of the action throughout the story he is almost always on the sideline observing of extended texts too in their work on children s talk. commenting or simply laughing to himself or with his readers about the bargain hunt Over the past several years I have used phasal analysis in my study of assorted. ing maniacs at the pony auction and the sense of helplessness that folks at discourses written and spoken contrived and spontaneously generated literary and oth. Y oknapatawpha County feel when they come to deal with Flem Snopes erwise In this paper my intention is not to overwhelm nor obscure with the innu. merable details that allow the analyst to discern the actual phases which structure a. discourse but to share some of the variations in style which these analyses have. i The phases which reflected the organization of conversations by six year old dyads. were relatively transparent as a consequence of their encoders preference for short sim. ple sentences and phases with little internal variation Such transparent phases contrasted. FOR EXAMPLE SIMONE DE BEAUVOIR S with adults lengthy varied complex and obscure sentences and phases But once their. PARENTHETICAL PRESENCE IN LEJEUNE S phases were uncovered so was an interesting distinction between the conversation of. THEORY OF AUTOBIOGRAPHY friends and strangers Like children adult strangers were likely to structure. their conversation in isolated chunks of consistency or gradually evolving phases. Marylea MacDonald continuous phasal strings Adult friends however secure in their range of linguistic. University ofManitoba and non linguistic shared experiences jumped from one set of consistencies to anoth. er and back again forming discontinuous phasal strings. The effect of interpersonal relationship in casual conversation proved instructive in. Philippe Lejeune the most influential theorist of autobiography in France did not. subsequent research on the intended audience of various passages of fictional dia. devote a study to the memoirs of Simone de Beauvoir however her name recurs fre. logue Of Canadian authors Kroetsch Watson Laurence MacLennan and Atwood. quently parenthetically within his work She seems to have been very much on his. only Kroetsch risked attempting the discontinuous phasal strings that characterized adult. mind but as an example of what not do of an autobiographer who did not succeed In. friends talk The others were much more conservative their dialogue describable in. fact he goes so far as to speak of her failure Among scholars working on Beauvoir and. isolated phases reminiscent of strangers talk where orderliness and completeness. other women autobiographers I have noted a general awareness of these remarks and. varying degrees of consternation but for the most part they seem willing to forgive were prerequisite. Lejeune his foibles and simply adopt the concepts which he developed I am propos And from a somewhat different perspective phasal analysis revealed a very com. ing instead a careful reading of Beauvoir s parenthetical presence in the work of plex internal organization of certain critical passages in various plays by O Neill. Lejeune In conformity with the scholarly obligation to begin research with what has Often where the emotional pitch had reached a high a phase would be framed by anoth. been done I will examine what Lejeune has done to Beauvoir er both front and back and then sub phases might be similarly framed to bind the var. ious phasal consistencies even more tightly together.

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