Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : I Amp Ii Year Food Chemistry Loyola College Chennai
I amp II YEAR FOOD CHEMISTRY SEMESTER COURSE CODE NAME OF THE COURSE I FP 1806 Organic Chemistry of food I I FP 1807 Human Nutrition I FP 1808 Analytical amp Instrumentation Techniques I FP 1809 Food Microbiology I FP 1810 Quantitative Analysis Practical I I FP 1811 Organic Analysis amp Preparation Practical II I FP 1812 Food Microbiology Practical III II FP 2806 Organic Chemistry of
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY OF FOOD I,M Sc Food Chemistry Food Processing. Semester I No of Credits 4, Course Major core MC Total hours per Semester 60 5hrs wk. Objectives,The course should prepare the students, 1 To understand the aspects of organic chemistry related to food. 2 To understand the techniques adopted in processing of food. 3 To understand and appreciate the concept of chemistry in Food Science Food. processing,UNIT 1 CARBOHYDRATES 10 hrs, 1 1 Disaccharides Optical activity and chirality v v Classification of chrial molecules. asymmetric and dissymmetric of organic molecules Maltose lactose and sucrose. solubility solution viscosity and stability, 1 2 Polysaccharides Hydrolysis starch granules granule gelatinization and pasting. Retrogradation and staling Modified food starch swelling of starch and cellulose. modifications and derivatives Gels, 1 3 Dietary fibre and carbohydrate digestibility Xanthan carrageenans algins pectins and. gum arabic, 1 4 Analysis of carbohydrates Extraction of total carbohydrate phenol sulphuric acid method. Total reducing sugar Somoyogi Nelson method HPLC analysis of mono and. oligosaccharides Principles and method Enzymatic method Determination of total starch in. Self study Chemical properties of monosaccharides mutarotation test for reducing and. non reducing sugars Monosaccharides Classification and structure ring form and. glycosides Reactions oxidation to aldonic acids and aldo lactones Reduction to carbonyl. groups uronic acids hydroxyl group esters Non enzymic browning. UNIT 2 LIPIDS 15 hrs, 2 1 Fatty acids A brief study of R S Fischer projection erythro threo compounds. Geometrical and optical isomerism Nomenclature R S system and stereo specific. numbering Phospholipids classification of lipids milk fats lauric acids vegetable. butters simple compound and derived lipids Oleic and linoleic acids Modification of. fats Hydrogenation, 2 2 Animal fats Physical aspects even and random distribution Theories of triglycerol. distribution pattern Chemical deacylation, 2 3 Positional distribution of fatty acids in natural fats Plants and animal triglycerol. Crystallization and consistency crystal structures polymorphism melting solid fat index. and consistency of commercial fats Factors influencing consistency Chemical aspects. Lipolysis auto oxidation formation of hydroperoxides oleate and decomposition of. hydro peroxide Cholesterol oxidation formation of dimers and polymers Diels Alder. 2 4 Antioxidants Effectiveness and mechanism of action Synergism characteristics of. commonly used antioxidants Thermal non oxidable and oxidable reactions of saturated. 2 5 Quality of fats Test for assessing the quality of saturated fats and frying oils Control. measures effects of ionizing radiation on fats Determination of melting points. saponification value R M and Polanski values, Self Study Chemistry of fat and oil processing refining Settling and degumming. neutralization bleaching deodorization hydrogenation and selectivity Mechanism Inter. esterification Principle Role of food lipids in flavor rancidity flavor reversion dietary. UNIT 3 AMINOACIDS PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS 15 Hrs, 3 1 Aminoacids Physiochemical properties of aminoacids Structure and classification. stereochemistry of aminoacids peptides and synthesis of tri peptide using amino. acids glycine alenine lysine cystine Glutamine acid and argtineIsoelectric point. Hydrophobic properties of aminoacids Chemical reactivity of aminoacids Reaction with. ninhydrin other reactions, 3 2 Proteins Structural hierarchy in proteins primary secondary tertiary and quaternary. structure Forces involved in the stability of protein structure steric strain hydrogen bond. electrostatic interactions hydrophobic interactions disulphide bonds conformational. stability and adaptability of proteins, 3 3 Emulsifying properties Methods emulsifying activity index protein load capacity and. stability of emulsion factors influencing emulsifications foaming properties flavour. 3 4 Evaluation of protein nutritive value Biological methods PER DC BV NPU NPR. Chemical methods enzymic and microbial methods Changes in nutritional quality and. formation of toxic compounds Compositional changes during extraction and fractionation. Protein cross linking and carbonyl amine reactions. 3 5 Reactions of proteins in food Reaction with lipids sulphites chemical and enzymatic. modifications of proteins alkylation acylation phosphorylation sulphitolysis enzymatic. hydrolysis plastein reaction, 3 6 Analysis of proteins Kjeldahl Biuret Bradford Ninhydrin and turbidimetric methods. UV Visible and IR spectrometric methods, Self study Basic structural aspects of amino acids peptides poly peptides and proteins. UNIT 4 ENZYMES 15 Hrs, 4 1 Enzymes Chemical nature of enzymes Catalysis enzyme kinetics steady state rate. kinetics and reaction order Nomenclature classification typical concentration of enzymes. in some food factors influencing concentration of enzymes in some food. 4 2 Enzyme cofactors Feature of organic cofactors coenzymes prosthetic group. Significance of metallo enzymes in food chemistry enzyme inactivation and control. reversible inhibitors competitive and uncompetitive inhibition Irreversible inhibitors. 4 3 Food modification Role of endogenous enzymes in food quality colour lipoxydenase. cholophyllase texture pectic enzymes flavour and aroma changes nutritional quality in. 4 4 Enzymes as processing aids Production of sweeteners in modifying lipids in milk and. dairy products Baking for the removal of unwanted constituents brewing for control of. microorganism, Self study actors influencing enzyme reaction Substrate activation inhibition reaction. allosteric behaviour enzyme concentration pH temperature Chemical nature of. prototropic groups in active site of enzyme Stability of enzyme enzyme activity at low. temperature,UNIT 5 VITAMINS 5 hrs, 5 1 Vitamins Classification stability toxicity and sources. 5 2 Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A and provitamin A Vitamins D and E structure stability. and mechanism of degradation Synthesis of vitamin A1. 5 3 Water soluble vitamins Vitamins B and C Folate stability and degradation mechanism. 5 4 Analysis of vitamins HPLC method of determination Vitamins A C and E. Determination of riboflavin assay by fluorescence study. Self study Structure of vitamin A1 A2 B1 B2 B6 C D E and K structural elucidation not. TEXT BOOKS, 1 O R Fennema 2003 Food Chemistry 3rd Ed Tata McGraw Hill New York. 2 Nielson S S and Chapman A and Hall 1998 Food Analysis Food Science Title 2nd Ed. Aspen Publishers, 3 Vaclavik V A 2008 and Christian E W 2008 Essentials of Food Science Third. Edition Ed Springer, 4 Vogel 2006 Vogel s Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry 5th Ed Pearson. 5 B Srilakshmi 2003 Food Science 3rd Ed New Age International Publications. REFERENCES, 1 S Rangamma 1977 Manual of Analysis of Fruits and Vegetable products Tata. McGraw Hill Pub Comp Ltd New Delhi, 2 S Sivasankar 2002 Food processing and preservation Prentice Hall of India New. 3 S J Lippard 1998 Bioinorganic Chemistry Viva Books P Limited. 4 P K Bhattacharya 2005 Biochemistry Narosa Publishing House. HUMAN NUTRITION,M Sc Food Chemistry Food Processing. Semester I No of Credits 4, Course Major core MC Total No of hours per semester 60 5hrs wk. Objectives To prepare the students, 1 To understand the relationship between nutrition and human well being. 2 To understand the functions and importance of all nutrients for different age groups. normal and therapeutic groups,UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO NUTRITION 15 hrs. 1 1 Food as a source of nutrients functions of food definition of nutrients Adequate. optimum good and malnutrition Inter relationship between nutrients. 1 2 Food pyramid Different food groups Principles of planning diets. 1 3 The energy yielding nutrients Carbohydrates glucose fructose lactose sucrose starch. glycogen Inulin dextrin dextran cellulose and hemicellulose functions Food sources. storage in the body utilization of carbohydrates and recommended carbohydrate intake. 1 4 Proteins essential and non essential amino acids sources requirements functions. protein energy malnutrition Kwashiorkor Marasmus and Marasmic Kwashiorkor. 1 5 Lipids saturated and unsaturated fatty acids Essential fatty acids effects of. deficiency of essential fatty acids Functions of fat triglycerides phospholipids. lipoproteins and cholesterol Requirements of fat lipids and coronary artery disease. Blood Lipids and lipemia Total cholesterol and triglycerides LDL VLDL HDL. Self study Digestion absorption and transport of carbohydrates proteins and lipids. UNIT 2 ENERGY 10 hrs, 2 1 Units of energy Food as a source of energy Determination of energy value of food. direct and indirect calorimetry Basal and resting metabolism Factors influencing energy. requirements recommendations for different age groups and special conditions ICMR and. FAO Food sources, 2 2 Energy requirements for physical activity Factors affecting energy requirements. RDA Recommended dietary allowances, 2 3 Influence of physical exercise on changes in body fat and body composition. utilization of energy by muscle tissue adenosine triphosphate phosphocreatine. glucose fat and protein, 2 4 Shift in lipid and carbohydrate utilization in relation to exercise type intensity. and duration, Self study Calculation of energy requirements for different age groups involved in. different physical activities,UNIT 3 PROTECTIVE NUTRIENTS 15 hrs. 3 1 Vitamins Classification sources and requirements Units of measurement. Functions and deficiency of the following vitamins fat soluble vitamins A D E and. K water soluble vitamins ascorbic acid thiamine riboflavin niacin B6 folic acid B12. biotin and pantothenic acid, 3 2 Minerals Functions sources bioavailability requirements RDA Deficiency. of following minerals Calcium iron sodium potassium magnesium copper. manganese selenium zinc chromium iodine sulphur chloride fluoride and phosphate. Self study Planning diets for anemia and various vitamin deficiencies. UNIT 4 NUTRIENT AND DRUG INTERACTION 10 hrs, 4 1 Effect of drug therapy on absorption and utilization of nutrients. 4 2 Effect of the nutrients on drug utilization, Self study Effect of specific drugs on the absorption and utilization of nutrients. UNIT 5 NUTRITION THROUGH LIFE CYCLE 10 hrs, 5 1 Nutrition through life cycle Introduction and importance of nutrition through various. age groups, 5 2 Infant nutrition Nutrition through infancy and requirements of different nutrients as per. 5 3 Nutrition of pre schoolers school going children adolescents pregnant and lactating. mothers and geriatric nutrition, 5 4 Prevention of malnutrition Applied Nutrition Programmes ANP globally and. nationally, Self study Planning normal and therapeutic diets for various age groups. TEXT BOOKS, 1 Swaminathan M 1985 Advanced text book on Food and Nutrition Vol I. BAPPCO Publishers Bangalore, 2 M Swaminathan 1985 Advanced text book on Food and Nutrition Vol II. BAPPCO publishers Bangalore, 3 B Srilakshmi 2003 Nutrition Science New age International p Ltd. Publishers New Delhi Bangalore, 4 B Srilakshmi 2006 Dietetics New age international p Ltd publishers. Bangalore revised 5th Ed reprint, 5 Kathleen L M and Stump E S 2007 Krause s Food and Nutrition. Therapy Saunders Publishers 12th Ed, 6 Williams S R and Schelenker E 2002 Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Mirror Mosby Publishing Company 8th Ed, 7 Manay S N and Swamy S 1987 Food facts and Principles Wiley eastern. Ltd New Delhi,REFERENCES, 1 Swaminathan M 1997 Human Nutrition and Dietetics 4th Ed BAPPCO. publishers reprint, 2 Anderson M 1982 Nutrition in health and diseases 17th Ed J B Lippincott. Co Philadelphia, 3 Joshi J K 2005 Basics of Clinical Nutrition Jaypee brothers Medical publishers. Ltd New Delhi 1st Ed 2003, 4 Antia 2000 Clinical Dietetics and Nutrition University Press New Delhi 3rd. 5 Shils M E James A and Shike O M 1994 Modern Nutrition in health and. disease 8th Ed Vol I and II Leo and Felijier Awaverly Company Philadelphia. 6 G Wiseman 2002 Nutrition and health Taylor and Francis publishers London. 7 Michael J G Barrie M and Margetts M 2005 Public health nutrition Black. Well Publishers Reprint, 8 Holden C MacDonald A and Tindall B 2000 Nutrition and Child health. Imprint Harcourt publishers Ltd, 9 Goplan C Ramashasthri B V and Balasubramanian F C 2004 Nutritive. Value of Indian foods NIN ICMR publication revised edition. 10 Garrow J S and James W P T Human Nutrition and Dietetics 9th Ed Churchill. Livingstone publishers, 11 Ghosh S 1977 The feeding and caring of infant and young children Voluntary. health association of India New Delhi, WEBSITE Nutrition Society Text Book Series www nutritiontexts com. ANALYTICAL AND INSTRUMENTATION TECHNIQUES,M Sc Food Chemistry Food Processing. Semester I No of Credits 3, Course Major core MC Total Hours per semester 50 4hrs wk. Objectives To prepare the students, 1 To learn the application of spectroscopy and other instrumental methods for the study and. structural elucidation of molecules, UNIT 1 PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS ELECTRONIC AND ATOMIC. ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY 15HRS, 1 1 Preparation of solutions Preparation of solutions percentage by weight volume and. strength normality molarity ppm ppb, 1 2 Standard solutions Dilutions to known concentrations. 1 3 Buffer solutions Determination of pH use of pH meter calibration pH and potentiometer. titration preparation of buffer solutions pH and buffers control in foods. 1 4 UV Visible spectroscopy principle and instrumentation Beer Lambert s law. verification and deviation significance of molar extinction coefficient. SpectrophotoSmetric stitration Determination of Fe III in the presence of aluminum. 1 4 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy AAS Principle and instrumentation Nebuliser burner. system graphite tube furnace resonance line source monochromators detectors and. spectral chemical interferences Determination of calcium magnesium in water and tin. in canned fruit juices Determination of Pb in petrol. 1 6 Spectrofluorimetry Principles Description of fluorimetry Analysis of riboflavin thiamine. Self study Solvents used in electronic spectra Effect of solvent polarity on the electronic. transition Solvent corrections and solvent cut off region. UNIT 2 IR SPECTROSCOPY 12 hrs, 2 1 Principle molecular vibrations and selection rules Quantitative studies Calculation of. force constants for vibrations Hydrogen bonding intra and intermolecular hydrogen. 2 2 Characteristic group absorptions of organic compounds Carbon skeleton vibrations. Alcohols phenols ethers peroxides ketones aldehydes carboxylic acids esters lactones. amines amino acids groups absorbing in the fingerprinting region. 2 3 Study of isomerism Linkage isomerism in coordination compounds cyano isocyano. thiocyanato and isothiocyanato complexes geometrical isomers of organic compounds. Self study Instrumentation of IR Spectroscoy,UNIT 3 NMR SPECTROSCOPY 15 hrs. 3 1 Principle of NMR spectroscopy Types of relaxation Instrumentation chemical shifts. Factors affecting chemical shift shielding and deshielding. 3 2 Spin Spin coupling coupling constant chemical exchange study of hydrogen bonding. Interpretation of 1H NMR spectra of simple organic compounds. 3 3 C NMR spectroscopy Basic principles Comparison of 13C NMR and 1H NMR. Self study Methods of simplifying complex NMR spectra NMR shift reagents and their uses. UNIT 4 MASS SPECTROMETRY 8 hrs, 4 1 Principle Fragmentation types and rules factors influencing fragmentation. fragmentation patterns of hydrocarbons hydroxyl compounds alcohols ethers ketones. aldehydes carboxylic acids amines nitro compounds alicyclic and heterocyclic. 4 2 Determination of molecular formula Molecular ion nitrogen rule isotope peak and. metastable ions, Self study Nature of compounds and ionization methods employed in mass spectrometry. Common rearrangements of ions in mass spectrometry. UNIT 5 CHROMATOGRAPHY 10 hrs, 5 1Introduction Definition of chromatography Theory and classification of. chromatographic methods paper column and TLC chromatographies Development of. chromatogram Applications, 5 2 HPLC Introduction principle of separation components of an HPLC. system Pump injector column detectors and different type of detectors recorder Application. of HPLC Super critical fluid chromatography SFC Instrumentation and components for. SFC Applications, 5 3 Gas Chromatography GC Introduction Principle theory of gas chromatography. Instrumentation Types of detectors evaluation of gas chromatogram Application of GC. Self study Flow programming chromatography programmed temperature gas. chromatography,TEXT BOOKS, 1 SilversteinR M and Webster F X 2003 Spectroscopic Identification of Organic. Compounds 6th Ed John Wiley Sons New York,2 W Kemp 1987 Applications of Spectroscopy ELBS. 3 Srivastava K and Jain P C 1997 Chemical Analysis An Instrumental Approach 3rd Ed. S Chand and Co New Delhi, 4 Drago R S 1977 PhysicaI Methods in Chemistry Saunders Philadelphia. REFERENCES, 1 D H Williams and I Fleming 1988 Spectroscopic Methods in Organic Chemistry 4th. Ed Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company New Delhi, 2 K Nakamoto 1997 Infrared and Raman Spectra of Inorganic and coordination. Compounds Part B 5th Ed John Wiley Sons Inc New York. 3 J A Weil J R Bolton and J E Wertz 1994 Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Wiley. Interscience,FOOD MICROBIOLOGY,M Sc Food Chemistry and Food Processing. Semester I No of credits 3, Course Major core MC Total hours per semester 50 4 hrs wk. Objectives To enable the students to, 1 To understand the microbial biochemical and physiological aspects of food. 2 To study the different types of micro organisms responsible for food deterioration. and poisoning, 3 To understand the various fermented foods and their importance. UNIT I MICROBES AND FOOD 10hrs, 1 1 Scopes of Food microbiology food as substrate for micro organism food spoilage food. safety fermented foods, 1 2 Micro organisms important in food microbiology. 1 3 Micro organism in water air and soil Water treatment and waste disposal. 1 4 Micro organisms as natural preservatives probiotics and prebiotics. 1 5 Factors affecting growth of micro organism in food growth curve. Self study Study of fish and meat products as substrates to bacterial growth.