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cover the fundamentals of high voltage laboratory techniques to provide an understanding of high voltage phenomena and to present the basics of high voltage insulation design together with the analytical and modern numerical tools available to high voltage equipment designers
High Voltage Engineering,Fundamentals,Second edition. Dean Emeritus,University of Manitoba,Winnipeg Canada. W S Zaengl,Professor Emeritus,Electrical Engineering Dept. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology,Zurich Switzerland. Manager of High Voltage and Current Laboratories,Ontario Hydro Technologies. Toronto Canada, OXFORD AUCKLAND BOSTON JOHANNESBURG MELBOURNE NEW DELHI. An imprint of Butterworth Heinemann,Linacre House Jordan Hill Oxford OX2 8DP. 225 Wildwood Avenue Woburn MA 01801 2041, A division of Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd. First published 1984 by Pergamon Press,Reprinted 1986. Second edition 2000 published by Butterworth Heinemann. E Kuffel and W S Zaengl 1984,E Kuffel W S Zaengl and J Kuffel 2000. All rights reserved No part of this publication,may be reproduced in any material form including. photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic. means and whether or not transiently or incidentally. to some other use of this publication without the,written permission of the copyright holder except. in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright. Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a. licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd. 90 Tottenham Court Road London England W1P 9HE, Applications for the copyright holder s written permission. to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed. to the publishers,British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN 0 7506 3634 3,Typeset by Laser Words Madras India. Printed in Great Britain,Preface to second edition xi. Preface to first edition xv,Chapter 1 Introduction 1. 1 1 Generation and transmission of electric energy 1. 1 2 Voltage stresses 3,1 3 Testing voltages 5,1 3 1 Testing with power frequency voltages 5. 1 3 2 Testing with lightning impulse voltages 5,1 3 3 Testing with switching impulses 6. 1 3 4 D C voltages 6,1 3 5 Testing with very low frequency voltage 7. References 7,Chapter 2 Generation of high voltages 8. 2 1 Direct voltages 9,2 1 1 A C to D C conversion 10. 2 1 2 Electrostatic generators 24,2 2 Alternating voltages 29. 2 2 1 Testing transformers 32,2 2 2 Series resonant circuits 40. 2 3 Impulse voltages 48,2 3 1 Impulse voltage generator circuits 52. 2 3 2 Operation design and construction of impulse generators 66. 2 4 Control systems 74,References 75,Chapter 3 Measurement of high voltages 77. 3 1 Peak voltage measurements by spark gaps 78,3 1 1 Sphere gaps 79. 3 1 2 Reference measuring systems 91,vi Contents,3 1 3 Uniform field gaps 92. 3 1 4 Rod gaps 93,3 2 Electrostatic voltmeters 94, 3 3 Ammeter in series with high ohmic resistors and high ohmic resistor voltage. dividers 96,3 4 Generating voltmeters and field sensors 107. 3 5 The measurement of peak voltages 109,3 5 1 The Chubb Fortescue method 110. 3 5 2 Voltage dividers and passive rectifier circuits 113. 3 5 3 Active peak reading circuits 117, 3 5 4 High voltage capacitors for measuring circuits 118. 3 6 Voltage dividing systems and impulse voltage measurements 129. 3 6 1 Generalized voltage generation and measuring circuit 129. 3 6 2 Demands upon transfer characteristics of the measuring system 132. 3 6 3 Fundamentals for the computation of the measuring system 139. 3 6 4 Voltage dividers 147, 3 6 5 Interaction between voltage divider and its lead 163. 3 6 6 The divider s low voltage arm 171, 3 7 Fast digital transient recorders for impulse measurements 175. 3 7 1 Principles and historical development of transient digital recorders. 3 7 2 Errors inherent in digital recorders 179, 3 7 3 Specification of ideal A D recorder and parameters required for h v. impulse testing 183,3 7 4 Future trends 195,References 196. Chapter 4 Electrostatic fields and field stress control 201. 4 1 Electrical field distribution and breakdown strength of insulating materials. 4 2 Fields in homogeneous isotropic materials 205,4 2 1 The uniform field electrode arrangement 206. 4 2 2 Coaxial cylindrical and spherical fields 209. 4 2 3 Sphere to sphere or sphere to plane 214,4 2 4 Two cylindrical conductors in parallel 218. 4 2 5 Field distortions by conducting particles 221. 4 3 Fields in multidielectric isotropic materials 225. 4 3 1 Simple configurations 227,4 3 2 Dielectric refraction 232. 4 3 3 Stress control by floating screens 235,4 4 Numerical methods 241. 4 4 1 Finite difference method FDM 242,Contents vii. 4 4 2 Finite element method FEM 246,4 4 3 Charge simulation method CSM 254. 4 4 4 Boundary element method 270,References 278,Chapter 5 Electrical breakdown in gases 281. 5 1 Classical gas laws 281, 5 1 1 Velocity distribution of a swarm of molecules 284. 5 1 2 The free path of molecules and electrons 287. 5 1 3 Distribution of free paths 290,5 1 4 Collision energy transfer 291. 5 2 Ionization and decay processes 294,5 2 1 Townsend first ionization coefficient 295. 5 2 2 Photoionization 301, 5 2 3 Ionization by interaction of metastables with atoms 301. 5 2 4 Thermal ionization 302,5 2 5 Deionization by recombination 302. 5 2 6 Deionization by attachment negative ion formation 304. 5 2 7 Mobility of gaseous ions and deionization by diffusion 308. 5 2 8 Relation between diffusion and mobility 314,5 3 Cathode processes secondary effects 316. 5 3 1 Photoelectric emission 317, 5 3 2 Electron emission by positive ion and excited atom impact 317. 5 3 3 Thermionic emission 318,5 3 4 Field emission 319. 5 3 5 Townsend second ionization coefficient 321, 5 3 6 Secondary electron emission by photon impact 323. 5 4 Transition from non self sustained discharges to breakdown 324. 5 4 1 The Townsend mechanism 324,5 5 The streamer or Kanal mechanism of spark 326. 5 6 The sparking voltage Paschen s law 333,5 7 Penning effect 339. 5 8 The breakdown field strength Eb 340,5 9 Breakdown in non uniform fields 342. 5 10 Effect of electron attachment on the breakdown criteria 345. 5 11 Partial breakdown corona discharges 348,5 11 1 Positive or anode coronas 349. 5 11 2 Negative or cathode corona 352, 5 12 Polarity effect influence of space charge 354. 5 13 Surge breakdown voltage time lag 359,viii Contents. 5 13 1 Breakdown under impulse voltages 360,5 13 2 Volt time characteristics 361. 5 13 3 Experimental studies of time lags 362,References 365. Chapter 6 Breakdown in solid and liquid dielectrics 367. 6 1 Breakdown in solids 367,6 1 1 Intrinsic breakdown 368. 6 1 2 Streamer breakdown 373,6 1 3 Electromechanical breakdown 373. 6 1 4 Edge breakdown and treeing 374,6 1 5 Thermal breakdown 375. 6 1 6 Erosion breakdown 381,6 1 7 Tracking 385,6 2 Breakdown in liquids 385. 6 2 1 Electronic breakdown 386,6 2 2 Suspended solid particle mechanism 387. 6 2 3 Cavity breakdown 390, 6 2 4 Electroconvection and electrohydrodynamic model of dielectric. breakdown 391, 6 3 Static electrification in power transformers 393. References 394, Chapter 7 Non destructive insulation test techniques 395. 7 1 Dynamic properties of dielectrics 395,7 1 1 Dynamic properties in the time domain 398. 7 1 2 Dynamic properties in the frequency domain 404. 7 1 3 Modelling of dielectric properties 407,7 1 4 Applications to insulation ageing 409. 7 2 Dielectric loss and capacitance measurements 411. 7 2 1 The Schering bridge 412,7 2 2 Current comparator bridges 417. 7 2 3 Loss measurement on complete equipment 420,7 2 4 Null detectors 421. 7 3 Partial discharge measurements 421,7 3 1 The basic PD test circuit 423. 7 3 2 PD currents 427, 7 3 3 PD measuring systems within the PD test circuit 429. 7 3 4 Measuring systems for apparent charge 433,7 3 5 Sources and reduction of disturbances 448. 7 3 6 Other PD quantities 450, 7 3 7 Calibration of PD detectors in a complete test circuit 452. Contents ix,7 3 8 Digital PD instruments and measurements 453. References 456, Chapter 8 Overvoltages testing procedures and insulation coordination 460. 8 1 The lightning mechanism 460,8 1 1 Energy in lightning 464. 8 1 2 Nature of danger 465,8 2 Simulated lightning surges for testing 466. 8 3 Switching surge test voltage characteristics 468. 8 4 Laboratory high voltage testing procedures and statistical treatment of results. 8 4 1 Dielectric stress voltage stress 472,8 4 2 Insulation characteristics 473. 8 4 3 Randomness of the appearance of discharge 473. 8 4 4 Types of insulation 473, 8 4 5 Types of stress used in high voltage testing 473. 8 4 6 Errors and confidence in results 479,8 4 7 Laboratory test procedures 479. 8 4 8 Standard test procedures 484,8 4 9 Testing with power frequency voltage 484. 8 4 10 Distribution of measured breakdown probabilities confidence in. measured P V 485, 8 4 11 Confidence intervals in breakdown probability in measured values. 8 5 Weighting of the measured breakdown probabilities 489. 8 5 1 Fitting of the best fit normal distribution 489. 8 6 Insulation coordination 492,8 6 1 Insulation level 492. 8 6 2 Statistical approach to insulation coordination 495. 8 6 3 Correlation between insulation and protection levels 498. 8 7 Modern power systems protection devices 500,8 7 1 MOA metal oxide arresters 500. References 507, Chapter 9 Design and testing of external insulation 509. 9 1 Operation in a contaminated environment 509, 9 2 Flashover mechanism of polluted insulators under a c and d c 510. 9 2 1 Model for flashover of polluted insulators 511. 9 3 Measurements and tests 512,9 3 1 Measurement of insulator dimensions 513. x Contents,9 3 2 Measurement of pollution severity 514. 9 3 3 Contamination testing 517, 9 3 4 Contamination procedure for clean fog testing 518. 9 3 5 Clean fog test procedure 519,9 3 6 Fog characteristics 520. 9 4 Mitigation of contamination flashover 520,9 4 1 Use of insulators with optimized shapes 520. 9 4 2 Periodic cleaning 520,9 4 3 Grease coating 521. 9 4 4 RTV coating 521,9 4 5 Resistive glaze insulators 521. 9 4 6 Use of non ceramic insulators 522,9 5 Design of insulators 522. 9 5 1 Ceramic insulators 523,9 5 2 Polymeric insulators NCI 526. 9 6 Testing and specifications 530,9 6 1 In service inspection and failure modes 531. References 531,Preface to Second Edition, The first edition as well as its forerunner of Kuffel and Abdullah published in. 1970 and their translations into Japanese and Chinese languages have enjoyed. wide international acceptance as basic textbooks in teaching senior under. graduate and postgraduate courses in High Voltage Engineering Both texts. have also been extensively used by practising engineers engaged in the design. and operation of high voltage equipment Over the years the authors have. received numerous comments from the text s users with helpful suggestions. for improvements These have been incorporated in the present edition Major. revisions and expansion of several chapters have been made to update the. continued progress and developments in high voltage engineering over the. past two decades, As in the previous edition the principal objective of the current text is to. cover the fundamentals of high voltage laboratory techniques to provide an. understanding of high voltage phenomena and to present the basics of high. voltage insulation design together with the analytical and modern numerical. tools available to high voltage equipment designers. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to high voltage engineering including. the concepts of power transmission voltage stress and testing with various. types of voltage Chapter 2 provides a description of the apparatus used in the. generation of a c d c and impulse voltages These first two introductory. chapters have been reincorporated into the current revision with minor. Chapter 3 deals with the topic of high voltage measurements It has under. gone major revisions in content to reflect the replacement of analogue instru. mentation with digitally based instruments Fundamental operating principles. of digital recorders used in high voltage measurements are described and the. characteristics of digital instrumentation appropriate for use in impulse testing. are explained, Chapter 4 covers the application of numerical methods in electrical stress. calculations It incorporates much of the contents of the previous text but the. section on analogue methods has been replaced by a description of the more. current boundary element method, Chapter 5 of the previous edition dealt with the breakdown of gaseous. liquid and solid insulation In the new edition these topics are described in. xii Preface to Second Edition, two chapters The new Chapter 5 covers the electrical breakdown of gases. The breakdown of liquid and solid dielectrics is presented in Chapter 6 of the. current edition, Chapter 7 of the new text represents an expansion of Chapter 6 of the. previous book The additional areas covered comprise a short but fundamental. introduction to dielectric properties of materials diagnostic test methods and. non destructive tests applicable also to on site monitoring of power equipment. The expanded scope is a reflection of the growing interest in and development. of on site diagnostic testing techniques within the electrical power industry. This area represents what is perhaps the most quickly evolving aspect of high. voltage testing The current drive towards deregulation of the power industry. combined with the fact that much of the apparatus making up the world s. electrical generation and delivery systems is ageing has resulted in a pressing. need for the development of in service or at least on site test methods which. can be applied to define the state of various types of system assets Assessment. of the remaining life of major assets and development of maintenance practices. optimized both from the technical and economic viewpoints have become. critical factors in the operation of today s electric power systems Chapter 7. gives an introduction and overview of the fundamental aspects of on site test. methods with some practical examples illustrating current practices. Chapter 8 is an expansion of Chapter 7 from the previous edition However. in addition to the topics of lightning phenomena switching overvoltages and. insulation coordination it covers statistically based laboratory impulse test. methods and gives an overview of metal oxide surge arresters The statistical. impulse test methods described are basic tools used in the application of. insulation coordination concepts As such an understanding of these methods. leads to clearer understanding of the basis of insulation coordination Similarly. an understanding of the operation and application of metal oxide arresters is. an integral part of today s insulation coordination techniques. Chapter 9 describes the design performance application and testing of. outdoor insulators Both ceramic and composite insulators are included. Outdoor insulators represent one of the most critical components of. transmission and distribution systems While there is significant experience. in the use of ceramic insulators composite insulators represent a relatively. new and quickly evolving technology that offers a number of performance. advantages over the conventional ceramic alternative Their use and. importance will continue to increase and therefore merits particular attention. The authors are aware of the fact that many topics also relevant to the. fundamentals of high voltage engineering have again not been treated But. every textbook about this field will be a compromise between the limited. space available for the book and the depth of treatment for the selected topics. The inclusion of more topics would reduce its depth of treatment which should. Preface to Second Edition xiii, be good enough for fundamental understanding and should stimulate further. The authors would like to express their thanks to Professors Yuchang Qiu of. X ian Jaotong University Stan Grzybowski of Mississippi State University. Stephen Sebo of Ohio State University for their helpful suggestions in the. selection of new material Ontario Power Technologies for providing help. in the preparation of the text and a number of illustrations and Mrs Shelly. Gerardin for her skilful efforts in scanning and editing the text of the first. edition Our special thanks go to Professor Yuchang Qiu for his laborious. proof reading of the manuscript, Finally we would like to express our personal gratitude to Mr Peter Kuffel. and Dr Waldemar Ziomek for their invaluable help in the process of continued. review and preparation of the final manuscript and illustrations. Preface to First Edition, The need for an up to date textbook in High Voltage Engineering fundamentals. has been apparent for some time The earlier text of Kuffel and Abdullah. published in 1970 although it had a wide circulation was of somewhat limited. scope and has now become partly outdated, In this book an attempt is made to cover the basics of high voltage laboratory. techniques and high voltage phenomena together with the principles governing. design of high voltage insulation, Following the historical introduction the chapters 2 and 3 present a compre. hensive and rigorous treatment of laboratory high voltage generation and. measurement techniques and make extensive references to the various inter. national standards, Chapter 4 reviews methods used in controlling electric stresses and intro. duces the reader to modern numerical methods and their applications in the. calculation of electric stresses in simple practical insulations. Chapter 5 includes an extensive treatment of the subject of gas discharges. and the basic mechanisms of electrical breakdown of gaseous liquid and solid. insulations, Chapter 6 deals with modern techniques for discharge detection and. measurement The final chapter gives an overview treatment of systems. overvoltages and insulation coordination, It is hoped the text will fill the needs of senior undergraduate and grad. uate students enrolled in high voltage engineering courses as well as junior. researchers engaged in the field of gas discharges The in depth treatment of. high voltage techniques should make the book particularly useful to designers. and operators of high voltage equipment and utility engineers. The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr M M Abdullah s permission to. reproduce some material from the book High Voltage Engineering Pergamon. Press 1970,E KUFFEL W S ZAENGAL,March 1984,Introduction. 1 1 Generation and transmission of electric energy. The potential benefits of electrical energy supplied to a number of consumers. from a common generating system were recognized shortly after the develop. ment of the dynamo commonly known as the generator. The first public power station was put into service in 1882 in London. Holborn Soon a number of other public supplies for electricity followed. in other developed countries The early systems produced direct ccurrent at. low voltage but their service was limited to highly localized areas and were. used mainly for electric lighting The limitations of d c transmission at low. voltage became readily apparent By 1890 the art in the development of an a c. generator and transformer had been perfected to the point when a c supply. was becoming common displacing the earlier d c system The first major. a c power station was commissioned in 1890 at Deptford supplying power. to central London over a distance of 28 miles at 10 000 V From the earliest. electricity days it was realized that to make full use of economic genera. tion the transmission network must be tailored to production with increased. interconnection for pooling of generation in an integrated system In addition. the potential development of hydroelectric power and the need to carry that. power over long distances to the centres of consumption were recognized. Power transfer for large systems whether in the context of interconnection. of large systems or bulk transfers led engineers invariably to think in terms. of high system voltages Figure 1 1 lists some of the major a c transmission. systems in chronological order of their installations with tentative projections. to the end of this century, The electric power P transmitted on an overhead a c line increases approx. imately with the surge impedance loading or the square of the system s oper. ating voltage Thus for a transmission line of surge impedance ZL D250. at an operating voltage V the power transfer capability is approximately. P D V2 ZL which for an overhead a c system leads to the following results. V kV 400 700 1000 1200 1500,P MW 640 2000 4000 5800 9000. 2 High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals,A C voltage. 1885 1905 1925 1945 1965 1985 2005,Year of installation. 1 1890 10 kV Deptford,2 1907 50 kV Stadtwerke M nchen. 3 1912 110 kV Lauchhammer Riesa,4 1926 220 kV N Pennsylvania. 5 1936 287 kV Boulder Dam,6 1952 380 kV Harspr nget Hallsberg. 7 1959 525 kV USSR,8 1965 735 kV Manicouagan Montreal. 9 2003 Est 500 kV Three Gorges China, Figure 1 1 Major a c systems in chronological order of their installations. The rapidly increasing transmission voltage level in recent decades is a. result of the growing demand for electrical energy coupled with the devel. opment of large hydroelectric power stations at sites far remote from centres. of industrial activity and the need to transmit the energy over long distances. to the centres However environmental concerns have imposed limitations. on system expansion resulting in the need to better utilize existing transmis. sion systems This has led to the development of Flexible A C Transmission. Systems FACTS which are based on newly developing high power elec. tronic devices such as GTOs and IGBTs Examples of FACTS systems include. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors and STATCOMS The FACTS devices. improve the utilization of a transmission system by increasing power transfer. capability, Although the majority of the world s electric transmission is carried on. a c systems high voltage direct current HVDC transmission by overhead. lines submarine cables and back to back installations provides an attractive. alternative for bulk power transfer HVDC permits a higher power density. on a given right of way as compared to a c transmission and thus helps the. electric utilities in meeting the environmental requirements imposed on the. transmission of electric power HVDC also provides an attractive technical. and economic solution for interconnecting asynchronous a c systems and for.