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Historical Politics Legitimacy Contests and the Re Construction of Political Communities in Ukraine during the Second World War Oleksandr Melnyk Doctor of Philosophy Department of History University of Toronto 2016 Abstract This doctoral dissertation is a study of historical politics and legitimacy contests in Ukraine during the Second World War By situating the operations of the Soviet
Historical Politics Legitimacy Contests and the Re. Construction of Political Communities in Ukraine during the. Second World War,Oleksandr Melnyk,Doctor of Philosophy. Department of History,University of Toronto, This doctoral dissertation is a study of historical politics and legitimacy contests in Ukraine. during the Second World War By situating the operations of the Soviet state and its wartime. antagonists within a broader strategic military and political context the study elucidates the role. of historical politics in the violent processes of the building and breaking of political. communities, Through a series of case studies the dissertation untangles activities of various participants in the. process of information gathering and the production of knowledge about the past for the purposes. of legitimation fashioning of collective values nation building and state security It sheds light. on the relationships between various actors and organizational networks within the system of. Soviet historical politics exposes structures of complicity in the Stalinist dictatorship and. simultaneously maps the outer limits of its power, The dissertation also shows how the daily exercise of power by agents of the Soviet state. through public pronouncements commemorations state surveillance and repression of bearers. of alternative political identities had a tangible impact on behavior and everyday ideological. iterations by thousands of historical subjects in the formerly occupied territories be it former. Ukrainian nationalist activists local collaborators Soviet partisans members of intelligentsia or. children that experienced the Axis occupation At the same time these people were anything but. passive recipients of the official narratives Many of them actively pursued their distinct agendas. within the historically conditioned environment fraught with power inequalities that structured. their choices and furnished them with tools of interpretation and languages of expression of their. experiences In the process they often displayed ability to influence manipulate and. occasionally even thwart the officially sanctioned narratives prompting Soviet officials ever. preoccupied with issues of legitimacy to continually adapt to the reality on the ground. Acknowledgments, In preparing the text of this dissertation over the years I received assistance and support from. numerous individuals and organizations, While conducting archival research I was helped in ways big and small by Hetaher Coleman. Faith Hillis Mikhail Tyagly Iuri Shapoval Oleksandr Lysenko Tatiana Ievstafieva. Volodymyr Hovorun Volodymyr Bezliudny Liudmyla Zhelezniak Vira Baraniuk Olena. Stukalova Zoria Orlova Nataliia Makiienko Valeri Vasyl iev Vadim Al tskan Ksenya. Kiebuzinski and Vera Fonseca, Amir Weiner Hiroaki Kuromiya Jeffrey Burds Karel Berkhoff and Arch Getty generously. responded to enquiries and shared their expertise on the topic. Dominique Arel Wilson Bell Max Bergholz Auri Berg Michael David Fox Svitlana Frunchak. Geoff Hamm Peter Holquist Vladyslav Hrynevych Ivan Katchanovski Michael Kogan Steven. Maddox David Marples Olena Petrenko Jennifer Polk Joseph Rochon Alti Rodal Per Rudling. Timothy Snyder Sarah Tracy Andrii Usach and Michael Westren read and commented on. different chapters of the manuscript, The text also benefited from the graduate courses and conversations I have held over the years. wth John Paul Himka David Marples Dennis Sweeney Guy Thompson Modris Eksteins Piotr. Wr bel Paul Robert Magocsi Rebecca Witmann Jennifer Jenkins Robert Johnson Thomas. Lahusen Malavika Kasturi Derek Williams Peter Acsay Jared MacBride and Andri Portnov. For financial support of this project I am grateful to the University of Toronto Center of Russian. Eastern European and Eurasian Studies University of Toronto Petro Yacyk Program in. Ukrainian Studies University of Toronto Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies University of. Alberta government of Ontario and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Last but not least I express my thanks to the members of my dissertation committee Robert. Johnson and Doris Bergen internal external and external readers Anna Shternshis Alison. Smith and Serhy Yekelchyk and especially to my supervisor Lynne Viola without whose. unwavering support and encouragement in difficult times this dissertation would have never. been completed Needless to say I alone bear responsibility for the interpretations and all the. remaining flaws,Table of Contents,Introduction 1,Scope of the Study 7. Historical Politics in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s 11. Historiography and Methodology 22, Chapter 1 World War and the Un Making of Political Communities 30. Operation Barbarossa 38,The End of Soviet Rule 41, The Occupation Apparatus and the Problem of Local Collaboration 45. The Holocaust and Other Cases of Mass Murder 51,Soviet Partisan Movement 58. Insurgency Movements and Ethnic Conflict in the Borderlands 62. Chapter 2 The Nationalist Challenge and Legitimacy Contests 67. The Protagonists 69,The Advance Groups 73,The Place 85. The Network 90,OUN B and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Church 98. Historical Politics and Legitimacy Contests 100,Conclusions 106. Chapter 3 Archives Surveillance and the Politics of Historical. Knowledge 107, Archives in the Soviet System of Political Control 112. Task Forces of the NKVD 114,Visions and Realities 117. Operational Usages of the Archives 122, UGA NKVD in the System of Soviet Historical Politics 126. Conclusions 134,Chapter 4 Stalinist Justice as a Site Memory 136. Antecedents 138,Milieux de M moire 140,Tangled Webs 146. The Crime 152,Narrating the Murder 155,Conclusions 163. Chapter 5 Partisans False Partisans and the Negotiation of Political. Identities 168,The Origins of Soviet Partisan Movement 171. The Soviet State and the Problem of False Partisans 174. Bureaucracies 183,The Structure of the Verification Process 187. The Role of Local Communities 194,Conclusions 199,Chapter 6 World War II as an Identity Project 202. The Background 203,Narratives 210,Forces Labour in the Memory of Children 216. Making of the Soviet Body Politics 220,Nazi Crimes in Children s Stories 224. Conclusions 228,Conclusion 229,References 237,Archives 237. Microfilm Collections 238,Digital Resources 238,Collections of Published Primary Sources 239. Memoirs 242,Secondary Sources 244,Unpublished Manuscripts 277. Glossary of Abbreviations and Foreign Terms, Agitprop from Agitatsiia i propaganda Department of the Agitation and. Propaganda of the Communist Party,AK from Armija Krajowa Polish Home Army. ChGK from Chrezvycha naia gosudarstvennaia komissiia Extraordinary State Commission. for the Documentation and Investigation of Atrocities of German Fascists and their. Henchmen and for the Establishment of Damage to the Property of Citizens Collective. Farms Civic Associations State Enterprises and Institutions. FUR from Front Ukrains ko revoliutsi Front of the Ukrainian Revolution. Gestapo from Geheime Staatspolizei Secret State Police. Glavlit from Glavnoe upravlenie po delam literatury i izdatel stv Main Directorate in the. Affairs of Literature and Publishing Houses, GPU from Glavnoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie Main Political Directorate Soviet Security. Service in Ukraine between 1922 and 1934, Komsomol from Kommunisticheski soiuz molodezhi Communist Youth League. KPZU from Komunistychna partiia Zakhidno Ukra ny Communist Party of Western Ukraine. Kripo from Kriminalpolizei German Criminal Police, NEP from Novaia konomicheskaia politika New Economic Policy. NKGB from Narodny Komissariat Gosudarstvenno bezopasnosti People s Commissariat of. State Security Soviet Security Service between February and July 1941 and between 1943. NKVD Narodny Kommissariat Vnutrennikh Del People s Commissariat of Internal Affairs. OGPU from Ob edinennoe Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie the United Main. Political Directorate Soviet Security Service in 1922 1934. OUN from Organizatsiia Ukra ns kykh Natsionalistiv Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. ROA from Russkaia Osvoboditel naia Armiia Russian Liberation Army. RO NKVD from raionny otdel NKVD district administration of the People s Commissariat. of Internal Affairs,SD from Sicherheitsdienst German Security Service. TsK KP b U from Tsentral ny komitet Kommunistichesko partii bol shevikov Ukrainy. Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Bolsheviks of Ukraine. TsShPD from Tsentral ny shtab partizanskogo dvizheniia Central Headquarters of the. Partisan Movement, UNDO from Ukrains ke Natsional no demokratychne Ob iednannia the Ukrainian National. Democratic Association, UNKVD from Upravlenie NKVD Regional Administration of the People s Commissariat of. Internal Affairs, UNRA from Ukra ns ka Natsional na Revoliutsi na armiia the Ukrainian National. Revolutionary Army, UNS from Ukra ns ka natsional na Samooborona the Ukrainian People s Self Defense. UPA from Ukra ns ka Povstans ka Armiia the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. UPR the Ukrainian People s Republic, UShPD from Ukrainski Shtab Partizanskogo dvizheniia the Ukrainian Headquarters of the. Partisan Movement, VChK from Vserossi skaia Chrezvychainaia Kommissiia po bor be s kontrrevoliutsie i. sabotazhem the All Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Struggle Against Counter. Revolution and Sabotage Soviet Security Service between 1917 and 1922. VKP b from Vsesoiuznaia Kommunisticheskaia partiia bol shevikov the All Union. Communist Party of the Bolsheviks,Introduction, Write Write as much as you can Facts are remembered more or less but feelings. and all things dear and delicate that grow out of experiences simply vanish from. memory Let partisans write Teach them Encourage them Let them keep. diaries intimate and warm not officious reports for household use Maybe your. diary will grow into a book about the Ukrainian people in its struggle for life The. book has to show heroic characters military talents human passions elation battle. exploits spiritual greatness equal to that of our glorious forefathers as well as. lowliness incompetence darkness treason and wanderings through the labyrinths of. the giant cataclysm through swamps and fires amidst ruins and gallows like wild. beasts in the forests at times without an oath without knowledge of history without. properly nourished feelings of patriotism and under various influences aggravated by. agitation that utilise all our stupid mistakes Write Time is running out Appoint. a special record keeper for yourself and for the old man Kovpak Bring back all. human passions all movements all tears the pride and hatred towards the enemy. revenge and passion Do not allow them to lapse into oblivion Do not follow the. example of our glorious forefathers the Zaporozhian Cossacks who after their. sceptres and alcohol containers disintegrated under the brunt of time left behind. hardly any historical traces so that even history has to be written using testimonies. of foreign contemporaries Follow the example of the Germans It is true that. they bastards have no ideals because the ideas they are fighting for are heinous but. we people of higher ideals creators and authors of history should not fail to record. for posterity the beatings of our hearts and the fire of our reason 1. This remarkable artefact from the Central State Archive Museum of Literature and Arts of. Ukraine belongs to the pen of the renowned Soviet Ukrainian film director Oleksandr Petrovych. Dovzhenko 1894 1956 Dovzhenko composed the letter in June 1943 when Sydir Kovpak s. partisan brigade in which Dovzhenko s correspondent Petro Vershyhora served as chief. intelligence officer embarked on a dangerous raid from the Belorussian Polissia through war. torn Volhynia and on to the Carpathian mountains 2. Dovzhenko s plea to keep diaries and collect exhibits for the museum was not an isolated. episode Indeed only recently the film maker whose unusually expansive and heterogeneous. Central State Archive Museum of Literature and Arts of Ukraine TsDAMLMU fond 690 opys 4 sprava 125. arkushi 1 2, Kovpak s brigade began its Carpathian raid on 12 June 1943 Valeri Smoli ed Ukra na Khronika XX stolittia. Roky 1941 1943 Dovidkove vydannia Kyiv Instytut istori Ukra ny NAN Ukra ny 2005 441. communication network included many senior functionaries of the Communist party and the. Soviet state had persuaded the republican party leadership to commandeer camera men to major. Soviet partisan units with instructions to film the latter s combat operations and everyday life 3. Simultaneously Dovzhenko lobbied for the creation of the war museum collected footage for. what would become his epic documentary Battle for Our Soviet Ukraine and even took part in. the work of the republican branch of the Extraordinary State Commission for the. Documentation and Investigation of Atrocities of German Fascists and their Henchmen further. Insofar as the filmmaker took for granted the connection between historical consciousness and. national identity his historical activism was not merely a reflection of his keen sense of ethical. obligation to wage a battle against forgetting in the face of unprecedented destruction of human. life and local cultural heritage It was part of a systemic effort to forge the historical. infrastructure of Soviet Ukrainian nation building As such his initiatives were unquestionably. part of a much larger cultural phenomenon that encompassed not only the rich tradition of Soviet. historicism but also a plethora of commemorative ventures outside Soviet controlled territories. Dovzhenko mentioned his initiative on the dispatch of film operators in the above mentioned letter to P. Vershyhora See also the decision of the underground Central Committee of the Communist Party of the. Bolsheviks of Ukraine On the Dispatch of Camera Operators to Partisan Units 10 June 1943 Central State. Archive of Civic Organizations of Ukraine TsDAHOU f 1 op 19 spr 7 ark 157 158 on Dovzhenko s. negotiations with functionaries of the Ukrainian Headquarters of the Partisan Movement UShPD see the. reminiscences of the former deputy head of the UShPD Leonti Drozhzhin Vospominaniia ob A P Dovzhenko. TsDAMLMU f 690 op 4 spr 186 ark 18 28 On film operators in the Kovpak brigade see the reminiscences of. the partisan F Pshenitsin TsDAHOU f 63 op 1 spr 87 ark 78. Dovzhenko s proposal to create the Republican Museum of the Patriotic War is mentioned by head of the. department of propaganda and agitation of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Bolsheviks of. Ukraine K Lytvyn in his letter to N Khrushchev on 7 June 1943 TsDAHOU f 1 op 23 spr 449 ark 2 3 Many. contemporaries noted Dovzhenko s eagerness to hold conversations with people who participated in the fighting at. the front in the Soviet partisan movement or returned from the occupied territories See for example reminiscences. of the partisan commander Oleksandr Balaba Chelovek kotorogo zabyt nel zia TsDAMLMU f 690 op 4. spr 186 ark 1 4 deputy commander of the Ukrainian Headquarters of the Partisan Movement Leontii Drozhzhin. Vospominaniia ob A P Dovzhenko June 1958 TsDAMLMU f 690 op 4 spr 186 ark 18 28 writer Serhi. Voskrekasenko Pid chas vi ny i pislia ne pro O Dovzhenka TsDAMLMU f 690 op 4 spr 186 ark 38 42. The irony of Dovzhenko s collaboration with the Extraordinary State Commission consisted in the fact that the latter. was spearheaded by the Soviet security service while the film maker himself had for more than a decade worked. under secret police surveillance The relationship between the Extraordinary State Commission and the Soviet. security service is outlined in the directive by People s Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Ukrainian SSR Vasilii. Sergiienko On the Organisation of the Extraordinary State Commission for Documentation and Investigation of. Atrocities of German Fascist Invaders on the Territory of the Ukrainian SSR 20 April 1943 Central State. Archives of Higher Organs of Government of Ukraine TsDAVOVU f 14 op 1 spr 2408 ark 57 61 See also. Marina Sorokina People and Procedures Toward a History of the Investigation of Nazi Crimes in the USSR. Kritika Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 6 No 4 Fall 2005 797 831 Aleksandr Epifanov. Otvetstvennost gitlerovskikh voennykh prestupnikov i ikh posobnikov v SSSR istoriko pravovo aspekt Volgograd. MVD RF Volgogradski Iuridicheski Institut 1997 90 92. most notably Emanuel Ringelblum s Oneg Shabbat archive in the Warsaw Jewish ghetto and. the anti Soviet Archive Museum of the Transitional Period in Nazi occupied Kyiv 5. Given the wartime efforts of the Soviet government to mobilize the patriotic feelings of different. ethnic groups within the USSR it should come as no surprise that Dovzhenko s historico. political initiatives received support from various functionaries of the Soviet state 6 What is less. known is that his ethno centric historical activism and his fixation on the Ukrainian dimension of. the war had long infringed on the uncertain limits of Stalinist ideological orthodoxy 7 In fact in. 1933 the former soldier of the Ukrainian People s Republic who had for years worked under. Soviet historicist tradition encompassed a broad array of institutions On the Commission for the Study of History. of the October Revolution and the Communist Party Istpart Frederick Corney Telling October Memory and the. Making of the Bolshevik Revolution Ithaca New York Cornell University Press 2004 on the Commission for the. Study of the History of the Russian Youth Movement Sean Guillory The Shattered Self of Komsomol Civil War. Memoirs Slavic Review 71 No 3 Fall 2012 546 548 on the Institute of Marxism Leninism Vladimir Mosolov. IMEL tsitadel parti no ortodoksii Iz istorii Instituta Marksizma Leninizma pri TsK KPSS 1921 1956 Moskva. Novy Kronograf 2010 on Maksim Gor ki s History of Plants and Factories Serge Zhuravlev Fenomen. Istorii fabrik i zavodov gor kovskoe nachinanie v kontekste pokhi 1930 kh godov Moskva Institut Rossi sko. istorii RAN 1997 on the Commission for the Study of the History of the Patriotic War Aleksandr Samsonov. Pamiat minuvshego Sobytiia liudi istoriia Moskva Nauka 1988 224 225 N M Rudenko Diial nist Komisi. z Istori Vitchyzniano vi ny AN URSR po stvorenniu dokumental no bazy Storinky voienno istori Ukra ny. Zbirnyk naukovykh state Vypusk 3 Kyiv 1999 29 39 on the Extraordinary State Commission Sorokina. People and Procedures Nathalie Moine Fascists Have Destroyed the Fruit of my Honest Work The Great. Patriotic War International Law and the Property of Soviet Citizens Jahrb cher f r Geschichte Osteuropas 61. No 2 2013 172 195 on the Black Book project of the Jewish Anti Fascist Committee Shimon Redlich War. Holocaust and Stalinism A Documented History of the Jewish Anti Fascist Committee in the USSR New York. Harwood Academic Publishers 1995 95 108 Anthony Beevor and Luba Vinogradova eds A Writer at War. Vasily Grossman with the Red Army 1941 1945 New York Pantheon Books 2005 345 347 Joshua Rubinstein. Il ia Al tman and Yitzhak Arad eds The Unknown Black Book The Holocaust in the German Occupied Soviet. Territories Bloomington Indiana University Press 2010. On Ringelblum s project Samuel Kassow Who Will Write Our History Rediscovering a Hidden Archive from the. Warsaw Ghetto Bloomington Indiana University Press 2007 on the archival preservation in the Vil na Vilnius. ghetto Rakhil Margolis Nachalo in Zydu muziejus Evreiskii muzei The Jewish Museum Vilnius Liutuvos. valstybinis zydu muzieujus 1994 11 16 On the Archive Museum of the Transitional Period in the Nazi. occupied Kyv Vitali Gedz Dzherela do vyvchennia kul turnoho zhyttia v okupovanomu Kyievi 1941 1943 rr. Spetsial ni istorychni dystsypliny pytannia teori ta metodyky Zbirnyk naukovykh prats No 15 2007 188 189. Oleksandr Bezruchko Serhi Oleksi ovych Hiliarov dolia vchenoho i mystetstvoznavtsia na tli vi ny Z arkhiviv. VChK GPU NKVD KGB No 1 2011 310 315, On mobilization of patriotic feelings of different ethnic groups Vladyslav Hrynevych Vi s kove budivnytstvo v. Radians kii Ukra ni kinets 30 kh 80 ti roky XX st in Istoriia ukra ns koho vi s ka 1917 1995 ed Iaroslav. Dashkevych 332 467 L viv vydavnytstvo Svit 1996 340 341 Serhy Yekelchyk Stalin s Empire of Memory. Russian Ukrainian Relations in the Soviet Historical Imagination Toronto University of Toronto Press 2004 24. Viacheslav Popyk Pid sofitamy sekretnykh sluzhb dokumenty z papky formuliaru na O P Dovzhenka Z. arkhiviv VUChK GPU NKVD KGB No 1 2 3 1995 235 280 George Liber Alexander Dovzhenko A Life in. Soviet Film London BIF Pub 2002 5 Oleksandr Bezruchko Nevidomy Dovzhenko Kyiv Feniks 2008 67 68. Idem Sprava formuliar Zaporozhets novi dokumenty pro rezhysera Oleksandra Dovzhenka Z arkhiviv. VUChK GPU NKVD KGB No 2 2009 327 352, secret surveillance by the Soviet security service evaded the fate of many of his colleagues. within Ukraine s cultural establishment only by soliciting protection from Joseph Stalin himself 8. At the time the dictator famous for his keen appreciation of the political significance of history. literature and visual arts not only took the filmmaker under his wing but also commissioned. films glorifying heroes of the Revolution and socialist construction in Ukraine 9 The. recognition and state awards bestowed on Dovzhenko in the following years were as much due. to Stalin s patronage as they were to his undeniable talent creative output and uncanny ability to. navigate the discursive minefields of Soviet public culture in the 1930s and 1940s That ability. famously betrayed Dovzhenko in January 1944 Once again it was Stalin who played the role of. the ultimate arbiter 10, Stalin s attack on the screenplay of Dovzhenko s Ukraine in Flames complete with. accusations of anti Leninism and nationalist deviation was not a whim of the irrational. dictator Rather it was a product of the confluence of several factors Stalin s persistent pattern. of intervention into the cultural domain Dovzhenko s attempts to integrate into the narrative of. national identity the trauma of the 1930s and less than glorious experiences of war and. occupation extensive Soviet intelligence about the broad crisis of Soviet legitimacy in the Axis. occupied territories and last but not least the outbreak in spring 1943 of the anti Soviet. nationalist insurgency in Volhynia and Galicia and the operations against the underground. structures of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists OUN in the Soviet controlled. territories, Specifically Stalin and his lieutenants in Ukraine knew that following the outbreak of the. Soviet German war both Bandera and Melnyk factions of the Organization of Ukrainian. Nationalists further OUN B and OUN M and some other political groupings not only. Liber Alexander Dovzhenko 136 on the fate of the Ukrainian intelligentsia during the 1930s Serhi Bohunov and. Iuri Shapoval eds Ostannia adresa rozstrily solovets kykh v iazniv z Ukra ny u 1937 1938 rr Kyiv. Vydavnytstvo Sfera 2003 2 volumes,Liber Alexander Dovzhenko 155 158. Grigori Mar iamov Kremlevski tsenzor Stalin smotrit kino Moskva Konfederatsiia soiuzov kinematrografistov. Kinotsentr 1992 52 63 Oleksandr Dovzhenko Shchodennyk 1941 1956 Eds Mykola Zhulyns ky and. Roman Korohods kyi Kyiv Veselka 1995 323, For the details and stylistics of Stalin s attack on Dovzhenko Mar iamov Kremlevski tsenzor 52 62. In 1940 the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists which carried out underground operations in Poland since. 1929 split in two factions One group remained loyal to the then leader of the organization Andrii Mel nyk The. managed to extend their clandestine operations to the pre 1939 Soviet territories but also. temporarily took control over the formation of collaborationist administrations. militia auxiliary police editorial offices of newspapers and various cultural institutions in many. cities towns and villages as far afield as Kyiv Kharkiv Donbas and Crimea 13. In Eastern Galicia and Western Volhynia which before 1939 were part of Poland such. organisational activities were accompanied by significant levels of popular mobilisation and. political instrumentalization of traumatic memories of Soviet rule that not infrequently were. channelled by Nazis and Ukrainian nationalists alike into anti Jewish violence and extra judicial. killings of functionaries of the Soviet state 14 Anti Soviet historical narratives were exploited to. other group pledged loyalty to the young radical Stepan Bandera On the history of the OUN John Armstrong. Ukrainian Nationalism Littleton Colorado Ukrainian Academic Press 1980 Roman Wysocki Organizacja. Ukrai skich Nacjonalist w w Polsce w latach 1929 1939 geneza struktura program ideologia Warszawa. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie Sk odowskiej 2003 Anatoli Kenti Zbro ny chyn ukra ns kykh. natsionalistiv 1920 1956 istoryko arkhivni narysy Kyiv Derzhavny komitet arkhiviv Ukra ny 2005 Frank. Grelka Die ukrainische Nationalbewegung unter deutscher Besatzungsherrschaft 1918 und 1941 1942 Wiesbaden. Harrasowitz Verlag 2005 Grzegorz Motyka Ukrai ska partyzantka 1942 1960 dzia alno Organizacji. Ukrai skich Nacjonalist w i Ukrai skiej Powsta czej Armii Warszawa Instytut Studi w Politycznych PAN. RYTM 2006 Franziska Bruder Den ukrainischen Staat erk mpfen oder sterben Die Organisation. Ukrainischer Nationalisten OUN 1929 1948 Berlin Metropol Verlag 2007 Frank Golczewski Deutsche und. Ukrainer 1914 1939 Paderborn Ferdinand Sch ningh 2010 Oleksandr Za tsev Ukrains ky integral ny. natsionalizm 1920 1930 ti roky narysy intelektual no istorii Kyiv Krytyka 2013. See the transcript of Stalin s comments on the screenplay of Ukraine in Flames Mar iamov Kremlevski. tsenzor 52 56 There are many Soviet intelligence reports about the activities of various nationalist organizations in. the occupied territories See for example the directive of the NKVD of the USSR No 364 On Intensification of. Struggle Against Ukrainian Nationalists 14 August 1941 Vladimir Iampol ski ed Organy gosudarstvenno. bezopasnosti SSSR v Veliko otechestvenno vo ne Moskva Kniga i Bizness 1995 t 2 kn 1 480 481 the. report by the chief of the Ukrainian Headquarters of the Partisan Movement T Strokach On Activities of Ukrainian. Nationalists in the Occupied Territories of Ukraine no earlier than 5 December 1942 Ivan Bilas ed Represyvno. karal na systema v Ukra ni 1917 1953 suspil no politychny ta istoryko pravovy analiz u dvokh knygakh Kyiv. Lybid Vi s ko Ukra ny 1994 t 2 335 340, Andrzej bikowski Local Anti Jewish Pogroms in the Occupied Territories of Eastern Poland June July 1941. in The Holocaust in the Soviet Union Studies and Sources on the Destruction of the Jews in the Nazi Occupied. Territories of the USSR 1941 1945 eds Lucjan Dobroszycki and Jeffey S Gurock 173 179 New York and. London M E Sharpe 1990 Bernd Boll Zloczow July 1941 The Wehrmacht and the Beginning of the Holocaust. in Galicia From Criticism of Photographs to a Revision of the Past in Guilt and Denial in the 20th Century Eds. Omer Bartov and Mary Nolan New York New Press 2002 61 99 Dieter Pohl Anti Jewish Pogroms in Western. Ukraine A Research Agenda in Shared History Divided Memory Jews and Others in Soviet Occupied Poland. 1939 1941 eds Elazar Barkan Eizabeth A Cole and Kai Struve 305 314 Leipzig Simon Dubnow Institut f r. J dische Geschichte und Kultur Leipziger Universit tsverlag 2007 Marco Carynnyk Jews Poles and Other. Scum Ruda R aniecka Monday 30 June 1941 paper presented at the Fourth Annual Danyliw Research Seminar. in Contemporary Ukrainian Studies Ottawa October 2008 Grzegorz Rossolinski Liebe The Ukrainian National. Revolution of 1941 Discourse and Practice of a Fascist Movement Kritika Explorations in Russian and. Eurasian History 12 No 1 Winter 2011 83 114 Omer Bartov Wartime Lies and Other Testimonies Jewish. Christian Relations in Buczacz 1939 1944 East European Politics and Societies 25 No 3 2011 486 511 John. Paul Himka The Lviv Pogrom of 1941 the Germans Ukrainian Nationalists and the Carnival Crowd Canadian. Slavonic Papers 53 N 2 4 June December 2011 209 243 Jeffrey Kopstein and Jason Wittenberg Deadly. Communities Local Political Milieus and the Persecution of Jews in Occupied Poland Comparative Political. delegitimize the Soviet state also further to the east within the borders of the pre 1939 Soviet. The consequences of this ultimately unsuccessful strategy of state building which OUN B and. OUN M attempted to implement in secret even after the Nazi authorities refused to recognise the. Ukrainian state and began to arrest nationalist activists were manifold Contemporary. scholarship has focused primarily on the ideology of the OUN the implication of various. nationalist organisations in the operations of the genocidal Nazi state and in the Ukrainian. Polish conflict in Volhynia and Galicia 15 From the perspective of Communist functionaries. however of far greater concern was the appearance in the course of the war of a sizeable. underground network connected to centres of armed insurgency in Galicia and Volhynia and. encompassing in addition to itinerant members of the OUN hundreds of local activists of the. defunct Ukrainian People s Republic the clergy of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Church the. Ukrainian speaking intelligentsia and local peasants 16. Within this larger context Stalin s censure of Dovzhenko appears to have expressed genuine. concern that the latter s ethnocentric narratives would further weaken the already problematic. Soviet legitimacy claims in Ukraine and play right into the hands of Ukrainian nationalists In. Studies 44 No 3 March 2011 259 283 Kai Struve Rites of Violence The Pogroms of Summer 1941 Polin. Studies in Polish Jewry Volume 24 Jews and their Neighbours in Eastern Europe Since 1750 2012 257 274 Ivan. Katchanovski Suchasna polityka pamiati na Volyni shchodo OUN b ta natsysts kykh massovykh vbyvstv. Ukra na Moderna 30 April 2013 http www uamoderna com md 199 last accessed 26 July 2015. In addition to the works cited above see also Marco Carynnyk and Karel Berkhoff The Organization of. Ukrainian Nationalists and Its Attitude Towards Germans and Jews Iaroslav Stets ko s 1941 Zhyttiepys Harvard. Ukrainian Studies 23 No 3 4 1999 149 184 Timothy Snyder The Reconstruction of Nations Poland Ukraine. Lithuania Belarus 1569 1999 New Haven Yale University Press 2003 154 178 Karel Berkhoff Harvest of. Despair Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule Cambridge Massachusets Belknap Press of Harvard. University Press 2004 275 304 Marco Carynnyk Foes of Our National Rebirth Ukrainian Nationalist. Discussions about Jews 1929 1947 Nationalities Papers 39 No 3 2011 315 352. On the activities of the OUN B in the pre 1939 Soviet territories Volodymyr Nikol s ky Pidpillia OUN b u. Donbasi Kyiv Instytut istori Ukra ny NAN Ukra ny 2001 Viktoriia Zhyliuk Diial nist OUN ta UPA na. Zhytomyrshchyni u 1941 1955rr Rivne Volyns ki oberegy 2008 Hennadi Ivanushchenko ed. OUN UPA na Sumshchyni Sumy Derzhavny arkhiv Sums koi oblasti Tsentr doslidzhen vyzvol noho rukhu. 2009 2 volumes Oleksandr Dobrovol s ky ed OUN na Donechchyni zbirnyk dokumentiv i materialiv. Donets k Spadshchyna 2013 See also the review of the said volume by Iuri Radchenko Nastup na skhid po. ounivs ky i Holokost Ukra na Moderna 5 January 2014 http uamoderna com blogy yurij radchenko nastup. sxid golokost last accessed 26 July 2015, The peculiarities of the ideological challenge posed by Nazis and Ukrainian Nationalists in Eastern Ukraine were. outlined in the report of the department of propaganda and agitation of the Central Committee of the Communist. Party of Bolsheviks of Ukraine On the Conditions of Agitation and Propaganda Work in the Liberated Districts of. the Khar kov and Voroshilovgrad regions undated no earlier than spring 1943 TsDAHOU f 1 op 70 spr 209.