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Understanding Nutrition and Health Claims 140 When Funds Are Short 142 Healthy Eating in Residence 142 FOOD SAFETY CONCERNS 143 Food Borne Illness 143 Food Additives 144 Food Allergies 144 145 Genetically Modified Food Crops145 POINT OF VIEW 146 ASSESS YOURSELF 147 CONTENTS A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 8 16 01 14 1 11 AM
A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 2 16 01 14 1 11 AM, Health The BasicsSIXTH CANADIAN EDITION. Rebecca J Donatelle, Oregon State University, Angela M Kolen Thompson. St Francis Xavier University, Toronto,A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 3 16 01 14 1 11 AM. Senior Acquisitions Editor Lisa Rahn, Marketing Manager Jenna Wulff. Program Manager Darryl Kamo, Developmental Editor Toni Chahley. Project Manager Richard di Santo, Production Editor Roxanne Klaas S4Carlisle Publishing Services. Copy Editor Charlotte Morrison Reed, Proofreader Chris Feldman. Compositor S4Carlisle Publishing Services, Photo Researcher Zoe Milgram Q2A Bill Smith. Permissions Researcher Electronic Publishing Services Inc . Art Director Zena Denchik, Cover and Interior Designer Anthony Leung. Cover Image Fotolia, Credits and acknowledgments for material borrowed from other sources and reproduced . with permission in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within the text The image. for the Assess Yourself feature is from George Doyle Getty Images The image for Student. Health Today is from C Squared Studios Getty Images . Original edition published by Pearson Education Inc Upper Saddle River New Jersey USA . Copyright 2013 Pearson Education Inc This edition is authorized for sale only in Canada . If you purchased this book outside the United States or Canada you should be aware that it. has been imported without the approval of the publisher or the author . Copyright 2015 2011 2008 2004 2001 1998 Pearson Canada Inc All rights reserved . Manufactured in the United States of America This publication is protected by copyright. and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction . storage in a retrieval system or transmission in any form or by any means electronic . mechanical photocopying recording or likewise To obtain permission s to use m aterial. from this work please submit a written request to Pearson Canada Inc Permissions. Department 26 Prince Andrew Place Don Mills Ontario M3C 2T8 or fax your request. to 416 447 3126 or submit a request to Permissions Requests at www pearsoncanada ca . 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CKV , Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication. Donatelle Rebecca J 1950 author, Health the basics Rebecca J Donatelle . Oregon State University , Angela M Kolen Thompson St Francis Xavier University Sixth Canadian edition . Revision of Health the basics Rebecca J Donatelle Angela M Kolen Thompson . 5th Canadian ed Toronto Pearson Canada 2010 c2011 . Includes bibliographical references and index , ISBN 978 0 321 89255 3 pbk . 1 Health Textbooks I Kolen Thompson Angela Maria 1966 author II Title . RA776 H42 2014 613 C2013 906780 9, ISBN 978 0 32 189255 3. A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 4 16 01 14 1 11 AM, B r ie f C ontents. PART FINDING I RHYTHM 1, 1 , Discovering Your Personal Rhythm for Healthy Living 1. 2 , Promoting and Preserving Your Psychosocial Health 26. 3 , Understanding and Coping with Life s Stressors 53. FOCUS ON SPIRITUAL HEALTH 76, Part II CHOOSING HEALTHY LIFESTYLES 85. 4 Engaging in Physical Activity for Health Fitness and Performance 85. 5 Eating for Optimal Health and Performance 117, 6 Managing Your Weight Finding a Healthy Balance 151. FOCUS ON BODY IMAGE 179, Part III CREATING HEALTHY AND CARING RELATIONSHIPS 189. 7 Committing to Relationships and Sexual Health 189. 8 Considering Your Reproductive Choices 222, FOCUS ON SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS STI s 254. Part IV LIMITING RISKS FROM POTENTIALLY HARMFUL HABITS 261. 9 Recognizing Use Misuse Abuse and Addiction to Drugs and Behaviours 261. 10 Using Alcohol and Caffeine Responsibly and Refraining from Tobacco Use 282. 11 Understanding Illicit Drugs 311, FOCUS ON IMPROVING YOUR SLEEP 329. Part V PREVENTING AND MANAGING DISEASE 339, 12 Reducing Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer 339. 13 Controlling Risk for Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions 369. FOCUS ON DIABETES 409, v,A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 5 16 01 14 1 11 AM. Part VI FACING LIFE S CHALLENGES 417, 14 Choosing Healthy Living for the Environment 417. 15 Preventing Violence Abuse and Injury 437, 16 Becoming a Wise Consumer of Health Services 458. 17 Preparing for Aging Dying and Death 478, FOCUS ON FINANCIAL HEALTH 500. vi B r ie f C ontents,A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 6 16 01 14 1 11 AM. C ontents, Preface xv FACTORS INFLUENCING PSYCHOSOCIAL. HEALTH 33, I FINDING RHYTHM 1, External Influences 33. Part Internal Influences 33, Resiliency and Developmental Assets 35. 1 Discovering Your Personal Rhythm ENHANCING PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH 36. Developing and Maintaining Self Esteem, for Healthy Living 1 and Self Efficacy 36. WHAT IS HEALTH 2 Forming Realistic Expectations 36. Health and Sickness Defined by Extremes 2 POINT OF VIEW 37. Health More Than Not Being Sick 2 Getting Adequate Sleep 38. Health as Wellness Putting Quality into Years 3 Understanding the Mind Body Connection 38. Health Promotion Helping You Stay Healthy 5 WHEN THINGS GO WRONG 40. Prevention The Key to Future Health 6 Depression 41. SEX DIFFERENCES 6 Seasonal Affective Disorder 42, IMPROVING YOUR HEALTH 7 Anxiety Disorders 43. Schizophrenia 44, Benefits of Achieving Optimal Health 7. S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 8 SEX ISSUES IN PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH 44. Preparing for Behaviour Change 8 Depression and Sex 44. Factors Influencing Behaviour Change 9 PMS Physical or Mental Disorder 44. Your Beliefs and Attitudes 12, SUICIDE GIVING UP ON LIFE 44. Do Beliefs and Attitudes Influence Behaviours 12, POINT OF VIEW 14 Warning Signals of Suicide 45. Taking Action to Prevent Suicide 45, Your Intentions to Change 15. S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 4 6, Significant Others as Change Agents 15. BEHAVIOUR CHANGE TECHNIQUES 16 SEEKING PROFESSIONAL HELP 47. Shaping Developing New Behaviours Types of Mental Health Professionals 47. in Small Steps 16 Choosing a Therapist Key Factors to Consider 48. Visualizing The Imagined Rehearsal 17 What to Expect When You Begin Therapy 49. Modelling 17 A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 5 0, Controlling the Situation 17. Reinforcement 17, Changing Self Talk 18, 3 Understanding and Coping with Life s. Stressors 53, MAKING BEHAVIOUR CHANGE 18, WHAT IS STRESS 54. Self Assessment Antecedents and Consequences 18, Analyzing the Behaviours You Want to Change 19 The Mind Body Connection Physical Responses 55. Decision Making Choices for Change 19 Stress and Impaired Immunity 55. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 2 0 S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 5 6. THE GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME 57, 2 Promoting and Preserving Alarm Phase 57. Resistance Phase 58, Your Psychosocial Health 26 Exhaustion Phase 59. DEFINING PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH 27 SOURCES OF STRESS 59. Intellectual Health The Thinking You 28 Psychosocial Sources of Stress 59. Emotional Health The Feeling You 29 Other Forms of Psychosocial Stress 61. Social Health Interactions with Others 29 Environmental Stress 61. Spiritual Health An Inner Quest for Well Being 30 Self Imposed Stress 61. vii,A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 7 16 01 14 1 11 AM. STRESS AND THE POST SECONDARY Tai Chi 99, STUDENT 63 Pilates 100. POINT OF VIEW 64 BODY COMPOSITION 100, STRESS MANAGEMENT 64 PLANNING YOUR PHYSICAL FITNESS. Dealing with Stress 65 TRAINING PROGRAM 100, Managing Emotional Responses 67 Identifying Your Physical Fitness Goals 100. Learning to Laugh and Cry 68 Designing Your Physical Fitness Program 101. Managing Social Interactions 68 FITNESS RELATED INJURIES 102. Making the Most of Support Groups 68, Causes of Fitness Related Injuries 102. Taking Mental Action 68, Prevention 102, Taking Physical Action 69. Common Overuse Injuries 103, Learning Time Management 71. Exercising in the Heat 104, Using Alternative Stress Management Techniques 71. Exercising in the Cold 105, A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 7 3. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 1 0 6, A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 1 0 7. FOCUS ON SPIRITUAL HEALTH 76, A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 8 4 5 Eating for Optimal Health. and Performance 117, Part II CHOOSING HEALTHY HEALTHY EATING 118. Mediterranean 118, LIFESTYLES 85 Asian 118, Western 119. 4 Engaging in Physical Activity for Health Monitoring Calories 119. Fitness and Performance 85 EATING WELL WITH CANADA S FOOD GUIDE 119. THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS 123, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR HEALTH FITNESS . AND PERFORMANCE 86 Dietary Reference Intake vs Recommended Nutrient. Intake 123, BENEFITS OF REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 88. Improved Cardiorespiratory Endurance 88 OBTAINING ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS 123. Improved Bone Health 89 Water 123, Improved Weight Management 89 Proteins 125. Improved Quantity and Quality of Life 89 Carbohydrates 126. Improved Mental Health and Stress Management 90 Fibre 127. Fats 128, IMPROVING CARDIORESPIRATORY, Vitamins 130. ENDURANCE 90, Minerals 133, CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS PROGRAMS 91 Sex Differences in Nutritional Needs 136. Determining Exercise Frequency 91, Determining Exercise Intensity 91 VEGETARIANISM 137. Determining Exercise Time 92 S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 1 3 8. The Recovery Principle 92, EATING WELL AS A STUDENT 139. Frequency Intensity or Time 92, Fast Foods Eating on the Run 139. IMPROVING MUSCULAR STRENGTH Understanding Nutrition and Health Claims 140. AND ENDURANCE 93 When Funds Are Short 142, Principles of Strength Development 93 Healthy Eating in Residence 142. Types of Muscle Contractions 94, FOOD SAFETY CONCERNS 143. Methods of Providing Resistance 95, Getting Started 95 Food Borne Illness 143. S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 9 7 Food Additives 144. Food Allergies 144, IMPROVING YOUR FLEXIBILITY 97 Organic Foods 145. Types of Stretching Exercises 97 Genetically Modified Food Crops 145. POINT OF VIEW 98 POINT OF VIEW 146, A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 1 4 7. YOGA TAI CHI AND PILATES 98, Yoga 98, viii CONTENTS. A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 8 16 01 14 1 11 AM, 6 Managing Your Weight Finding a Healthy P art III CREATING HEALTHY AND CARING. Balance 151 RELATIONSHIPS 189, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY 153. POINT OF VIEW 155 7 Committing to Relationships, Determining the Right Weight for You 156 and Sexual Health 189. Assessing Your Body Fat Content 157, COMMUNICATING A KEY TO ESTABLISHING. MANAGING YOUR WEIGHT 158 RELATIONSHIPS 190, Keeping Weight Loss in Perspective 158 Communicating How You Feel 190. What Is a Calorie 159 Improving Communication Skills 190. Physical Activity 159, Is Dieting Healthy 160 CHARACTERISTICS OF INTIMATE. Improving Your Eating Habits 161 RELATIONSHIPS 192. Choosing to Eat Well 161 FORMING INTIMATE RELATIONSHIPS 193. Miracle Diets 162 Families The Ties That Bind 193. Low Carbohydrate Diets 162 Today s Family Unit 193. Trying to Gain Weight 163 Establishing Friendships 194. Significant Others Partners Couples 195, RISK FACTORS FOR OBESITY 163. This Thing Called Love 195, Heredity and Genetic Factors 164. Endocrine Influences The Hungry Hormones 164 GENDER ISSUES 197. Hunger Appetite and Satiety 165 Why the Differences 197. Developmental Factors 165 Picking Partners Similarities and Differences between. Metabolic Rates and Weight 165 Genders 197, Psychosocial Factors 166 POINT OF VIEW 198. Eating Cues 166, Dietary Myth and Misperception 167 BARRIERS TO INTIMACY 198. Lifestyle 167 Dysfunctional Families 198, Jealousy in Relationships 199. SOCIAL BIAS AGAINST THE OVERWEIGHT 167, S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 1 6 8 COMMITTED RELATIONSHIPS 199. Marriage 200, THINKING THIN BODY IMAGE DISORDERS 168 Cohabitation 200. Gay and Lesbian Partnerships 201, EATING DISORDERS 169. Anorexia Nervosa 169 SUCCESS IN COMMITTED RELATIONSHIPS 201. Bulimia Nervosa 169 Partnering Scripts 201, Binge Eating Disorder 170 The Importance of Self Nurturance 201. Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified 170 Elements of Good Relationships 202. Disordered Eating 170, Anorexia Athletica 170, STAYING SINGLE 202. Who Is at Risk 171 HAVING CHILDREN 202, Treating Eating Disorders 171 ENDING A RELATIONSHIP 203. Helping Someone with an Eating Disorder 171 The Warning Signs 203. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 1 7 3 Seeking Help Where to Look 203. Trial Separations 204, Why Relationships End 204, FOCUS ON BODY IMAGE 179 Deciding to End Your Relationship 204. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 1 8 8, Coping with Loneliness 205. YOUR SEXUAL IDENTITY 205, Gender Identity and Roles 206. REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY, AND PHYSIOLOGY 206, Female Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology 206. Male Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology 210, CONTENTS ix. A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 9 16 01 14 1 11 AM, EXPRESSING YOUR SEXUALITY 211 Treatment 249. Human Sexual Response 211 Surrogate Motherhood 250. Sexual Orientation 212 A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 2 5 1. Developing Sexual Relationships 213, Sexual Expression What Are Your Options 213. What Is Right for Me 215 FOCUS ON SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED. Variant Sexual Behaviour 215 INFECTIONS STI s 254. DIFFICULTIES THAT CAN HINDER SEXUAL A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 2 5 9. FUNCTIONING 215, S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 2 1 6. Sexual Desire Disorders 216, Sexual Arousal Disorders 216. P art IV LIMITING RISKS FROM, Orgasm Disorders 217. POTENTIALLY HARMFUL, Sexual Pain Disorders 217 HABITS 261. Drugs and Sex 217, A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 2 1 8. 9 Recognizing Use Misuse Abuse and, Addiction to Drugs and Behaviours 261. 8 Considering Your Reproductive DRUG USE MISUSE AND ABUSE 262. Choices 222, Individual Response Set and Setting 262. MANAGING YOUR FERTILITY 223, DEFINING ADDICTION 263. Reversible Contraception 223, The Physiology of Addiction 264. POINT OF VIEW 226, The Addictive Process 264, S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 2 2 9. Signs of Addiction 265, Oral Contraceptives for Men 232. Fertility Awareness Methods FAM 232 ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOURS 265. Permanent Contraception 234 Gambling 265, Shopping and Borrowing 266. ABORTION 235, Exercise Addiction 267, Methods of Abortion 235 Technology Addictions 267. PLANNING A PREGNANCY 236 MANAGING AN ADDICTION 267. Emotional Health 236 DRUG DYNAMICS 268, Maternal Health 236. TYPES OF DRUGS 269, Paternal Health 237, Financial Evaluation 237 Routes of Administration of Drugs 270. Contingency Planning 237 DRUG INTERACTIONS 271, Decision Making about Unplanned Pregnancy 238. POINT OF VIEW 273, PREGNANCY 238, PRESCRIPTION DRUGS 273. Prenatal Care 238, Types of Prescription Drugs 273. Alcohol and Drugs 239, Use of Generic Drugs 274, A Woman s Reproductive Years 242. Pregnancy Testing 242 OVER THE COUNTER OTC DRUGS 275. The Process of Pregnancy 242 Types of OTC Drugs 275. Prenatal Testing and Screening 244 S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 2 7 7. CHILDBIRTH 244 A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 2 7 8, Where to Have Your Baby 244. Labour and Delivery 245, Prenatal Education 246, 1 0 Using Alcohol and Caffeine Responsibly. Drugs in the Delivery Room 246 and Refraining from Tobacco Use 282. Breastfeeding and the Postpartum Period 246 ALCOHOL AN OVERVIEW 283. Complications 246, Alcohol and the Post Secondary Student 284. INFERTILITY 249 Rights versus Responsibilities 286. Causes in Women 249 S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 2 8 7. Causes in Men 249, THE PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL 288, x CONTENTS. A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 10 16 01 14 1 11 AM, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS. OF ALCOHOL 288 P art V PREVENTING AND MANAGING, Behavioural Effects 288 DISEASE 339. Absorption and Metabolism 289, Immediate Effects 290. Long Term Effects 292 1 2 Reducing Risk for Cardiovascular Disease. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders 293 and Cancer 339. Drinking and Driving 294, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES 340. ALCOHOLISM 294 UNDERSTANDING YOUR CARDIOVASCULAR, How Why Whom 295 SYSTEM 340. The Causes of Alcoholism 295 TYPES OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES 342. Effects of Alcoholism on the Family 296, Costs to Society 296 Atherosclerosis 342. Women and Alcoholism 297 Coronary Heart Disease 342. Stroke 344, RECOVERY 297 S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 3 4 5. The Family s Role 297 Hypertension 345, Treatment Programs 297 Arrhythmia Congestive Heart Failure and Congenital. Relapse 298 and Rheumatic Heart Disease 346, SMOKING 299 CONTROLLING YOUR RISKS FOR. Tobacco and Its Effects 299 CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES 346. Smoking A Learned Behaviour 300 Risks You Can Control 347. Smokeless Tobacco 301 Obesity 349, Environmental Tobacco Smoke 301 Risks You Cannot Control 350. QUITTING 302 WOMEN AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE 350. Breaking the Nicotine Addiction 302 Risk Factors for Heart Disease in Women 350. Breaking the Habit 303 Recognizing Heart Disease in Women 350. Benefits of Quitting 303, NEW WEAPONS AGAINST HEART DISEASE 351. CAFFEINE 303 Techniques of Diagnosing Heart Disease 351. Caffeine Addiction 304 Angioplasty versus Bypass Surgery 351. The Health Consequences of Long Term Thrombolysis 352. Caffeine Use 305, CANCER INCIDENCE AND MORTALITY 352. POINT OF VIEW 307, What Is Cancer 354, A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 3 0 8. What Causes Cancer 354, Risks for Cancer 355, 1 1 Understanding Illicit Drugs 311 POINT OF VIEW 357. ILLICIT DRUGS 312 TYPES OF CANCER 358, Cocaine 313 Lung Cancer 358. Amphetamines 315 Breast Cancer 358, Marijuana 316 Colorectal Cancers 360. Opiates 318 Prostate Cancer 361, Skin Cancer 361, POINT OF VIEW 319. Testicular Cancer 362, S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 3 2 0. Ovarian Cancer 363, Psychedelics 321 Uterine Cancer 363. Deliriants 323 Leukemia 363, Designer Drugs 323 Oral Cancer 364. Steroids 324, FACING CANCER 364, SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM 325. Detecting Cancer 364, Harm Reduction 326 New Hope in Cancer Treatments 365. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 3 2 6 Life after Cancer 365. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 3 6 5, FOCUS ON IMPROVING YOUR SLEEP 329. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 3 3 8, CONTENTS xi,A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 11 16 01 14 1 11 AM. 1 3 Controlling Risk for Infectious DIGESTION RELATED DISORDERS 400. Diabetes 400, and Noninfectious Conditions 369 Colitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS 401. INFECTIOUS DISEASE RISK FACTORS 370 Diverticulosis 401. Risk Factors You Cannot Control 370 Peptic Ulcers 401. Risk Factors You Can Control 371 Gallbladder Disease 401. THE PATHOGENS ROUTES OF INVASION 371 MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES 402. Bacteria 371 Arthritis 402, Viruses 373 Fibromyalgia 402. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus SLE 403, YOUR BODY S DEFENCES KEEPING YOU Low Back Pain LBP 403. WELL 377, Physical and Chemical Defences 377 OTHER MALADIES 403. The Immune System Your Body Fights Back 377 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CFS 403. Fever 378 Job Related Disorders 404, Pain 378 A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 4 0 5. Vaccines Bolstering Your Immunity 378, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS 379 FOCUS ON DIABETES 409. POINT OF VIEW 381, A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 4 1 5. Possible Causes Why Me 382, Modes of Transmission 382. Chlamydia 383, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease PID 384 P art VI FACING LIFE S. Gonorrhea 384 CHALLENGES 417, Syphilis 385, Pubic Lice 386. Venereal Warts 387 1 4 Choosing Healthy Living for. S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 3 8 8, the Environment 417. Candidiasis Moniliasis 389, Trichomoniasis 389 OVERPOPULATION 419. General Urinary Tract Infections 389 AIR POLLUTION 420. Herpes 389 Sources of Air Pollution 420, Smog 421. ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, Acid Rain 421. AIDS 391, Indoor Air Pollution 423, How HIV Is Transmitted 391 Ozone Layer Depletion 424. Reducing Your Risks for HIV 393 Global Warming 425. Symptoms of the Disease 394, POINT OF VIEW 426, Testing for HIV Antibodies 394. Reducing Air Pollution 426, Preventing HIV Infection 394. WATER POLLUTION 427, NONINFECTIOUS DISEASES 394, Water Contamination 427. RESPIRATORY DISORDERS 395, Chemical Contaminants 428. Allergy Induced Problems 395, Hay Fever 395 NOISE POLLUTION 429. Asthma 396 LAND POLLUTION 430, Emphysema 396 Solid Waste 430. Chronic Bronchitis 397 Hazardous Waste 430, NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS 397 RADIATION 430. Headaches 397 S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 4 3 1. Seizure Disorders 398 Ionizing Radiation 431, Nonionizing Radiation 432. SEX RELATED DISORDERS 399, Nuclear Power Plants 432. Fibrocystic Breast Disease 399, Premenstrual Syndrome PMS 399 FOOD QUALITY 433. Endometriosis 399 A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 4 3 3. xii CONTENTS,A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 12 16 01 14 1 11 AM. 1 5 Preventing Violence Abuse Detecting Fraud and Abuse in the System 473. and Injury 437 HEALTH SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS A NEW. MODEL OF HEALTH CARE 473, VIOLENCE IN CANADA 438 POINT OF VIEW 474. Homicide 439 A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 4 7 5, Suicide 440. Youth Violence 441, The Violence of Hate 441, Violence against Women 442. 1 7 Preparing for Aging Dying and Death 478, Domestic Violence 443 REDEFINING AGING 479. Violence against Children 444 WHAT IS NORMAL AGING 479. S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 4 4 6 WHO ARE THE ELDERLY 480. Violence against Men 447 THEORIES ON AGING 480, Violence against Older Adults 447. Biologic Theories 480, SEXUAL VICTIMIZATION 448 Psychosocial Theories 481. Sexual Assault 448 CHANGES IN THE BODY AND MIND 482. PREVENTING PERSONAL ASSAULTS 449 Physical Changes 482. Self Defence against Sexual Assault 449 Mental Changes 485. Preventing Assaults in Your Home 452 HEALTH CHALLENGES OF OLDER. Preventing Assaults When You Are Away CANADIANS 487. from Home 452, Alcohol Use and Abuse 487, VIOLENCE AND HEALTH 453 Prescription Drug Use Unique Problems for Older. Injury Prevention 453 Canadians 487, Who Are the Victims of Unintentional Injury 453 Over the Counter Remedies 487. POINT OF VIEW 454 Physical Activity 487, S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 4 8 8. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 4 5 5, Dietary Concerns 488. Gender Issues Caring for Older Canadians 488, 1 6 Becoming a Wise Consumer of Health UNDERSTANDING DEATH AND DYING 489. Services 458 Defining Death 489, MAKING INFORMED HEALTH CARE CHOICES 460 Denying Death 490. Evaluating Online Medical Resources 460 THE PROCESS OF DYING 491. Financing Health Care 460 Coping Emotionally with Death 491. Accepting Responsibility for Your Health Care 460 Social Death 492. Why Some False Claims May Seem True 461 Near Death Experiences 492. SELF HELP OR SELF CARE 461 Coping with Loss 492, What Is Normal Grief 493. When to Seek Help 462, Coping with Grief 494, Being Proactive in Your Health Care 462. Worden s Model of Grieving Tasks 494, S T U D E N T H E A LT H T O D AY 4 6 3. When an Infant or a Child Dies 494, Assessing Health Professionals 464. QUASI DEATH EXPERIENCES 494, CHOICES OF MEDICAL CARE 465. LIFE AND DEATH DECISION MAKING 494, Traditional Allopathic Medicine 466. POINT OF VIEW 495, Allied Professionals 465, Non allopathic Medicine 466 Palliative Care 496. A S S E S S YO U R S E L F 4 9 7, TYPES OF MEDICAL PRACTICES 469. Hospitals and Clinics 472, FOCUS ON FINANCIAL HEALTH 500. PROMISES AND PROBLEMS OF CANADA S, HEALTH CARE SYSTEM 473. Access 473, Quality Assurance 473 References 505, Index 527. CONTENTS xiii,A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 13 16 01 14 1 11 AM. A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 14 16 01 14 1 11 AM, P r e face. A Letter to Readers, Dear Readers , I am pleased to present you with the Sixth Canadian Edition of Health The Basics This is my third opportu . nity to change and update this outstanding textbook please know that I revise with you in mind you the post . secondary student , Some of the health challenges you face today are different than when I entered university almost 30 years ago . However some are the same too managing stress eating well being physically active protecting yourself from. sexually transmitted infections using the health care system wisely to name a few similarities . Although we likely know more about what it takes to live healthily today we also seem to face more trials in. doing so We know we should be physically active and we are well aware of the importance of eating at least 7 to. 10 servings of vegetables and fruits each day and yet many of us cannot manage to do either Some of us choose. to drive short distances when walking or cycling would be a healthier and the more environmentally friendly . option Many believe that we must work out to benefit from physical activity Food choices can be challenging . especially given the abundance and availability of fast and convenience foods media and advertising messages. convince us that such foods will save us time , Many of us also have an all or none way of thinking In other words we may not recognize that each lifestyle. choice whether physical or mental is important and contributes to our overall health and wellness Further . our health results from a culmination of many different parameters and influences with each playing its role . Sometimes we think of and manage only the components related to our physical health neglecting our social . emotional intellectual and spiritual dimensions , You may be in Human Kinetics or Kinesiology Physical Education Nursing Health Sciences Business or. General Arts or Science Regardless of your program of study I invite you to engage with this textbook your. classmates and your professor Please read and think about how each opening scenario introductory section and. detailed presentation of various Canadian statistics is relevant to you How does each topic apply to you Do you. invest time thinking about a particular topic Why or why not . I challenge you to question the choices you make and the attitudes you have regarding your health and wellness . Are they the best for you for right now How can you make better decisions When will you make better choices . I also encourage you to question contemporary thinking about many health issues For example binge drink . ing Why is it socially acceptable and expected to drink heavily in your college and university years You might. also query the societal and media pressures regarding body image Why do we expect men and women to look a. certain way Why do we judge people based upon how they look Question contemporary thinking about many. issues not just those I bring up here , I encourage you to read and to reflect deeply Learning can only happen with reflection Further I urge you to. ask questions questions that will help you to better understand yourself questions that will help you to better. understand health and wellness questions that will encourage you to choose more wisely now while you are a. student and later when you are not , Finally I suggest you approach this textbook with a sense of optimism and hopefulness as well as an oppor . tunity to be selfish Reading this textbook participating in class and completing your assignments provides you. with the chance to think about you and what is best for you and your health As you read through this book you. will understand why I suggest you have a sense of optimism and hopefulness that is a choice we all make . Sunshine and smiles , Angie, xv,A01 DONA2553 06 SE FM indd 15 16 01 14 1 11 AM.