Jagdish Singh Arya1 Narendra Singh1 Preeti Singh Arya2

Jagdish Singh Arya1 Narendra Singh1 Preeti Singh Arya2 -PDF Download

  • Date:24 Oct 2019
  • Views:325
  • Downloads:1
  • Pages:9
  • Size:518.99 KB

Share Pdf : Jagdish Singh Arya1 Narendra Singh1 Preeti Singh Arya2

Download and Preview : Jagdish Singh Arya1 Narendra Singh1 Preeti Singh Arya2


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Jagdish Singh Arya1 Narendra Singh1 Preeti Singh Arya2


Description:

Jagdish Singh Arya1 Narendra Singh1 Preeti Singh Arya2 Anil Kant3 1Defence Institute of High Altitude Research Defence Research amp Development Organization C o 56 APO Leh Ladakh Jammu amp Kashmir India 194 101 2Department of Biochemistry Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology Kumar Ganj Faizabad Uttar Pradesh India 224229

Transcription:

high yielding varieties with good quality traits is needed the years In IC 0588677 the smallest leaf length 24 52cm . nowadays To improve the yield through selection 24 29cm was obtained in both the years Leaf width ranged. information on the nature and magnitude of variability from 0 72 to 5 90 cm and 0 61 to 5 39 cm during2013 and. present in a population is an important prerequisite for 2014 respectively In IC 0392640 greatest leaf width 5 90 . starting the breeding program Genetic diversity is essential 5 39 cm was found while lowest was 0 72 0 62 cm in IC . to meet the diversified goals of plant breeding such as 0279582 in both the years Supplementary Table 3 The. breeding for increasing yield wider adaptation desirable chlorophyll content ranged from 36 81 to 46 64 cci and 34 93. quality pest and disease resistance Selection of genetically to 43 18 cci during 2013 and 2014 The maximum. diverse parents in any breeding program is of immense chlorophyll content 46 64cci 43 18cci was observed in IC . importance for successful recombination breeding 0035940 whereas lowest 36 81cci 34 93 CCI was observed. Arunachalam 1981 and Akter et al 2015 Genetic in IC 0440229 during both the years Supplementary Table. divergence analysis estimates the extent of diversity existing 3 The results showed that the days to maturity ranged from. among selected genotypes Mondal 2003 Precise 131 80 to 150 40 and 135 to 154 20 during 2013 and 2014. information on the nature and degree of genetic diversity respectively Supplementary Table 3 The maximum days to. helps the plant breeder in choosing diverse parents for maturity 150 40 154 20 was taken in IC 0038823 while. purposeful hybridization Samsuddin 1985 Improvement in minimum 131 80 135 in IC 0374724 during both the years . yield and quality is normally achieved by selecting genotypes The double and deformed bulbs resulted in deteriorating. with desirable character combinations existing in nature or by quality as well as shelf life The double deformed bulb. hybridization Parents identified on the basis of the ranged from 23 90 to 97 55 and 28 31 to 99 07 in 2013 and. divergence analysis would be more promising Mohanty 2014 Supplementary Table 4 The maximum. 2001a Mohanty and Prusty 2002 have reported similar double deformed bulb 97 55 99 06 was found in the Local. results in onion When breeding for a particular set of Cultivar while minimum 23 90 28 31 was found in IC . growing conditions it is extremely important to know the use 0512324 during both the years Thickness of the neck is an. of local populations since in them the relationships among important parameter that determines the storability qualities. yield components are balanced and in harmony with the of onion varieties The onion genotype showed high. effects of the specific climatic and edaphic factors Principal variability in neck thickness It ranged from 0 62 to 2 73 cm. component analysis PCA one of the multivariate analysis and 0 94 to 2 96 cm during the years 2013 and 2014 . methods showed which of the traits were decisive in respectively Supplementary Table 4 The greatest neck. genotype differentiation Kovacic 1994 PCA enables easier thickness 2 73 2 96 cm was observed in IC 0392640. understanding of impacts and connections among different whereas the lowest 0 62 0 94 cm was observed in IC . traits by finding and explaining them The present 0588677 during both the years The Total soluble solid. investigation is an attempt to assess the magnitude of genetic ranged from 6 82 to 14 06 and 9 20 to 16 25 during 2013. diversity in the bulb yield potential of onion accessions and and 2014 respectively Supplementary Table 4 The highest. to isolate the diverse ones according to their genetic affinity total soluble solids 14 06 16 25 was found in IC 0512324. for future improvement programs whereas lowest 6 82 9 20 was found in IC 0338582. To make use of existing variability for an efficient breeding during the both years The dry matter content ranged from. program it is necessary to characterize variability of the 8 74 to 15 37 and 11 25 to 17 22 during the 2013 and. available germplasm for qualitative and quantitative traits 2014 seasons respectively Supplementary Table 5 The. and determine correlations among traits of interest maximum dry matter content 15 37 17 22 was found in. Considering the above facts this study was conducted to IC 0512324 while the lowest 8 74 11 25 in IC 0338582. determine the extent of natural variability that elicited in in both the years Polar diameter ranged from 2 60 to 7 22 cm. onion germplasm collected from the National Bureau of Plant and 2 15 to 6 83 cm during 2013 and 2014 respectively. Genetic Resources New Delhi India and to determine the Supplementary Table 5 Maximum polar diameter 7 22 . correlation among quantitative traits to derive breeding 6 83 cm was found in IC 0338582 Minimum polar diameter. strategies for development of high yielding cultivars 2 60 2 15 cm was obtained in IC 0391544 in both the. years The equatorial diameter ranged from 2 40 to 7 02 cm. Results and Discussion and 2 05 to 6 63 cm during both the years respectively. Supplementary Table 5 The greatest equatorial diameter. The germplasms were found to be rich in variability for all 7 02 6 63 cm was obtained in IC 0392640 while smallest. the studies characters While non significant difference was 2 40 2 05 cm in IC 0035182 during both the years The. observed among the characters between both the years of bulb shape index or the bulb dimensions are indirectly related. study The observation of data showed that the plant height to the yield and storage capacity of onion bulbs bulb shape is. ranged from 31 55 to 66 26 cm and 23 77 to 60 21 cm in both an important selection criterion and the desired shape. the years Supplementary Table 2 The maximum plant depends on the market preference Kepkova and Uniocka. height 66 26cm 60 21cm was found in IC 0391544 in both 1970 reported that onions with a diameter of 3 5 to 4 5 cm. the years The minimum plant height 31 55cm 23 77cm stored better than those with a diameter of 4 5 to 7 0 cm . was recorded in both the years The data obtained for number Considerable variation was found in the bulb shape of onion. of leaves per plant in onion genotypes have been tabulated in genotypes The shape can vary from flat to globe to torpedo. supplementary Table 2 The data reveal that the number of with different markets having different requirements Bulb. leaves per plant ranged from 5 34 to 16 64 and 14 06 to 5 54 shape has become an important aspect of market acceptability. during 2013 and 2014 respectively The highest number of as well as ease in packaging The onion bulb shape was. leaves per plant 16 64 14 06 was found in IC 0279582 in assessed by using the bulb shape index which is the ratio of. both the years The minimum number of leaves per plant the bulb height to diameter The bulb shape index values of. 5 54 5 34 was obtained in IC 0588677 in both the years genotypes IC 0035856 IC 0035992 IC 0038823 IC . Leaf length in onion genotypes ranged from 24 52 to 60 27. cm and from 24 29 to 57 54 cm during 2013 and 2014 . respectively Supplementary Table 2 The greatest leaf. length 60 27cm 57 54 cm was found in IC 0391544 in both. 330, Table 1 The bulb shape index values of genotypes . S no Genotypes Value 2013 Value 2014 Bulb shape index Shape. 1 IC 0035856 0 92 0 94 1 Flat, IC 0035992 0 99 0 98. IC 0038823 0 81 0 78, IC 0356095 0 90 0 87, IC 0369521 0 93 0 90. IC 0391544 0 77 0 70, IC 0392640 0 86 0 83, IC 0512324 0 80 0 75. IC 0524211 0 81 0 72, IC 0588677 0 89 0 91, IC 0039039 0 85 0 75.
2 IC 0279582 1 13 1 05 1 Torpedo, IC 0035182 1 31 1 21. IC 0035851 1 20 1 14, IC 0035940 1 22 1 30, IC 0047928 1 09 1 05. IC 0338582 1 06 1 08, IC 0440229 1 28 1 22, Local check 1 20 1 13. 3 IC 0035891 1 04 1 05 1 Globular, IC 0047940 1 01 1 02. IC 0279180 1 01 0 93, IC 0310990 1 01 0 98, IC 0374706 1 03 1 02.
IC 0392647 1 01 1 03, Fig 1 Dendogram showing the genotypic relationship among 26 accessions are based on morphological traits . 331, Table 2 Qualitative traits of onion germplasm . S No Genotypes Colour of Foliage Degree of Leaf Uniformity of Bulb Colour of Bulb Skin. Waxiness Shape, 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014 2013 2014. 1 IC 0279582 2 3 5 3 5 3 5 5 1 1 1 1,2 IC 0035182 3 5 2 3 5 5 3 5 1 1 1 1. 3 IC 0035851 2 5 2 3 5 3 5 5 1 1 1 1,4 IC 0035856 2 5 2 5 3 5 3 5 2 2 1 1.
5 IC 0035891 1 2 1 2 3 3 5 5 2 2 8 9 8 9,6 IC 0035940 2 5 2 3 5 5 3 5 2 2 8 8. 7 IC 0035992 3 5 5 5 7 5 7 3 3 8 8,8 IC 0038823 3 5 5 5 7 3 5 7 1 1 8 9 8 9. 9 IC 0047928 2 3 5 2 3 5 5 5 1 1 8 8,10 IC 0047940 1 2 1 2 5 7 2 3 5 1 1 8 8. 11 IC 0279180 1 2 1 3 5 5 3 3 8 8,12 IC 310990 2 3 2 3 3 5 3 5 2 2 9 9. 13 IC 0338582 1 2 1 2 3 5 3 5 1 1 8 8,14 IC 0356095 1 2 1 2 3 3 2 2 8 8.
15 IC 0369521 3 5 3 5 3 3 1 1 4 5 4 5,16 IC 0374706 3 5 5 3 5 5 2 2 6 6. 17 IC 0374724 2 2 3 5 5 3 3 4 4,18 IC 0391544 3 5 5 3 3 5 1 1 4 4. 19 IC 0392640 5 5 5 7 3 5 7 1 1 3 3,20 IC 0392647 3 5 3 5 5 5 7 1 1 8 9 8 9. 21 IC 0440229 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 5 1 1 9 9,22 IC 0512324 3 3 5 5 5 7 1 1 9 9. 23 IC 0524211 5 3 5 5 7 5 7 1 1 9 9,24 IC 0588677 3 5 3 5 5 5 2 2 8 8.
25 IC 0039039 5 3 5 3 5 7 3 5 7 3 3 1 1,26 Local check 3 5 3 5 5 7 5 7 3 3 1 1. Colour of foliage 1 light green 2 yellow green 3 green 4 grey green 5 dark green 6 bluish green 7 purplish green Degree of leaf waxiness 3 weak . 5 medium 7 strong Uniformity of bulb shape 1 uniform 2 variable 3 highly variable Colour of bulb skin 1 white 2 yellow 3 yellow and light brown . 4 light brown 5 brown 6 dark brown 8 light violet 9 dark violet . Fig 2 Principal Component analysis of morphological data with respect to 26 onion genotypes . 332, Table 3 Pearson s correlation between quantitative and qualitative traits of onion germplasm . Traits PH NL LL LW CC MD D DB NT TSS DM PD ED BSI ABW BY. PH 1 0 480 0 855 0 197 0 237 0 244 0 450 0 342 0 228 0 224 0 523 0 523 218 0 454 0 451 . , NL 1 0 416 0 279 0 008 0 419 0 238 0 395 0 019 0 041 0 510 0 522 210 0 404 0 405 . LL 1 0 084 0 275 0 160 0 411 0 410 0 182 0 165 0 464 0 412 060 0 352 0 349 . , LW 1 0 290 0 514 0 490 0 207 0 074 0 107 0 739 0 805 333 0 692 0 692 . CC 1 0 245 0 105 0 364 0 116 0 155 0 193 0 220 075 0 229 0 230 . MD 1 0 306 0 481 0 325 0 317 0 665 0 699 242 0 597 0 597 . D DB 1 0 406 0 183 0 165 0 582 0 628 309 0 726 0 726 . NT 1 0 022 0 046 0 607 0 534 009 0 570 0 570 ,TSS 1 0 978 0 029 0 091 116 0 273 0 276 .
DM 1 0 043 0 102 110 267 0 269 ,PD 1 0 907 116 817 0 816 . ED 1 498 885 0 885 ,BSI 1 421 0 422 ,ABW 1 1 000 ,BY 1. Correlation is significant at the 0 05 level 2 tailed Correlation is significant at the 0 01 level 2 tailed . Table 4 Distribution of twenty six genotypes of onion in different clusters . Sr no Cluster Number of Genotypes, genotypes, 1 I 2 IC 0392640 IC 0440229. 2 II 10 IC 0035856 IC 0338582 IC 0356095 IC 0369521 IC 0512324 IC 0588677 IC . 0524211 IC 0374724 IC 0392647 IC 0038823, 3 III 2 Local Cultivar IC 0039039. 4 IV 12 IC 0035851 IC 0035940 IC 0374706 IC 310990 IC 0279582 IC 0035182 IC . 0035891 IC 0035992 IC 0047928 IC 0047940 IC 0279180 IC 0391544. Table 5 Average intra bold face and inter cluster distance D2 of 26 onion genotypes . Sr no Clusters I II III IV, 1 I 2 191, 2 II 2 542 2 778.
3 III 4 933 3 649 2 064, 4 IV 6 129 5 675 4 645 2 345. 333, Table 6 Mean values for four clusters based on fifteen morphological traits . Sr no Traits Clusters, I II III IV, 1 Plant Height cm 50 64 38 15 41 83 55 43. 2 Number of Leaves 12 90 8 43 12 87 12 86, 3 Leaf Length Cm 43 42 32 97 38 35 46 33. 4 Leaf Width Cm 1 16 3 02 1 09 1 20, 5 Chlorophyll content 39 14 42 32 37 88 44 34.
6 Days to maturity 134 26 141 53 133 60 135 95, 7 Double Deformed Bulb 53 38 27 90 38 03 70 86. 8 Neck Thickness cm 1 02 1 04 1 74 1 53, 9 TSS 7 90 9 40 12 48 8 58. 10 Dry matter 9 83 11 37 14 18 10 32, 11 Polar adiameter cm 3 13 5 93 3 60 3 36. 12 Equatorial Diameter Cm 3 06 6 43 3 43 2 89, 13 Bulb shape index 1 03 0 92 1 07 1 17. 14 Average bulb wt g 42 94 92 55 70 50 36 48, 15 Bulb yield kg plot 8 57 18 52 14 14 7 36.
Table 7 Eigenvalues and Variable lodging , PC 1 PC 2 PC 3. Eigenvalues 1014 28 140 27 96 54, Percentage 77 52 10 72 7 38. Cum Percentage 77 52 88 24 95 61, Variables PC 1 PC 2 PC 3. Plant Height cm 0 2 0 17 0 009, Number Of Leaves 0 042 0 044 0 067. Leaf Length Cm 0 158 0 216 0 61, Leaf Width Cm 0 023 0 024 0 013.
Chlorophyll content 0 011 0 046 0 033, Days to maturity 0 085 0 166 0 019. Double Deformed Bulb 0 546 0 037 0 368, Neck Thickness cm 0 011 0 006 0 015. TSS 0 021 0 014 0 692, Dry matter 0 02 0 019 0 01. Polar adiameter cm 0 036 0 025 0 021, Equatorial Diameter Cm 0 046 0 742 0 016. Bulb shape index 0 002 0 002 0 001, Average bulb wt g 0 773 0 567 0 048.
Bulb yield kg plot 0 155 0 114 0 012, Colour of foliage 0 002 0 013 0 054. Degree of leaf Waxiness 0 008 0 012 0 002, Uniformity of Bulb shape 0 011 0 015 0 032. Colour of bulb skin 0 034 0 063 0 002, 0356095 IC 0369521 IC 0391544 IC 0392640 IC shape and colour of bulb skin under the study The. 0512324 IC 0524211 IC 0588677 IC 0039039 were found characterization of onion varieties is presented in Table 2 . to be less than 1 considered as flat Table 1 while IC However no significant difference was found between both. 0279582 IC 0035182 IC 0035851 IC 0035940 IC the years . 0047928 IC 0338582 IC 0440229 and Local check were The difference between studied genotypes might be related. found to be more than 1 considered as torpedo The bulb to genetic makeup by the used cultivars as per Kandil et al . shape index values of genotypes IC 0035891 IC 0047940 2010 Similar results were obtained by Akhtar 2002 . IC 0279180 IC 0310990 IC 0374706 IC 0392647 were Gemma et al 2007 Soleymani and Shahrajabian 2012 . found to be 1 Table 1 considered as globular Average bulb. weight ranged from 33 82 to 98 57 g and 31 20 to 93 56 g Correlation analysis among quantitative traits. during both the years Supplementary Table 6 Maximum. average bulb weight 98 57 93 56 g was found in IC Simple correlations between characteristics are shown in. 0512324 Minimum average bulb weight 33 82 31 20 g Table 3 Leaf width r 0 692 chlorophyll content. was obtained in IC 0035851 in both the years The results r 0 230 days to maturity r 0 597 TSS r 0 276 . showed that the bulb yield ranged from 6 69 to 19 97 kg and dry matter r 0 269 polar diameter r 0 816 and. 6 11 to 18 72 kg during 2013 and 2014 respectively equatorial diameter r 0 885 have significantly high. Supplementary Table 6 The highest bulb yield 19 97 positive correlation with the bulb yield while plant height . 18 72 kg plot was found in IC 0512324 and minimum 6 69 0 451 number of leaves 0 405 leaf length . 6 11 kg plot in IC 0035851 respectively in both the years 0 349 double deformed bulb r 0 726 neck thickness. Among the 26 onion genotypes studied considerable r 0 570 and bulb shape index r 0 422 have. variation was observed for all the important attributes viz significantly high negative correlation These characters. colour of foliage degree of leaf waxiness uniformity of bulb could not be considered in selection criteria owing to their. 334, negative effect on bulb yield suggesting that the selection of other cluster are suggested to exhibit high heterosis and could. these characters may not help in increasing the bulb yield result in segregates with higher bulb yield . This result was in agreement with that reported by Mohanty. 2001b Rahman et al 2002 Trivedi et al 2006 Yaso Multivariate analysis. 2007 , A Dendrogram was constructed to display the similarity.
Cluster analysis between morphological relationships among different. genotypes of onion based on the Euclidean distance from the. Based on the D2 value estimates of genetic divergence the 26 morphological data matrix of two consecutive years All. onion genotypes were grouped into four distinct clusters genotypes were represented in four clusters Fig 1 . Fig1 Table 4 A wide range of diversity was observed in Dendrogram based on UPGMA method analysis grouped the. the genotype into main clusters I II III and IV Cluster I. experimental material for the majority of the characters represents the genotypes IC 0392640 and IC 0440229 . studied Cluster IV consisted of a maximum of 12 genotypes cluster II represents IC 0035856 IC 0338582 IC 0356095 . Cluster II consisted of 10 genotypes cluster I consisted of 2 IC 0369521 IC 0512324 IC 0588677 IC 0524211 IC . genotypes and cluster II also consisted of 2 genotypes 0374724 IC 0392647 IC 0038823 Cluster III represents. Cluster II had the highest intra cluster distance 2 778 Local Cultivar and IC 0039039 and cluster IV represents the. followed by cluster IV 2 345 cluster I 2 191 and cluster genotypes IC 0035851 IC 0035940 IC 0374706 IC . III 2 064 Table 5 The intra cluster distance in all the four 310990 IC 0279582 IC 0035182 IC 0035891 IC 0035992 . clusters was essentially low indicating that genotypes within IC 0047928 IC 0047940 IC 0279180 IC 0391544 These. the same cluster were closely related While considering the initial groupings of the individuals show the best fit to the. inter cluster distance Table 5 maximum inter cluster four distinct groups but we could not determine which. distance 6 129 was noticed between I and IV followed by characters are responsible for these groupings Therefore we. 5 675 between II and IV and 4 933 between I and III had to do further statistical evaluation with principal. Minimum distance 2 542 was noticed between I and II component analysis PCA . Table 5 According to Ghaderi et al 1984 increasing PCA reflects the importance of the largest contributor to. parental distance implies a great number of contrasting alleles the total variation at each axis of differentiation Sharma . at the desired loci and to the extent that these loci recombine 1998 The eigen values are often used to determine how. in the F2 and F3 generation following a cross of distantly many factors are to be retained The sum of the eigen values. related parents the greater will be the opportunities for the is usually equal to the number of variables We analyzed the. effective selection of yield factors Thus the crossing of PCA for 19 variables to discriminate the 26 onion varieties. genotypes from these clusters with other clusters may along with the local check We found that PCA extracted. produce higher amounts of heterotic expression in the first three PCs and contributed 95 61 of the variation out of. filial generations F1 s and a wide range of variability in which PC1 explained 77 52 variability PC2 10 72 and. subsequent segregating F2 populations Similar results were PC3 7 38 variability Suggesting these principal. found by Akter et al 2015 component scores might be used to summarize the original. Based on cluster means Table 6 the important cluster was 19 variables in any further analysis of the data According to. I for number of leaves 12 90 and neck thickness 1 02 cm Chahal and Gosal 2012 characters with the largest absolute. Cluster II for leaf width 3 02 cm double deformed value closer to unity within the first principal component. bulb 27 90 polar diameter 5 93 cm equatorial diameter influence the clustering more than those with lower absolute. 6 43 cm average bulb weight 92 55 g and bulb yield value closer to zero Therefore in the present study . kg plot 18 52 kg plot Cluster III for days to maturity differentiation of the accessions into different clusters was. 133 60 TSS 12 48 and dry matter 14 18 and because of relatively high contribution of few characters. Cluster IV for plant height 55 43 cm leaf length 46 43 cm rather than small contribution from each character . and chlorophyll content 44 34 cci Accordingly PC1 had high positive component loading. On the basis of results it can be concluded that genotypes from the average bulb weight bulb yield and high negative. that belong to cluster I are suitable for number of leaves and loading from the leaf length double deformed bulb while. neck thickness The suitable genotypes for leaf width remaining traits in PC1 did not contribute rather their effects. double deformed bulb polar diameter equatorial diameter were distributed among other PCs Table 7 The positive and. average bulb weight and bulb yield kg plot belonged to negative loading showed the presence of positive and. cluster II Genotypes which belonged to cluster III are negative correlation trends between the components and the. suitable for days to maturity TSS and dry matter content and variables Therefore the above mentioned characters which. cluster IV which was suitable for plant height leaf length and loaded highly positively or negatively contributed more to the. chlorophyll content could be selected as a parent for the diversity and they were the ones that were most differentiated. hybridization program Crosses involving parents belonging Table 7 The traits which contributed more positively to. to more divergent clusters would be expected to manifest PC2 were leaf length equatorial diameter average bulb. maximum heterosis and wide variability in genetic weight Table 4 however remaining traits in PC2 did not. architecture Singh et al 1987 Akter et al 2015 contribute Rather their effects were distributed among other. In the present study Cluster II was found to be more PCs In PC3 the traits which contributed more positively to. divergent than the others However the chance of getting PC3 were TSS leaf length and high negative loading from. segregates with high bulb yield level is quite limited when double deformed bulb while remaining traits in PC3 did not. one of the characters has a very low content yield level The contribute their effect were distributed among other PCs . selection of parents should also consider the special The configuration of the twenty six onion genotypes along. advantage of each cluster and each genotype within a cluster with Local Cultivar are shown in Fig 2 The coordination of. depending on the specific objective of hybridization Chahal the genotypes on all the axes together revealed that genotypes. and Gosal 2012 Thus crosses involving Cluster II with any IC 0512324 IC 0392647 IC 0392640 IC 0369521 IC . 0356095 IC 0038823 IC 0035856 IC 0588677 IC , 335. 0524211 and IC 0338582 were the most distinct genotypes Statistical analysis. for the characters studied Usually it is customary to choose. one variable from these identified groups Hence for the first Morphological variations and relationship among onion. group average bulb weight is best choice which had the germplasms in relation to quantitative and qualitative traits. largest loading from component one equatorial diameter for on the studied parameters were analyzed using D2 statistics. the second and TSS for the third group Table 7 The Mahalanobis 1936 . average bulb weight had discriminating ability to 10 One way ANOVA with 2 sided Tukey s HSD at p 0 05. genotypes from the 26 ones This suggests that our PCAs was carried out using SPSS 21 0The data of both years was. determine characters responsible for individual pooled due to non significant variation and subjected to PCA . discrimination The characters which contributed positively Principal component analysis PCA was used to ordinate. to first three principal components could be given due population means allowing for variance and covariance. consideration while selecting the best genotypes without among genotypes within the population kim 1975 Average. losing yield potential Euclidean distance was calculated for each population and. the resulting distance matrix was used to construct a. Materials and Methods dendrogram using UPGMA method Mohammadi and. Prasanna 2003 ,Experimental site, Conclusion, Ladakh is a high altitude cold desert having distinct. geographical and climatic conditions and is considered one of The present investigation provides considerable information. the most difficult terrains in the world altogether offering a useful in the genetic improvement of onion Genotypes were. tough life with a lack of resources The experiment was grouped into cluster I II III and IV The maximum inter . conducted from May to October in 2013 and 2014 in the cluster diversity was observed among the genotypes grouped. Vegetable Research Unit at the Defence Institute of High into cluster I and IV From cluster mean values genotypes in. Altitude Research Leh Ladakh altitude 3500 m above Cluster II III and IV deserve consideration for their direct. MSL latitude 34 8 16 119 N longitude 77 34 19 2216 E use as parents in hybridization programs to develop high. The soil texture of the experimental site was silty loam with yielding onion varieties There is significant genetic. pH 7 1 0 2 Organic carbon and organic matter content were variability among the tested genotypes that provides an. 1 2 0 4 and 4 2 0 5 respectively excellent opportunity to bring about improvement through. wide hybridization by crossing genotypes in different. The experimental material clusters Further studies on the influence of environment and. agronomic practices on the genetic potential of the varieties. The experimental material consisted of 26 accessions in different environment are necessary This is helpful to. including a local cultivar Supplementary Table 1 of onion stratify the environments based on quality and yield stability . viz IC 0279582 IC 0035182 IC 0035851 IC 0035856 generally leading to the development of onion varieties. IC 0035891 IC 0035940 IC 0035992 IC 0038823 IC possessing equatorial diameter polar diameter average bulb. 0047928 IC 0047940 IC 0279180 IC 310990 IC 0338582 weight better T S S and yield . IC 0356095 IC 0369521 IC 0374706 IC 0374724 IC , 0391544 IC 0392640 IC 0392647 IC 0440229 IC Acknowledgement. 0512324 IC 0524211 IC 0588677 IC 0039039 and Local. Cultivar having a broad spectrum of variation which was The authors are grateful to Defence Institute of High Altitude. obtained from NBPGR New Delhi Research DRDO Leh Ladakh J K India for providing. financial support to carry out this work and Ritendra Mishra. Experimental procedure and observations for proofreading of the paper . The experiment was laid down in randomized complete block References. design RCBD with five replications and one local check all. the recommended agronomic practices and plant protection Akhtar ME Khurran B Khan MZ Khakhar KM 2002 . measures were followed The observations were recorded Effect of potash application on yield of different varieties. from ten randomly selected plants from each accession in of onion Allium cepa L Asian J Plant Sci 1 4 324 325 . each replication for thirteen quantitative characters viz Plant Akter MS Biswas A Siddique SS Hossain S Ivy NA 2015 . Height CM Number of leaves per plant Leaf Length CM Estimation of genetic diversity in Onion Allium cepa L . Leaf width CM Chlorophyll Content CCI Neck The Agriculturists 13 1 26 34 . Thickness CM Total Soluble Solids Dry Matter Arunachalam G 1981 Genetic distances in plant breeding . Polar Diameter CM Equatorial Diameter CM Bulb Indian J Genet 41 226 236 . Shape Index Average Bulb Weight g and Bulb Yield Chahal GS Gosal SS 2012 Principles and procedures of. Kg Plot and four qualitative traits viz Colour of Foliage plant breeding In Biotechnology and conventional. Degree of Leaf Waxiness Uniformity of Bulb Shape Colour approaches 5th edn Narosa publishing house New Delhi . of Bulb Skin All four qualitative traits were interpreted as 132 . per the method of Ekhvaia and Akhalkatsi 2010 The traits Ekhvaia E Akhalkatsi M 2010 Morphological variation and. were observed as per International Plant Genetic Resources relationships of Georgian populations of Vitis vinifera L . Institute IPGRI plant descriptors for Allium species Mean subsp sylvestris C C Gmel Hegi Flora 205 608 617 . values of all observations were calculated for quantitative Gemma AC Terry LA White PJ 2007 Effect of controlled. traits and subjected to analysis carried out by SPSS 21 atmosphere storage on abscisic acid concentration and. statistical analysis software other biochemical attribute of onion bulbs Postharvest Biol. Tec 39 233 242 , 336, Ghaderi A Adams MW Nassib AM 1984 Relationship Rahman MA Saha SR Salam MA Masum ASMH . between genetic distance and heterosis for yield and Chowdhury SS 2002 Correlation and path coefficient. morphological traits in dry edible bean and faba bean Crop analysis in onion Allium cepa L J Biol Sci 2 8 533 . Sci 24 37 42 53 , Govindaraj M Vetriventhan M Srinivasan M 2015 Samsuddin AK 1985 Genetic diversity in relation to.
Importance of genetic diversity assessment in crop plants heterosis and combining analysis in spring wheat Theor. and its recent advances An overview of its analytical Appl Genet 70 306 308 . perspectives Genet Res Int 2015 1 Sharma JR 1998 Statistical and biometrical techniques in. Kandil AA Leilah AA Mostafa AK Fathalla FH 2010 plant breeding 1st edn New age international publishers . Study on the internal bulb quality of some new Egyptian New Delhi 432 . onion cultivars under different irrigation regimes Int Singh BD 2009 Plant breeding In Principles and methods . J Plant Prod 1 2 205 212 7th edn Kalyani publishers New Delhi 8 . Kepkova A Uniocka I 1970 The effect of onion size and Singh SK Singh RS Maurya DM Verma OP 1987 Genetic. number per package on storage under different conditions divergence among lowland rice cultivars Annual report of. Biul Warzywniczy 11 355 371 Indian agricultural research institute IARI New Delhi . Kim J 1975 Factor analysis In statistical package for the India . social sciences In edn Nie NH Hull CH Jenkins JG Singh SR Ahmed N Lal S Ganie SA Amin M Jan N . Steinbrunner K and Bent HD McGraw Hill New York Amin A 2013 Determination of genetic diversity in onion. 468 514 Allium cepa L by multivariate analysis under long day. Kovacic Z 1994 Multivariate analysis Faculty of conditions Afr J Agric Res 8 45 5599 5606 . economics University of Belgrade Serbian 293 Soleymani A Shahrajabian MH 2012 Effects of different. Mahalanobis PC 1936 A study on the generalized distance levels of nitrogen on yield and nitrate content of four spring. in statistics Proceedings of national institute of science onion genotypes Int J Agric Crop Sci 4 4 179 182 . India 2 49 55 Trivedi AP Dhumal KN Lawande KE 2006 Estimates of. Mohammadi SA Prasanna BM 2003 Analysis of genetic heritability genetic advance and correlation Indian J. diversity in crop plants salient statistical tools and Genet Pl Br 66 1 59 60 . considerations Crop Sci 43 1235 1248 Yaso IAA 2007 Performance and genetic parameters for six. Mohanty BK 2001a Analysis of genetic divergence in onion genotypes in Nubaria area Egypt J Pl Br 11 3 307 . kharif onion Indian J Hortic 58 260 263 318 , Mohanty BK 2001b Genetic variability inter relationship. and path analysis in onion J Trop Agr 39 1 17 20 . Mohanty BK Prusty AM 2002 Mahalanobis generalized, distance analysis in onion Crop Res 3 1 142 144 . Mondal MA 2003 Improvement of potato Solanum, tuberosum L through hybridization and in vitro culture. technique Ph D Thesis Rajshahi University Rajshahi .

Related Books