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Lecture 1 Principles of Applied Entomology The field of entomology may be divided into 2 major aspects 1 Fundamental Entomology or General Entomology 2 Applied Entomology or Economic Entomology Fundamental Entomology deals with the basic or academic aspects of the Science of Entomology It includes morphology anatomy physiology and taxonomy of the insects In this case we study the
Insect Ecology Integrated Pest,Management,This eCourse Developed By. SN Chapter Page No,1 Principles of Applied Entomology 5 7. 2 Honey bees History of bee keeping 8 13,3 APIARY MANAGEMENT 14 17. 4 ROLE OF HONEY BEES IN CROSS POLLINATION 18 21,5 BEE PRODUCTS THEIR PROPERTIES AND USES 22 23. 6 Effect of agricultural inputs on bee activity Pesticide poisoning 24 29. 7 Role of pollinators weed killers and other beneficial insects 30 41. 8 Insect ecology and balance of life 42 46, 9 Population dynamics and role of biotic factors 47 50. 10 Abiotic factors on insect population 51 54,11 PEST 55 59. 12 PEST MONITORING 60 64,13 PEST MANAGEMENT 65 67,14 TRADITIONAL METHODS OF PEST CONTROL 68 75. 15 LEGAL CONTROL METHODS 76 79,16 HOST PLANT RESISTANCE 80 83. 17 BIOLOGICAL CONTROL 84 88,18 CHEMICAL CONTROL 89 91. 19 PESTICIDES GROUPS 92 94,20 THE INSECTICIDES ACT 1968 95 97. 21 PHEROMONES 98 100,22 STERIITY METHODS 101 103,23 INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS 104 110. 24 PESTICIDE APPLICATION METHODS 111 114,25 PESTICIDE COMPATIBILITY 115 120. 26 IMPACT OF GLOBAL WARMING ON PESTS 121 122,27 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 123 125. 28 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT 126 127, 29 IPM Integrated Pest Management for Rice 128 129. 30 BIOTECHNOLOGY IN PEST MANAGEMENT 130 131,Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management. Principles of Applied Entomology, The field of entomology may be divided into 2 major aspects. 1 Fundamental Entomology or General Entomology,2 Applied Entomology or Economic Entomology. Fundamental Entomology deals with the basic or academic aspects of the Science. of Entomology It includes morphology anatomy physiology and taxonomy of the. insects In this case we study the subject for gaining knowledge on Entomology. irrespective of whether it is useful or harmful, Applied Entomology or Economic Entomology deals with the usefulness of the. Science of Entomology for the benefit of mankind Applied entomology covers the. study of insects which are either beneficial or harmful to human beings It deals. with the ways in which beneficial insects like predators parasitoids. pollinators or productive insects like honey bees silkworm and lac insect can be. best exploited for our welfare Applied entomology also studies the methods in. which harmful insects or pests can be managed without causing significant. damage or loss to us, In fundamental entomology insects are classified based on their structure into. families and orders etc in applied entomology insects can be classified based on. their economic importance i e whether they are useful or harmful. Economic classification of insects, Insects can be classified as follows based on their economic importance. This classification us according to TVR Ayyar,Insects of no economic importance. There are many insects found in forests and agricultural lands which neither cause. harm nor benefit us They are classified under this category Human beings came. into existence 1 million years ago Insects which constitute 70 90 of all animals. present in this world came into existence 250 500 million years ago. Insects of economic importance,A Injurious insects. a Pests of cultivated plants crop pests, Each cultivated plant hatbours many insects pests which feed on them reduce the. yield of the3 crop Field crops and horticultural crops are attacked by many insect. species eg cotton bollworm Rice stem bores,5 www AgriMoon CoM. Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management,b Storage pests. Insects feed on stored products and cause economic loss eg Rice wewil Pulse. c Pest attacking cattle and domestic animals, Cattle are affected by pests like Horse fly Fleshfly Flese and Lice They suck. blood and sometimes eat the flash,d House hold and disease carrying insects. House hold pests include cockroach ants etc Disease carrying insects are. mosquitoes houseflies bed bugs fleas etc,B Beneficial insects. a Productive insects, Silk worm The silk worm filament secreted from the salivary gland of the larva. helps us in producing silk, Honey bee Provides us with honey and many other byproducts like bees wax and. royal jelly, Lac insects The secretion from the body of these scale insects is called lac Useful. in making vanishes and polishes,Insects useful as drugs food ornaments etc. As medicine eg Sting of honey bees remedy for rhenmatism and arthritis. Eanthoridin extracted from blister beetle useful as hair tonic. As food for animals and human being,For animals aquatic insects used as fish food. Grass hoppers termites pupac of moths, They have been used as food by human beings in different parts of the world. Ornaments entertainers,Artists and designers copy colour of butterflies. Beetles worm as necklace,Insect collection is an hobby. d Scientific research, Drosophila and mosquitoes are useful in genetic and toxicological studies. respectively,Helpful insects, Parasites These are small insects which feed and live on harmful insects by. completing their life cycle in a host and kill the host insect. Eg egg larval and pupal parasitoids, Predators These are large insects which capture and devour harmful insects. Eg Coccimellids Preying matritids,6 www AgriMoon CoM. Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management, Pollinators Many cross pollinated plants depend on insects for pollination and fruit. Eg Honey bees aid in pollination of sunflower crop. Weed killers Insects which feed on weeds kill them thereby killers Eg Parthenium. beetle eats on parthenium Cochneal insect feeds in Opuntia dillenii. Soil builders soil insects such as ants beetles larval of cutworms cri kets collun. bola make tunrels in soil and facilitate aeration in soil They become good. manure after death and enrish soil, Scavengers Insects which feed on dead and decaying matter are called scavengers. They important for maintaining hygine in the surroundings. Eg Carrion bettles Rove beetles feed on deade animals and plants. House hold and disease carrying insects, i Pests which cause damage to belongings of human being like furniture wool. paper etc Eg Cockroaches furniture beetle sliver fish etc. ii Pests which cause painful bite inject venoms Eg Wasps bees sting us Hairy. caterpillar nettling hairs are poisonous Mosquitoes bugs bite piece and suck. blood from us, iii Disease causing Mosquito Malaria Filariasis dengue fever Housefly Typhoid. Cholera Leprosy Anthrax,7 www AgriMoon CoM,Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management. Lecture 2 Honey bees History of bee keeping, Honey bees and their usefulness are known to man from prehistoric times Mention. of bees are found in vedas Ramayan and Quran The modern bee keeping became. possible after the discovery of movable frame hive in 1851 by Rerd. L L Langshoth In India beekeeping was introduced in 1882 in Bengal Rerd. Newton introduced beekeeping to south India in 1911 But still India is much. behind USA Canada Europe Australia and Newzealand in beekeeping. Bee species, There are five important species of honey bees as follows. Apis dorsata The rock bee Apidae,Apis cerana indica The Indian hive bee Apidae. Apis florea The little bee Apidae,Apis mellifera The European or Italian bee Apidae. Melipona irridipennis Danner bee Meliporidae stingless bee. Apis dorsata, 1 They construct single comb in open About 6ft long and 3ft deep. 2 They shift the place of the colony often,3 Rock bees are ferocious and difficult to rear. 4 They produce about 36 Kg honey comb year, 5 The bees are the largest among the bee described. Apis florea, 1 They also construct comb in open of the size of palm in branches of bushes. hedges buildings caves empty cases etc,2 They produce about 1 2Kg honey year hive. 3 They are not rearable as they frequently change their palce. 4 The size of the bees is smallest among 4 Apis Sp Described smaller than Indian. 5 They distributed only in plains and not in hills above 450M. Apis cerana indica Indian bee Asian bee, 1 They make multiple parallel combs on trees and cavities in darkness. 2 The bees are larger than Apis florae but smaller than Apis mellifera. 3 They produce about 5Kg of honey year hive,4 They are more prone to swarming and absconding. 5 They are native of India Asia,8 www AgriMoon CoM. Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management,Apis mellifera Italian bee or European bee. 1 They also make multiple parallel combs in cavities in darkness. 2 They are larger than Indian bees but smaller than Rock bees. 3 They have been imported from European countries Italy. 4 They yield on an average 35Kg hive year,5 They are less prone to swarming and absconding. Honey bee castes, Every honey bee colony comprises of a single queen a few hundred drones and. several thousand worker castes of honey bees Queen is a fertile functional female. worker is a sterile female and the drone is a male insect. Duties of a queen, 1 The only individual which lays eggs in a colony Mother of all bees. 2 Lays upto 2000 day in Apis mellifera, 3 Five to Ten days after emergence she mates with drones in one or more nuptial. 4 When her spermatheea is filled with sperms she will start laying eggs and will not. mate any more,5 She lives for 3 years, 6 The secretion from mandibular gland of the queen is called queen s substance. 7 The queen substance if present in sufficient quantity performs following functions. a Prevent swarming and absconding of colonies,b Prevent development of ovary in workers. c Colony cohesion is maintained, 8 The queen can lay either fertilized or sterile eggs depending on the requirement. Duties of a drone,1 Their important duty is to fertilize the queen. 2 They also help in maintenance of hive temperature. 3 They cannot collect nectar pollen and they do not possess a sting. Duties of a worker, 1 Their adult life span of around 6 weeks can be divided into. a First three weeks house hold duty,b Rest of the life out door duty. House hold duty includes,a Build comb with wax secretion from wax glands. b Feed the young larvae with royal jelly secreted from hypopharyngeal gland. c Feed older larvae with bee bread pollen honey,9 www AgriMoon CoM. Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management,d Feeding and attending queen. e Feeding drones,f Cleaning ventilating and cooling the hive. g Guarding the hive,h Evaporating nectar and storing honey. Outdoor duties,1 Collecting nectar pollen propolis and water. 2 Ripening honey in honey stomach,Sex differentiation in bees. Bee behaviour, a Swarming Swarming is a natural method of colony multiplication in which a part. of the colony migrates to a new site to make a new colony Swarming occurs when. a colony builts up a considerable strength or when the queen s substance secreted. by queen falls below a certain level Swarming is a potent instinct in bees for. dispersal and perpetuation of the species,Steps involving in swarming. 1 Strong colonies develop the instinct of swarming. 2 Development of drone brood and emergence of large number of drones is first sing. of swarming,3 New queen cells are built at the bottom of comb. 10 www AgriMoon CoM,Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management. 4 When the queen cells are sealed after pupation the old queen along with 1 3 rd or. half colony strength moves out of the hive, 5 They first settle in a nearby bush and hang in a perdant cluster. 6 The scout bees go in search of appropriate place for colonization and later the entire. colony moves to the suitable site, 7 The first swarm which comes of the parent colony with the old queen is called. primary swarm, 8 The new queen which emerges kills all other stages of queen present inside the. queen cell, 9 Sometimes the new queen is not allowed to destroy stages of other queens. 10 In this case the new queen leaves the hive along with a group of workers This is. called after swarm or cast,Supersedure, When a old queen is unable to lay sufficient eggs she will be replaced or. superseded by supersedure queen Or when she runs out of spermathezoa in her. supermatheca and lays many unfertilized eggs from which only drones emerge. In this case one or 2 queen cells are constructed in the middle of the comb and not. at the bottom At a given time both new and old queens are seen simultaneously. Later the old queen disappears,Emergency queen, In the event of death of the queen the eggs less than 2 days old in. worker cells are selected and the cell extended like a queen cell It is fed with. abundant royal jelly and covered into queen In this case many queen cells are built. in the middle of the comb The first queen which comes out of the emergency. queen cells kills other stages of queen inside the cells and then go for mating After. mating they laying fertile eggs,Laying workers, In the event of loss of a queen and in the event of absence of worker eggs. less than 2 days old the chance of producing new queen is lost In this case the. worker status laying eggs Since the worker cannot mate they lay unfertilized. eggs From these eggs only drones emerge Moreover a worker lays more than. one egg per cell and there is competition among the larva stuited drones are. Colony odour Every colony has a specific odour This is brought about by scent. fanning of secretion of vasanov gland present in last abdominal segment of worker. bees recognise colony odour and return to same hives. Hive temperature maintenance Brought about by fanning of wings in hot weather. to reduce temperature In cold weather they sit on the brood and prevent heat loss. Division of labour Each and every caste of bees have their own role to play as. described earlier,11 www AgriMoon CoM,Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management. Queen controls colony with her queen s substance Guarding the hive The. workers perform this duty by sitting at hive entrance and preventing and stinging. Royal fidelity or Blossom faithfulness, Bees restrict themselves to a single source of pollen and hectar until it is available. Only if the pollen and nectar from a plant species is exhausted they more to the. next plant species,Communication in bees, Bees communicate using various phenomones including the queen s substance. vasanov gland secretion alarm pheromone emitted from sting and secretion of. tarsal gland In addition the bees also communicate by performing certain dances. When scout bees return to the box after foraging they communicate to the. other forages present in the box about the direction and distance of the food source. from the hive by performing dances The important types of dances are noticed. 1 Round dance is used to indicate a short distance Less than 50m in case of. A mellifera The bee runs in circles first in one direction and then in opposite. direction clockwise and anticlockwise,Round dance Wag tail dance. 2 Tail wagging dance or Wag tail dance, This is used to indicate long distance more than 50m in case of A mellifera Here. the bee makes two half circles in opposite directions with a straight run in between. During the straight run the bee shakes wags its abdomen from side to side the. number of wags per unit time inversely proportional to the distance of the food more. the wags less the distance The direction of food source is conveyed by the angle. that the dancing bee makes between its straight run and top of the hive which is the. same as between the direction of the food and direction of the sun The bees can. know the position of the sun even if it is cloudy,12 www AgriMoon CoM. Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management, Wag tail dance to communicate the direction and distance of food source. 13 www AgriMoon CoM,Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management. Lecture 3 APIARY MANAGEMENT,Pre requisites to start beekeeping. a Knowledge Training on beekeeping,b Knowledge on local bee flora. c Sufficient on local bee flora,d If necessary practice migratory beekeeping. Apiary site requirements, a The site should be dry without dampness High RH will affect bee flight and. ripening of nectar,b Water Natural source Artificial provision. c Wind breaks Trees serve as wind belts in cool areas. d Shade Hives can be kept under shade of trees Artificial structures can also be. constructed, e Bee pasturage Florage Plants that yield pollen nectar to bees are called bee. pasturage florage,General apiary management practices. i Hive inspection Opening the hive atleast twice a week and inspecting for. following details,Presence of queen,Presence of eggs and brood. Honey and pollen storage,Hive record to be maintained for each hive. Presence of bee enemies like wax moth mite disease. ii Expanding brood net, Done by providing comb foundation sheet in empty frame during honey flow. iii Sugar syrup feeding,Sugar dissolved in water at 1 1 dilution. Used to feed bees during dearth period,iv Supering Addition of frames in super chamber. This is done when brood chamber is filled with bees on all frames are covered. Comb foundation sheet or constructed comb provided in super chamber. v Honey extraction, Bee escape board Kept between brood and super chamber. Bees bushed away using brush,14 www AgriMoon CoM,Insect Ecology Integrated Pest Management. Cells uncapped using uncapping knife,Honey extracted using honey extractor. Combs replaced in hive for reuse,vi Swarm management. Remove brood frames from strong colony and provide to weak. Pinch off the queen cells during inspection,Divide strong colonies into 2 or 3. Trap and hive primary swarm,vii Uniting bee colonies Done by Newspaper method. Bring colonies side by side by moving 30 cm day,Remove queen from week colony. Keep a newspaper on top of brood chamber of queen Right colony. Make holes on the paper,Keep queenless colony on top. Close hive entrance the smell of bees will mix, Unite bees to the brood chamber and make it one colony. SEASONAL MANAGEMENT, Pollen and nectar available only during certain period. Honey flow season surplus food source x Dearth period Scarcity of food. Extremes in climate like summer winter and monsoon Need specific. management tactics, Honey flow season management Coincides with spring. Provide more space for honey storage by giving CFS or built combs. Confine queen to brood chamber using queen excluder. Prevent swarming As explained, Prior to honey flow Provide sugar syrup and build sufficient population. Divide strong colonies into 2 3 new colonies if colony multiplication need. Queen rearing technique may be followed to produce new queens for new. Summer management, Bees have to survive intense heat and dearth period. Provide sufficient shade under trees or artificial structure. To increase RH and reduce heat Sprinkle water twice a day on gunny bag or. rice straw put on hive, Increase ventilation by introducing a splinter between brood and super chamber. Provide sugar syrup pollen supplement substitute and water.