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Fifth Edition HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION Gerald L Gutek Loyola University Chicago Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto
A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page ii, A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page iii. Fifth Edition,HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL,FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION. A BIOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION,Gerald L Gutek,Loyola University Chicago. Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River. Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto. Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo. A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 2 09 11 11 PM Page iv. Vice President and Editor in Chief Jeffery W Johnston Cover Designer Jeff Vanik. Acquisitions Editor Meredith D Fossel Cover Art Shutterstock. Editorial Assistant Nancy Holstein Photo Coordinator Lori Whitley. Vice President Director of Marketing Quinn Perkson Full Service Project Management S4Carlisle Publishing. Marketing Manager Chris Barry Services, Senior Managing Editor Pamela D Bennett Composition S4Carlisle Publishing Services. 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Gutek Gerald Lee, Historical and philosophical foundations of education a biographical introduction Gerald L Gutek 5th ed. Includes bibliographical references and index,ISBN 978 0 13 715273 5. 1 Educators Biography 2 Education History 3 Education Philosophy I Title. LA2301 G88 2011,370 92 2 dc22,2009046703,10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. ISBN 10 0 13 715273 6,ISBN 13 978 0 13 715273 5,A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page v. For my grandchildren Claire Abigail Luke,and Drew Swiatek and Mills and Anna Hope Jordan. A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page vi, A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page vii. Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education A Biographical Introduction developed. from my more than three decades of teaching the history and philosophy of education at Loyola. University Chicago and as a visiting professor at Northern Michigan University Otterbein. College and the University of Glasgow in Scotland I continue to learn from my students in the. international education programs offered by Framingham State College in Massachusetts Over. time the identification of the biographies and development of the chapters were stimulated by. discussions with my students The book reflects my belief that educational biography is a valu. able powerful but often neglected medium for preparing teachers administrators and other. professionals in education I hope the book s fifth edition will continue to focus more attention. on the use of educational biography in professional education programs. ORGANIZATION AND COVERAGE, The book is organized on three broad themes major movements in world history and education. the biographies of leading educators and the philosophies and ideologies that these educators. constructed as they interacted with their historical contexts. I organized the book around the major movements in world and Western history the age of. Confucius in ancient China the classical philosophies of ancient Greece and Rome the scholasti. cism of the Middle Ages the humanism of the Renaissance the theologies of the Protestant. Reformation the eighteenth century Enlightenment the foundations of the United States the in. dustrial revolution the rise of ideologies the progressive movement the end of imperialism in the. postcolonial world the rise of African American consciousness and the development of liberation. pedagogy This periodization around broad historical currents helps to construct a cognitive map. on which to locate people and events and construct a perspective on the past I wanted the book s. narrative to be enlivened by the lives that represented the efforts trials and errors and achievements. of those who shaped the history and philosophy of education. My interest in biography the stories of lives provided a means to give the great move. ments of educational history a personal face Biography enables us to see ourselves through the. lives of others For each of the great movements in history I identified an important contributor. to educational philosophy and method For ancient China there was Confucius an educator. whose philosophy continues to be a powerful force on Asian culture For ancient Greece and. Rome there were Plato the founder of idealism Aristotle the founder of realism and Quintilian. an exemplary teacher of rhetoric Medieval Christianity was epitomized by the great theologian. Thomas Aquinas Erasmus was the ideal representative of Renaissance humanism John Calvin. and Johann Amos Comenius represented two different ways of interpreting the educational. changes generated by the Protestant Reformation For the Enlightenment and post. Enlightenment eras the figures of Jean Jacques Rousseau and Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi stand. out in bold relief For the age of revolution and republicanism three persons Thomas Jefferson. Mary Wollstonecraft and Horace Mann were leading characters Jefferson made the intellectual. connection between the Enlightenment s rationalism and the republican impulse in North. America Mary Wollstonecraft provided insights into the need for women s rights Horace Mann. was a strong voice for creating public education for the new American republic Educational. A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page viii. viii Preface, responses to the industrial and Darwinian revolutions came from such theorists as Robert Owen. a utopian socialist John Stuart Mill a liberal and Herbert Spencer a social Darwinist Early. twentieth century progressivism is exemplified by Jane Addams founder of Hull House and. John Dewey America s leading pragmatist philosopher Friedrich Froebel founder of the kinder. garten and Maria Montessori who created her own version of early childhood education pro. vided new ideas about educating children The attack on colonialism came from Mohandas. Gandhi who won India s independence by nonviolent resistance W E B Du Bois s commitment. to equality of persons signaled a rising African American consciousness that would lead to. pan Africanism The liberation pedagogy of Paulo Freire encompassed important strands in con. temporary educational criticism such as neo Marxism existentialism postmodernism and crit. ical theory In the fifth edition I have added a chapter on William C Bagley an often overlooked. educator who did much to shape teacher education in America and who represents a more tradi. tional educational posture in educational theory, As I examined the lives of the great educators in their historical contexts their views on. philosophy of education what constitutes the educated person surfaced and came into per. spective I found that my students too gained deeper insights into philosophy of education by. making connections with these founding figures For example an examination of Plato s ideas. leads to a consideration of philosophical idealism Aristotle s ideas to realism Thomas Aquinas to. Thomism Erasmus to humanism Comenius to pansophism Rousseau to naturalism Dewey to. pragmatism Bagley to essentialism and Freire to liberation pedagogy. I found that the lives and ideas of certain key figures provided students with an under. standing of ideology and how ideology influences educational policy Here Robert Owen. provides insights into utopianism Mary Wollstonecraft into feminism John Stuart Mill into. liberalism Herbert Spencer into social Darwinism Jane Addams into progressivism and W E B. Du Bois into pan Africanism, Although the various major historical philosophical and ideological currents are rich and. complex how the world s leading educators interacted with the context of their lives to create. their own meanings of education cuts across this complexity Because an individual s life is mul. tifaceted biography becomes a tool that provides a clear interdisciplinary way to look at the. development of educational ideas Each educator leads us to a broader and more generous appre. ciation of our educational heritage and often illuminates current challenges. The book provides students with an interesting and personal but structured way to examine the. historical and philosophical foundations of education The first chapter examines how educa. tional biography can be used in teacher and professional education programs The following. sections are included in each of the subsequent 24 chapters. The Historical Context that places the educational thinker in the historical cultural and. philosophical situation of her or his time, A Biography of the educational thinker that analyzes the formative persons and events that. shaped his or her educational philosophy or ideology. An Analysis of the Educational Thinker s Philosophy or Ideology that identifies the theorist s. principal ideas about truth and value education and schooling and teaching and learning. A Conclusion that assesses the educational contributions and significance of the theorist. A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page ix,Preface ix. Questions for Reflection and Dialogue that are intended to stimulate personal reflection and. group discussion that relate the educational thinker to her or his time in history and illumi. nate current issues and controversies in education. Projects for Deepening Your Understanding that encourage a further engagement in reading. research and fieldwork and that help to stimulate readers to apply history and philosophy. to educational issues and controversies Where they are available links to the lives and ideas. on the Internet are indicated for exploration, Suggestions for Further Reading that include both long standing and recent books. The fifth edition offers the following features, An examination of the historical philosophical and ideological foundations of education. through the study of the biographies of the world s leading educational thinkers. An examination of the history and philosophy of education in a single book that is espe. cially useful in courses that integrate these fields. A solid grounding in the historical and philosophical foundations of education based on. sustained teaching experience, Questions for Reflection and Dialogue and Projects for Deepening Your Understanding. NEW TO THIS EDITION, It is not easy to choose the major figures to treat in a book such as this Every professor of history. and philosophy of education has his or her own favorites After consultation with professors who. used the fourth edition I determined to again feature the 23 theorists philosophers and educa. tors who were treated in that edition The fifth edition includes a new chapter Chapter 21 on. William C Bagley, The fifth edition has been thoroughly revised to reflect current scholarship in the field The. suggested readings have been revised to include books published since the fourth edition. The following are some of the revisions in the fifth edition. Chapter 1 a new section on significance in the history of education. Chapter 2 on Confucius new sections on legalism and Taoism teaching in the Chinese. school and Confucianism in a multicultural global society. Chapter 4 on Aristotle new sections on mentoring the organization of knowledge and logic. Chapter 7 on Erasmus a new project about the European Erasmus Programme. Chapter 8 on Calvin new sections on nationalism and religious change comparison of. Luther and Calvin the translation of the Bible and printing hymnals and psalters the. Protestant ethic and capitalism and Calvinism related to the American common school. Chapter 9 on Comenius a new section on religious origins of the Church of the Brethren. and a new project on the Comenius Program for Lifelong Learning. Chapter 10 on Rousseau new sections on Rousseau and the Enlightenment and. Rousseau s travels his philosophy of history and his relationship with David Hume. A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page x, Chapter 12 on Jefferson new projects on Monticello and Jefferson s papers. Chapter 14 on Mann new sections on the age of Jackson Whig ideology and. transcendentalism, Chapter 15 on Owen new section on the Marxist critique of utopian socialism and a new. project on Owen s Address at the Institute for the Formation of Character. Chapter 16 on Froebel a new section on Kant Hegel and German idealism. Chapter 17 on Mill new sections on utilitarian educational psychology and Mill s concept. of critical thinking, Chapter 18 on Spencer new sections on Charles Darwin and social Darwinism in light of. contemporary economic change, Chapter 21 on Bagley sections on essentialism normal schools professionalized subject. matter and the contemporary standards movement, Chapter 22 on Montessori new project on observing a Montessori class. Chapter 25 on Freire a new section on his influence on critical theory. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS, I became interested in biography history and education as a graduate student in history and the. foundations of education at the at the University of Illinois in Urbana Professor J Leonard Bates. an authority on the progressive movement helped me in developing my research and writing. skills Professor Archibald Anderson my major professor provided the insights that placed the. history of education in its broad cultural context Professor Anderson introduced me to the great. educators and encouraged me to write my first biography of an educator my doctoral disserta. tion on George S Counts Professor Larry McCaffrey a creative lecturer and writer taught me. how to organize the great movements in history into narratives that are meaningful for students. My discussions with my friend and colleague Steve Miller Loyola University Chicago about the. philosophy of education have always been thought provoking and a stimulus to my writing. I have benefited in many ways from my participation in the Organization of Education. Historians and the International Society for Educational Biography. I appreciate the advice support and patience of Meredith Fossel my editor at Pearson. who encouraged me as I worked on the fifth edition I want to thank Mary Irvin the production. editor for the book for her patience in guiding me in the publication process I also want to thank. Lori Bradshaw for her highly professional skill in moving my project forward to publication. I also want to acknowledge the insights provided by my colleagues in the history and. philosophy of education who reviewed the book and made excellent suggestions that guided my. revisions V Robert Agostino Duquesne University Carolyn Babione Indiana University. Southeast Catherine M Finnegan Greenfield Community College Michelle Kelly State. University of New York at Cortland Kelly Kolodny Framingham State College J Wesley Null. Baylor University Karen Riley Auburn University Montgomery and Craig Schieber City. University of Seattle, I want to acknowledge how my grandchildren Claire Abigail Mills Luke Drew and. Anna Hope each at her or his own stage of development and education have given me fresh in. sights into childhood and its meaning for the educational thinkers examined in this book I am. especially guided when they ask Grandpa tell me a story I especially want to thank my wife. Patricia for her love and for her support of my research and her patience in solving my computer. A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 1 09 5 32 PM Page xi, Chapter 1 Educational Biography and the Historical and Philosophical. Foundations of Education 1, Chapter 2 Confucius Proponent of Educating for a Harmonious Society 9. Chapter 3 Plato Idealist Philosopher and Educator for the Perfect Society 30. Chapter 4 Aristotle Founder of Realism 50, Chapter 5 Quintilian Rhetorical Educator in Imperial Rome 67. Chapter 6 Thomas Aquinas Scholastic Theologian and Creator. of the Medieval Christian Synthesis 79, Chapter 7 Desiderius Erasmus Renaissance Humanist and Cosmopolitan. Educator 94, Chapter 8 John Calvin Theologian and Educator of the Protestant. Reformation 107, Chapter 9 Johann Amos Comenius Pansophist Educator and Proponent. of International Education 128, Chapter 10 Jean Jacques Rousseau Prophet of Naturalism 138. Chapter 11 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Proponent of Educating. the Heart and the Senses 157, Chapter 12 Thomas Jefferson Advocate of American Civic Education 180. Chapter 13 Mary Wollstonecraft Proponent of Women s Rights. and Education 201, Chapter 14 Horace Mann Leader of the Common School Movement 223. Chapter 15 Robert Owen Utopian Theorist and Communitarian Educator 246. Chapter 16 Friedrich Froebel Founder of the Kindergarten 264. Chapter 17 John Stuart Mill Defender of Intellectual Liberty 284. Chapter 18 Herbert Spencer Advocate of Individualism Science. and Social Darwinism 307, Chapter 19 Jane Addams Pioneer Urban and Multicultural Educator 325. Chapter 20 John Dewey Pragmatist Philosopher and Progressive Educator 343. Chapter 21 William Chandler Bagley Stalwart Traditionalist Educator 369. A01 GUTE2735 05 SE FM QXD 12 2 09 11 11 PM Page xii. xii Contents, Chapter 22 Maria Montessori Proponent of Early Childhood Education 386. Chapter 23 Mohandas Gandhi Father of Indian Independence 409. Chapter 24 W E B Du Bois Scholar and Activist for African American Rights 428. Chapter 25 Paulo Freire Advocate of Liberation Pedagogy 450.