Kaizen Practice in Ethiopia Challenges and Opportunities

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Kaizen Practice in Ethiopia Challenges and Opportunities Article by Abebe Nigatu PhD Management Texila American University Email abebe nigatu gmail com Abstract This article describes the Kaizen practices that have been observed in Ethiopia Best experiences learnings and challenges and opportunities will be discussed It demonstrates the Kaizen approach in Ethiopia context has proven


DOI 10 21522 TIJMG 2015 SE 19 01 Art027,ISSN 2520 310X. evidence and background how kaizen helped Japan companies to overcome the productivity and quality. challenges when the Japanese companies encountered were challenged by the competition from American. and European manufacturers after mid 1940s Chen et al 2000. In various literatures Kaizen is defined as Japanese Continuous improvement Alberto in his working. paper titled the role of Kaizen in economic transformation he defined kaizen as Kaizen is a Japanese term. to mean improvement and refers to a process of innovation in firms involving the entire work force It. involves customer orientation quality control new product development just in time and automation. cooperative employer employee relationships and so on Alberto E Lemma 20018. With the success of Kaizen implementation and as it has become culture of wok in Japan It has become. a strategic approach in Japanese government as a package in the assistance it offers to many developing. countries like Ethiopia and many other African countries through private and public channels of. development assistance Izumi and other scholars emphasis that there are huge untapped potentials of. implementing Kaizen in Africa to improve the productivity and inefficiencies challenges African countries. suffer from Izumi Ohno et al 2009, In line with the what we discuss above in terms of the opportunity of getting support from Japanese. government through development assistance programs the introduction of Kaizen in Ethiopia has been. started with full assistance of Japanese International Cooperation Agency JICA following the request. from Ethiopian government for the transfer of Kaizen technology transfer through National Graduate. Institute for Policy Studies GRIPS by the time when Ethiopia developed the national Growth and. Transformation Plan with the desire of improving the managerial capability and capacity to implement the. national strategy GRIPS 2011, The introduction of Kaizen outside Japan through the support from JICA and records of Japan s success. in Kaizen implementation has encouraged other developing countries and in countries where Kaizen has. been implemented one of these case is Ethiopia significant changes have been registered in terms of. producing quality products and improving productivity and has become as the key success factors not only. for the success of companies but the countries as well in competing in global markets. The kaizen implementation in some of the Industries in Ethiopia real changes were made and proven. significant saving in resources and improve efficiency Bethlehem Herald Changing the way Ethiopian. Industries work June 2018 Ethiopia having a lot of challenges in its endeavor in increased export income. and in the national strategy of sector shift from agriculture based economy to industry led economy with. the strategy goal of import substitution the productivity and quality improvement are key for the. achievement of the goal Notwithstanding the challenges there have been records of encouraging results. from manufacturing companies which implemented the Kaizen initiative in Ethiopia Looking forward. therefore would be scaling up the achievements registered in a few companies focusing on the learnings. and areas of improvements in the implementation of Kaizen This article will come up with a. recommendation based on the analysis of the practice of Kaizen in the country considering samples of. companies which have been implementing the Kaizen culture of doing business. Work culture challenges in ethiopia, The Japanese work culture and the thinking is more amiable to high productivity and innovation is a. reason for success in Kaizen implementation According to George the socio cultural traits of the Japanese. influences the work culture in offices and has been good ground for success in Kaizen culture Georg O. Tasie 2009, Culture affects the management styles decision making processes the employee responsiveness and.
perceptions of problems According to George Japanese have developed their own skills of management. which stem directly from culture and social values and beliefs The Japanese culture has been influenced. by Taoist Confucian Asian and Western ideas Unlike Ethiopians the Japanese are homogenous race both. linguistically and culturally and most importantly in relation to the change management Japanese are highly. flexible to embrace change which is key for Kaizen implementation Ethiopians and Japanese have also. Texila International Journal of Management,Special Edition Apr 2019. similarities in terms of having high power distance high uncertainty avoidance and being high collectivist. unlike the western Culture, The question therefore is that the work culture in Ethiopia is it amicable to the Kaizen culture how can. the Kaizen principles and tools be contextualized without costing the standard of the Kaizen approach So. the challenge is how should a company in Ethiopia implement the Kaizen principles with contextualization. of the approach to the values and norms and at the same time transforming the culture to favorable work. environment to Kaizen philosophy, As Andrew Parris 2013 indicated in his research Improving Process for Good in East Africa Work. Culture in Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular timeliness is not a priority Andrew clearly said in. his article that meetings and social events start late And lateness is acceptable and even expected Andrew. also cited Mandela saying South African have no concept of time and this is also why we cannot solve. poverty and social problems Mandela 2003, In his research Andrew identified more cultural challenges that the researcher being an Ethiopian. believes the identified issues are truer to Ethiopian Context than other African countries The cultural issues. identified are, High level of corruption which required extra reviews and approvals burden processes.
People don t follow written instructions,Poor quality is the norm. It s not a problem until it s a problem,Life is unpredictable. Workers are not expected to innovate, The findings of the research by Andrew informs that the Kaizen implementation in Ethiopia will have. challenges related to culture change To make decisions faster and to remove the none value adding. processes steps it clearly requires culture change the way how people do their work and the mindset shift. from it is okay to we need to change thinking Other researches like Eden M 2017 and Tigist H 2015. in their thesis for their Master s degree also confirmed the same culture related issues are bottlenecks of the. Kaizen implementation in companies which piloted the implementation Many researches affirm that. culture change is critical factor in successful implementation of Kaizen when transferred to other cultures. Anh et al 2011 emphasized the fact that the success of Kaizen culture transfer is highly dependent on the. culture context of a given country where Kaizen is implemented. Kaizen implementation practice in ethiopia and results achieved. Kaizen as a management tool was introduced in Ethiopia in 2009 with JICA in response to the request. from the government of Ethiopia to Japan government as part of the development cooperation the two. countries have had for many years The government of Ethiopia was keen to implement the Kaizen. philosophy to enhance the national development strategy to foster economic growth through improving. productivity and efficiency, The Government of Japan through JICA agreed to offer assistance in transferring the Kaizen technology. and the Kaizen project was designed with the close support from JICA As indicated in GRIPS report 2011. cited by Admasu 2015 after the project design phase was completed the former Ministry of Trade and. Industry established kaizen unit with professionals drawn from the ministry and relevant sectorial. institutes and JICA deployed a consultant team to work with the Unit The kaizen project was officially. launched with the first National Kaizen Seminar in the presence of high level officials from both sides. With the project pilot companies kaizen is selected as one of management tools to improve and enhance. managerial capability to implement Growth and Transformation Plan GRIPS 2011. According to Shimada the director of Research Program Division of JICA Research Institute the project. was designed jointly by JICA and Ministry of Industry Ethiopia with a project life from October 2009 to. 2011 The sector focused for the piloting phase was manufacturing sector of 28 companies selected The. project was designed with three objectives,DOI 10 21522 TIJMG 2015 SE 19 01 Art027.
ISSN 2520 310X, Polite project performance to scale it up to national level. Human Resources Development aiming to transfer Kaizen skills to staff of ministry of industry. National Plan Formulation to disseminate the Kaizen activates across the manufacturing companies. in Ethiopia, As can be seen in the diagram below Ethiopian is one of African countries which are implementing. Kaizen in Africa since 2009,Source JICA research program division. As reports from JICA Research Institute presented by the director to audience gathered for a workshop. on Kaizen summarizes the results achieved from the piloted projects. Qualitative results achieved,Clean working environment created. Team work and motivation of workers developed, Health and occupational safety of workers improved.
Lower level workers accustomed to suggesting improvement. ideas to management decisions Increased Employee,Participation. Knowledge obtained on how to meet quick delivery and to reduce costs. Quantitative results, Monetary impact from the improvements reported is ETB 500 000 company. The reporting ranges from ETB 10 000 to ETB 3 2 mill. By Reducing costs a ETB 10 000 per month and b ETB 78 000 per. By generating additional income of ETB 1 2 million per year. By just decreasing down time ETB 204 000 per day, By rectifying raw materials defect used for manufacturing ETB 2 4mill. By identifying repairing and reusing of usable machines equipment. worth of ETB 3 25 mill,Non monetary measures of improvement include. Increasing labor productivity by reducing time loss for searching tools on. average 50,Reduction of floor space around 50,Defect ratio improvement in the range of 50 70.
Texila International Journal of Management,Special Edition Apr 2019. Lead time improved in the range of 16 to 90,Labor saved from 15 to 90. Note Note USD1 approximately ETB 17 1 as of Aug 2011. Source JICA research department, After the project completion it was found that out of 28 companies piloted 10 more than one third. were graded with excellent achievements which can be considered as success to have Kaizen Model. companies This result encouraged the government of Ethiopia and JICA to scale up the Kaizen. implementation in other companies as well After the piloting phase several companies implemented the. kaizen philosophy across the country mainly in manufacturing factories. Analysis of researches studies made on companies which implemented kaizen culture. This analysis was made on researches available on the practice of Kaizen implementing companies in. Ethiopia Three studies were consulted for the analysis. The study made by Tigist Hailegiorgis for fulfillment of her Master s Degree Assessing of the. Effectiveness of Kaizen Implementation in Wonji sugar Factory. This study was made in one of the oldest sugar factories in Ethiopia The finding was stated as. The Kaizen implementation was recorded as success in terms of minimization of waste and as a result. production cost reduction increasing efficiency creation of good relationship between employees and. management increasing employees attitude towards teamwork facilitation of the factory s conducive. working environment and improving work commitment Tigist 2015. Woni Sugar factory being one of the oldest factories in terms of time of establishment it is encouraging. that Kaizen tools applied in the processes of the factory resulted in increased efficiency From the result of. the study one can see that Kaizen philosophy is getting into the thinking of the employees and the. management The Kaizen tools changes the work culture but not easy as indicated by Tigist in her study. DOI 10 21522 TIJMG 2015 SE 19 01 Art027,ISSN 2520 310X. indicated that sustaining the changes achieved is critical Sustainability can be ensured only when the. mindsets and the culture change embrace continuous improvement Kaizen philosophy is all about. continuous improvement and implementers should not be contented with the results achieved in a given. period of time It should be continuous and better in the future Tigist suggests that to sustain the change. the factory should apply different motivation scheme to employees so as to enhance engagement of. employees for more change and better Tigist s recommendation is in agreement with the opinion of another. researcher Asayehgn Desta, Implementation of kaizen in manufacturing companies needs to be fully committed to boosting the.
morale of their workers to develop members capabilities to achieve self actualization and to work. cooperatively these commitments are vital to the process for improving the quality of the training output. Asayehgn Desta 2011, The study made by Eden Mekonnen for her Master s Thesis with the topic Assessment of Kaizen. Implementation Practices and Challenges in the case of Tikur Abbay Shoe Share Company Eden M. 2017 shows the results of the Kaizen implementation in this shoe manufacturing company has not shown. much successes The challenge indicated by Eden is that the management and employees seem to lack. clarity on the engagement level of employees in the change process Eden m 2017 This study raises some. concern as the study was very recent and the results contradict the good achievements during the piloting. phase seven years back It is important that further research is made on the status of Kaizen implementation. in Ethiopia in terms of how sustained the results have been in several other companies after significant. period of time for the Kaizen philosophy expected to be rolled out across the country and integrated well. in the traditions and culture of Ethiopian companies Some findings like these ones after seven years create. curiosity to scholars and invite research on the practice of the Kaizen tools. Eden has also mentioned in her study that conceptual misunderstanding between middle level managers. and front line employees on Kaizen was observed The employees are not buying in the new culture of. Kaizen either due to lack of proper communication or training. Eden explains her observation obtained through interview of employees and the Kaizen officer as. there are still conceptual gaps on the knowledge of continuous improvement and have the impression. of the traditional hierarchical work trends and these trends are still challenges for change The situation. could also have implications on quality of products and services and it has also depressing effect on the. generating and sustaining improvements, When there exists a gap in understanding of the Kaizen philosophy and the tools the impact expected of. Kaizen on quality production of products and services will be adversely affected and may even cause. negative impact on the sustainability of the Kaizen continuous improvement approach This study therefore. indicates that Kaizen implementation has not been success in a few of the companies which have undergone. implementation, The success depends on planning for rolling out of the tools and the commitment of leadership to engage. all employees from top to bottom In countries where organizational culture is more hierarchal and more of. rigidity in managerial practice kaizen implementation needs more effort culture change before launching. of any project As Kaizen is a continuous process improvement philosophy the transferability of the kaizen. culture is dependent on the level of engagement of employees and the decision making process The. managerial decisions should be employee driven and the synergy between the kaizen culture and the. organizational culture is key for the success of effective and sustainable transfer of Kaizen technology. A study conducted by Nesra Seid 2012 in one of a chemical industry called Kadisco indicated that the. productivity of a company was significantly improved as a result of improvements made on time wastage. which is registered to be reduced by average of 50 and defected ratio improvement on average from 50. to 70 and lead time on average from 16 to 90 which proves that the kaizen culture has brought changes. which can be scaled up in other manufacturing Asayhegen desta et al 2014 also conducted a study on. three companies Mesfin Industrial Engineering PLC Almeda Textile Factory PLC and Sheba Leather. and Tanning Industry PLC among selected for piloted project during phase I of the Kaizen implementation. Texila International Journal of Management,Special Edition Apr 2019. he indicated in his finding that the transferability of the culture was challenged by the existing. organizational culture that the results were not successful From this study and others we can see that. Kaizen Culture success depends largely on the change in the culture As some studies indicate a certain. level of improvements in productivity and efficiency can be achieved but the sustainability depends. critically alignment of the organizational culture to the Kaizen culture When there is lack of synergy. between the Kaizen culture and the existing culture of an organization sustainability can be guaranteed. Most organizations which failed in Kaizen implementation simply due to the lack of cultural transformation. In Ethiopia it has been about 10 years since Kaizen was introduced It is therefore attractive for scholars. to do research to know if Kaizen has been successful or to identify challenge and opportunities in Kaizen. implementation in Ethiopia, Unique challenges to kaizen implementation in ethiopia.
Due to continuing economic environmental cultural and political difficulties life in Ethiopia continues. to be difficult and somewhat unpredictable Despite all the political and global economic challenges. Ethiopia has registered a double digit economy growth for the last ten years Recently a political reform. has been taking place which introduced economic reforms through opening up the market and more. privatization, Despite the government effort to change the economic structure one of the challenges for Ethiopia has. been competitiveness in the global market According to Getinet and Admit Ethiopian experience in. industrialization and competitiveness was found to be poor Getinet and Admit 2005 Competitiveness is. key in sustaining the development efforts in the globalized world Competitiveness is a must to face it and. can only overcome challenges and grasp the opportunities provided by globalization when only when an. economy is competitive in the world market This is more appealing to the countries like Ethiopia which. aspire to have export led economy, For a growing economy like Ethiopia low productivity has always been an impasse to be competitive in. the global market The extent of productivity improvement counts more to competitiveness than other. production factors Most of growing manufacturing factories both private and public in Ethiopia suffer from. the inefficiency of production mainly due to poor processes To improve efficiency and productivity. therefore Kaizen tools would be appropriate to the Ethiopian manufacturing and services sectors Several. cases studies conducted in the companies which implemented Kaizen show that productivity and efficiency. is significantly being improved, The critical challenge for manufacturing sectors in Ethiopia and like most other developing economies. is the lack of managerial methodologies like Kaizen Izumi Ohno et al 2009 It is true that lack of capital. and technological capabilities are major problems in the manufacturing and service sectors the most. feasible and that can be easy and quick to be improved with a little investment and resources is changing. the managerial capacity with Kaizen tools Kaizen Admasu A 2015 This is why Kaizen becomes an. appropriate tool for developing economies, Andrew Parris discussed in his study on the challenges of process improvement in East Africa that with. low level of economy the scarcity of capital and resources to cover budget required for investment in. innovation and technological improvement becomes a challenge to a country and may lead to fragility. outdated inefficient and ineffective infrastructure equipment tools and processes Andrew P 2013. In a context where capital scarcity is high when processes are not efficient and effective and when. productivity is low the need for Kaizen culture becomes more evidently appealing The drive for. continuous improvement with a kaizen methodology is due to the low investment the Kaizen tools requires. Kaizen does not take huge investment and expertise It only takes available resources commitment. engagement and mindset to change the way business is done i e culture change. The culture aspect also is major challenge in the implementation of Kaizen The cultural factors have led. to inflexible bureaucratic process with too many hand offs reviews and approvals have been challenges. DOI 10 21522 TIJMG 2015 SE 19 01 Art027,ISSN 2520 310X.
to Kaizen implementation When the processes are not well integrated as a result of the culture result in. poor quality products and services and long lead time in process. In addition to these unique challenges we note some trends affecting developing countries Some of the. challenges below were discussed by Andrew Parris in his research on what international NGOs are facing. in their work in his article on Improving Processes for good in East Africa Andrew P 2003 The. researcher believes and is convinced that some of the issues discussed in this article are also true for business. companies operating in Ethiopia Some of the issues are found to be more relevant to Ethiopian context and. borrowed from the findings of Andrew, The contexts in which companies particularly the manufacturing companies work are getting. increasingly dynamic and complex To respond to this dynamics processes and decision making approaches. need to be improved to respond effectively to sustain the business both in local and global markets in. increasingly competitive market environment, International development partners are demanding greater impact transparency and accountability in. the development endeavors with efficiency given a priority demand Competition to expand market share. demands responsiveness high quality and customer values in all aspects of the business dimensions. Global market is being affected by the policies that a few developed countries are making For instance. the tariff taxes and protection police introduced by US and China currently is big challenge for developing. economies On top of the challenges the poor countries already have the new trend of global business. competition is creating difficult situation Developing nations have been striving to make long term. investments in micro and macro projects to get out of poverty and the opportunities to get loans and. technology transfer through foreign direct investment is facing new era of challenge More than ever. countries must find new innovate ways to use available resources in most efficient and effective way. Kaizen can be the best chosen tool to do business in innovative ways. Technological and communications advances are significantly disrupting legacy approaches to many. companies in terms of organizational effectiveness these advances require rapid and agile adaptation and. innovation of companies and their employees, Developing nations like Ethiopia are generally urbanizing faster and growing faster economically than. developed nations This requires companies s to change where and how they work and how they provide. value to the people they serve This is why Kaizen is highly recommended to be practiced in Ethiopia. These trends oblige companies to more quickly experiment learn from experience adopt new ways of. doing things and adapt themselves to their changing contexts Andrew P pp 2013 This justifies why. Kaizen needs to be promoted in Ethiopia Ethiopian Companies we believe have to quickly learn and adapt. changes happening in the business environment Researches indicate that those companies in Ethiopia. which implemented Kaizen have significantly managed the changing business environment. Why lean kaizen is vital for ethiopia, The business environment globally is becoming more competitive and challenging in general and for. developing economies in particular Several studies on development of Ethiopia show that low productivity. and poor quality both in production and service is the bottleneck for the economy Birhanu Beshah 2013. in his presentation on The need for Quality and Productivity Improvement cited Daniel Kitaw and et al. indicated that the competitiveness of the manufacturing industries is low and the quality management. awareness is low, According to the studies Brihanu mentioned in his presentation the quality problems are observed in.
several sectors in Ethiopia economy In education health public services and construction industries. quality has been recorded at low The quality thinking is not reflected in the work culture and poor quality. product and services continues to constrain the economic development. Ethiopian companies have been struggling to survive in the global market mainly due to quality factor in the. competition world When competition increases developing economy is prone to failure The need for. continuous process improvement becomes essential for such economies Increasing competition in global. Texila International Journal of Management,Special Edition Apr 2019. economy necessities Kaizen philosophy continuous improvement to be implemented in developing. economies like Ethiopia Quality of products and services improvement is required by the competition in the. industrial world Winy Utari 2011, There is huge opportunity to effectively transfer Kaizen technology to Ethiopia due to long lived. economic assistance from Japan government which makes implementation of Kaizen feasible as the. assistance for kaizen through private channels such as intra company technology transfer and support for. local suppliers as well as through public channels such as official development assistance and guidance. provided by various public organizations has well established infrastructure in Ethiopia because of the. political will from both governments to strengthen economic cooperation. Conclusions and recommendations for kaizen approach in ethiopian context. Conclusion, The Kaizen project in Ethiopia started with three phases The first phase was started in August 2009. which was aimed to review the As Is of about 63 companies in terms of the quality and productivity of. their performance Based on the preliminary assessment result out of the 63 companies 30 companies were. selected on the basis of their proximity to the capital city their contribution to export revenue portfolio of. the company in terms of the level of capital and the employee size In October 2009 2010 the first phase. of the project was completed and from out of the selected 30 companies only about 8 companies were. finally chosen by Ethiopia s Kaizen Institute as Kaizen model companies Ethiopian Ministry of Trade. 2011 The purpose of choosing the models is for scaling up the Kaizen culture to all the companies through. the coordination and support of the Kaizen institute of Ethiopia. According to the finding in this study and several other studies conducted in companies which. implemented Kaizen indicate that the success of kaizen culture transferability and implementation of the. kaizen practices in Ethiopia depend on the degree of compatibility between the Japanese company s kaizen. culture and national culture The culture change has been most challenging in all the organizations kaizen. was implemented, The main challenge observed during the implementation is. Adaptability to the change which is primarily the culture incompatibility of the host country and. the Kaizen philosophy because of lack of synergy between the requirements of kaizen and the. work ethics of local company workers, In some cases where Kaizen was implemented when the trainers or the implementation leads are.
insensitive to the context and organizational cultures of manufacturing companies it was. observed that dysfunction of the kaizen management techniques occurs. Assumption of uniformity in work ethics and culture creates confusion among the employees. and management At times it becomes a demotivating and affects sustainability. The implementation of the Kaizen method in Ethiopia seems to be enforced as a must to do it by the. government and lacks self motivation and ownership of the employees which affects the full engagement. of the company employees, Given that kaizen has also resulted in significant changes in cost reduction and work flow and delivery. time improvement companies should focus on the sustainability of the changes through engagement of. employees that fosters bottom up decision making and an employee driven management style that. promotes team work and quality sensitization among employees The company must have a strategy to. positively influence the organizational culture to create engagement ownership and clarity of why Kaizen. is important for the organization It is important that employees should not perceive Kaizen implementation. is a change management tool forced by government Such perception may be created due to the. misunderstanding or miscommunication of the roles of Kaizen institute a government organization. As Kaizen has been introduced in Ethiopia for quite long time it is now time for researchers to assess. the achievements and challenges of Kaizen implementation in Ethiopia The role played by the Ethiopian. Kaizen institute and its capability in supporting organizations to transfer the technology need further. DOI 10 21522 TIJMG 2015 SE 19 01 Art027,ISSN 2520 310X. research The support given by the JICA from the time of the implementation to date needs also deep review. to understand and identify the critical variables needed for the transferability of the Japanese kaizen. management techniques to Ethiopian context,Recommendation. Ethiopian s experience clearly demonstrates that introducing Kaizen culture to Ethiopian manufacturing. and service sectors to improve work culture bears real fruit and shows promise for bringing about the. improvement in productivity product and service quality We recommend the following for Ethiopian. companies as they implement Kaizen methods, Educate engage and get buy in and sustained attention from all employees and leadership Improve. processes and achieve results that employees can be happy and care about most Avoid the perception that. Kaizen technology is what the Kaizen Institute or government wants to be implemented Employees should. internalize why the Kaizen culture needs to be implemented Educating employees and leadership on the. productivity quality and competitiveness challenges should be first thing to be done in organizations before. planning for the Kaizen technology transfer programs. Once Kaizen is agreed to be useful to transform the existing situation of a given company it is critical. important to prioritize timely project completion and measurement of actual impact. As several studies the major challenge of Kaizen implementation in Ethiopian context is the. sustainability factor To sustain the and adapt culture of continuous improvement we need to begin. implementation of Kaizen methods with utmost consideration of contextualize Kaizen culture to reflect. organization s values and priorities of the implementing companies. Avoid government push approach and focus to create awareness among employees and leadership why. Kaizen is vital for companies Productivity competition and factors to survive in a global dynamic. environment should be understood and be reasons of motivation to adapt the Kaizen methods Creating a. culture of quality sensitivity is critical An organizational culture where employees no longer accept poor. quality and delays but who continuously innovate to improve the way they do work and impact while. reducing costs, As companies expect their employees to be adaptable to changes they must be also fully committed to.
boosting the morale of their workers and developing their ability to achieve self actualization Various. motivation schemes should be strategically chosen and be part of the Kaizen implementation strategy of a. The introduction of kaizen as a management tool and success in the transfer of technology to improve. and enhance productivity and managerial capability in Ethiopia needs to be strengthen in the context of the. Ethiopian culture without compromising the basic methodology of Kaizen The Kaizen methodology on. one hand requires understanding the tools well and on the other hand it becomes necessary to ensure. The Compatibility between kaizen culture and the organizational culture of Ethiopia s company. Change habits in the workplace to adhere to the kaizen work ethics. Continuous improvement not one time result, results achieved of Kaizen projects deliver measured impact. Instil a vision for quality products and services with the mindset of winning the competition in the. market Ensuring the and inspiring vision for customer satisfaction integrates the key elements of Kaizen. with the values and priorities of an organization and the country at large. For success of the transferability of the Kaizen technology we recommend that Kaizen institute of. Ethiopia should clarify its mandate as institution to ensure the companies are aware of what they expect. from the institution and what the company can support them in their endeavors It is very helpful and. strategically important for Kaizen Institute to prioritize to create awareness to employees and leaders on. the global challenges of competition and how companies can survive in the competition Dissemination of. facts and realities on the level of where companies are in terms of productivity quality and efficiency should. Texila International Journal of Management,Special Edition Apr 2019. be educated Most of the Kaizen Institute s time should be allocated to awareness creation of the dynamics. of business environment both internally and externally in collaboration with universities and other. institutions The Kaizen Culture to be integrated and adapted to the Ethiopian culture the Ethiopian Kaizen. Institute should also focus on sensitization of the method and tools of Kaizen and should strengthen the. collaboration with JICA for capacity building initiatives. References, 1 Anh P et al 2011 Empirical study on Transferability of Kaizen Practices The 11th International DSI and the. 16th APDSI Joint Meeting Taipei Taiwan July 12 16 2011. 2 Admasu A 2015 Kaizen Implementation in Ethiopia Evidence in Literature Journal for Studies in. Management and Planning Available at http international journal of research org index php JSMaP. 3 Asayehgn Desta 2013 Kaizen Initiatives at the Ethiopian Wonji Sugar Manufacturing Company Sarlo. Distinguished Professor of Sustainable Economic Development Dominican University of California. 4 Alsmadi S 2009 Aoki K 2008 Chase N 1998 Cheser R N 1998 and Imai M 1986. 5 Abhijit Chakraborty Madhuri Bhattacharya Saikat Ghosh and Gourab Sarkar 2013 Importance of Kaizen. Concept in Medium Manufacturing Enterprises International Journal of Management and Strategy IJMS Vol No 4. 6 Alsmadi S 2009 Kaizen strategy and the drive for competitiveness challenges and opportunities. Competitiveness Review An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness Vol. 19 No 3 pp 203 211, 7 Alberto E Lemma 20018 The role of Kaizen in Economic Transformation Overseas Development Institute. 203 Blackfriars Road London SE1 8NJ, 8 Aoki K 2008 Transferring Japanese kaizen activities to overseas plants in China International Journal of.
Operations Production Management Vol 28 No 6 pp 518 539. 9 Andrew Parris 2013 Improving processes for good in East Africa The TQM Journal Vol 25 Issue. 10 Birhanu Beshah 2013 The Need for Quality and Productivity Improvement Presentation Adama Ethiopia. Feb 12 2013, 11 Bethlehem 2018 Ethiopian Herald Changing the way Ethiopian Industries work June 2018. 12 Chase N 1998 Kaizen cuts works in progress boots production Quality Vol 51 53 p March. 13 Chen J C Dugger J Hammer B 2000 A Kaizen Based Approach for Cellular Manufacturing Design A Case. Study The Journal of Technology Studies Vol 27 No 2 pp 19 27. 14 Deniels R C 1995 Performance Measurement at Sharp and Driving Continuous Improvement on the Shop. Floor Engineering Management Journal Vol 5 No 5 pp 211 214. 15 Eden M 2017 Assessment of Kaizen Implementation Practices and Challenges in the case of Tikur Abbay. Shoe Share Company Submitted as partial fulfillment of requirement for the Masters of Business Administration. St Mary s university school of graduate studies, 16 Ethiopian Ministry of Industry Mar 10 2011 Ethiopia s KAIZEN has Now a Manual. 17 Georg O Tasie 2009 African Journal of Business Management Vol 3 4 pp 233 240 May 2009 Available. online at http www academicjournals org AJBM DOI 10 5897 AJBM09 021 ISSN 1993 8233 2009 Academic. 18 GRIPS 2011 Kaizen National Movement A study of Quality and Productivity Improvement in Asia and. Africa Japan International Cooperation Agency JICA GRIPS Development Forum. 19 Getinet A and Admit Z 2001 The Ethiopian Manufacturing Sector Competitiveness and the Way Ahead. Ethiopian Journal of Economics Vol X No 2 October 2001. 20 Imai M 1986 Kaizen The key to Japan s competitive success McGraw Hill Irwin New York USA. 21 Izumi Ohno Kenichi Ohno and Sayoko Uesu 2009 Introducing KAIZEN in Africa GRIPS Development. 22 Izumi Ohno Kenichi Ohno and Sayoko Uesu 2009 Introducing KAIZEN in Africa GRIPS Development. DOI 10 21522 TIJMG 2015 SE 19 01 Art027,ISSN 2520 310X. 23 Mandela N 2003 available at http africanhistory about com od mandelanelson p qts mandel a2 htm or. http mandelainterfreeuniversity edu weebly com about madiba nelsonrolihlahla mandela html. 24 Nesra Seid 2012 The role of Ethiopian Government in kaizen implementation as a modern management tool. for quality and productivity Proceeding the 4th International conference Leadership institute with the collaboration. of University of Green which, 25 Spear S and Bowen K 1999 Decoding the DNA of the Toyota Production System Harvard Business. Review September October pp 96 108 available at http hbr org archive toc BR9909. 26 Spear S J 2004 Learning to lead at Toyota Harvard Business Review pp 78 88 available at. http hbr org archive toc BR0405, 27 Tigist H 2015 Assessing the Effectiveness of Kaizen Implementation in Wonji Sugar Factory plc A thesis.
submitted to St Mary s university school of graduate studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award. of the degree of Master of Business Administration St Mary s university school of graduate studies. 28 Winy Utari 2011 Application of Kaizen Costing as a Tool of Efficiency in Cost of Production at Pt Coca Cola. Bottling Indonesia Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for the Accounting Department Faculty of. Economics Andalas University Padang, 29 Winy Utari 2011 Application of Kaizen Costing as a Tool of Efficiency in Cost of Production at Pt Coca Cola. Bottling Indonesia Submitted as Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for the Accounting Department Faculty of.

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