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Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability amp Resiliency in Buildings 1 PDH 1 CE Hour 1 AIA LU HSW U S Department of Energy
Combined Heat and Power Final Exam, 1 During and after Hurricane Sandy combined 6 According to Figure 1 a traditional system. heat and power CHP enabled a number of operates at efficiency. critical infrastructure and other facilities to a 45. continue their operations when b 50,a gas lines were destroyed c 75. b the electric grid went down d 90,c fuel storage tanks were damaged. d propane supplies were depleted 7 Considering Table 1 the Net Annual Operating. Cost of a New Natural Gas CHP system sized, 2 Considering Support for CHP in the Region in appropriately to meet the needs of a medium. early 2013 New York Governor Andrew Cuomo to large sized institutional facility is. announced that a investment a 4 555 889, will be made towards clean energy projects b 500 000. including CHP specifically those aimed at c 54 138 850. providing continuous power and heat during d 2 890 269. grid outages, a 20 million 8 In reference to Comparing CHP to Back. b 10 million up Generators many facilities utilize. c 100 million to provide power during grid,d 50 million outages. a back up diesel generators, 3 With regards to Prioritizing CHP Applications a b gasoline generators. first step in considering how to incorporate CHP c natural gas generators. is to review the d battery packs,which provides emergency planners. with a variety of assessment tools 9 From Table 2 CHP provides than. a Federal EPA s Guide to Emergency Energy Systems Backup Generators. GEES a higher emissions, b Department of Energy s Resources for Atomic Free b poorer reliability. Power RAFP c lower system efficiencies, c Government Accounting Office s Emergency d lower emissions. Budget Plan EBP, d Department of Homeland Security s National 10 According to the Appendix the CHCC CHP. Infrastructure and Protection Plan NIPP system for the Christian Health Care Center ran. independently of the grid for,4 CHP is also known as a 2 weeks. a balanced energy b 97 hours,b cogeneration c 8 days. c back up power d 12 hours,d autonomous power,5 According to Figure 1 CHP operates at. efficiency,4 ARCHITECTURE,Using Combined Heat and Power. for Enhancing Reliability and,Resiliency in Buildings. AIA CES Course Number AIAPDH131,Course Description. During and after Hurricane Sandy combined heat and power CHP enabled a number of critical. infrastructure and other facilities to continue their operations when the electric grid went down. Time and again CHP has proved its value as an alternative source of power and thermal energy. heating and cooling during emergencies and demonstrated how it can be a sound choice in. making energy infrastructure more resilient in the face of extreme weather events This course. on CHP provides both an overview of CHP and examples of how this technology can help. improve the resiliency and reliability of key infrastructure It provides practical information. on CHP including what factors must be considered when configuring a CHP system to operate. independently of the electricity grid and what steps are involved in a typical CHP project. development process,Learning Units,1 0 LU HSW,Learning Objective 1. Upon completion of this course the student will be aware of the opportunities for CHP to. contribute to reliability,Learning Objective 2,The student will learn CHP basics and benefits. Learning Objective 3, The student will understand many of the factors for determining whether CHP is an appropriate. choice for multifamily housing and critical facilities as well as steps in the CHP project. development process,Learning Objective 4, The student will know of options for financing CHP. ARCHITECTURE Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings 113. Guide to Using,Guide to UsingHeat,Combined Combined Heat. and Enhancing Reliability and,for Enhancing,Resiliency in Buildings. Reliability and Resiliency in,Buildings September 2013. September 2013,Acknowledgments, To assist State and local officials and others involved in the Hurricane Sandy rebuilding process. the U S Department of Energy DOE the U S Department of Housing and Urban Development. HUD and the U S Environmental Protection Agency EPA developed the Guide to Using. Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings The following staff. from these federal agencies provided input on this Guidance document Katrina Pielli and Rima. Oueid DOE Susan Wickwire Neeharika Naik Dhungel and Charles Imohiosen EPA and Michael. Freedberg and Robert Groberg ret HUD, This Guide was prepared by Anne Hampson and Jessica Rackley ICF International under contract. to the U S Environmental Protection Agency and the U S Department of Energy. 114 Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings ARCHITECTURE. INTRODUCTION 1 THE CONTEXT FOR CHP IN SANDY,During and after Hurricane Sandy combined heat. REBUILDING EFFORTS, and power CHP enabled a number of critical This guidance document on CHP supports the. infrastructurei and other facilities to continue August 2013 Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy by. their operations when the electric grid went down providing an overview of CHP and examples of how. Time and again CHP has proved its value as an this technology can help improve the resiliency and. alternative source of power and thermal energy reliability of key infrastructure. heating and cooling during emergencies and, demonstrated how it can be a sound choice in Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force Report. making energy infrastructureii more resilient in the. face of extreme weather events In response to Executive Order 13632 in August 2013. the Federal Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force, To assist State and local officials and others involved published a Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy that. in the rebuilding process the U S Department, describes how CHP played a successful role in keeping. of Energy DOE and the U S Environmental,a number of college campuses multifamily housing. Protection Agency EPA developed this guidance, critical medical facilities sewage treatment plants. on CHP with the U S Department of Housing and, and other facilities running during the storm and its. Urban Development HUD Its purpose is to provide, aftermath 1 2 The strategy offers two recommendations. practical information on CHP including what, to bolster CHP district energy and other forms of clean. factors must be considered when configuring a CHP, distributed generation including ensuring that Sandy. system to operate independently of the electricity. recovery energy investments in critical infrastructure are. grid and what steps are involved in a typical CHP,resilient Recommendation 12 and also encourage. project development process, Federal and State cooperation to improve electric grid. This guidance is divided into seven sections that policies and standards Recommendation 14. Support for CHP in the Region In the effort by States. 1 The policy context for CHP including in the to enhance emergency preparedness and resilient. aftermath of Hurricane Sandy infrastructure CHP and its role in these efforts have. 2 CHP in State and local resiliency planning efforts been recognized As examples New York State New. York City and New Jersey recently initiated programs. 3 CHP basics and benefits to promote CHP, 4 The opportunities for CHP to contribute to In early 2013 New York Governor Andrew Cuomo. reliability announced that a 20 million investment will be. 5 Factors for determining whether CHP is an made towards clean energy projects including CHP. appropriate choice for multifamily housing and specifically those aimed at providing continuous. critical facilities and steps in the CHP project power and heat during grid outages 3 This investment. development process is based on recommendations made by NYS 2100. one of the three commissions Governor Cuomo, 6 Options for financing CHP and created in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy to. 7 Additional resources that provide more detailed improve the State s emergency preparedness and. information response to natural disasters,More recently New York City issued A Stronger. More Resilient New York building on the original,2007 PLANYC which is a comprehensive plan. that contains recommendations for rebuilding the,communities impacted by Sandy and increasing the. resilience of infrastructure and buildings citywide 4. The Plan discusses CHP including the city s plan to. i Critical infrastructure CI collectively refers to those improve building and other codes to enable increased. assets systems and networks that if incapacitated use of CHP for emergency power. would have a substantial negative impact on national or. New Jersey is attempting to improve its energy, regional security economic operations or public health. and safety See Patriot Act of 2001 Section 1016 e resilience through the New Jersey Energy Master. Plan 5 As a part of this plan the New Jersey Economic. ii Energy infrastructure means assets such as electric Development Authority and Board of Public Utilities. generation plants boilers the electric grid distribution. under Governor Chris Christie issued funding, and substations however this term often refers to oil. and gas infrastructure as well to assist in improving grid reliability in the State. through CHP 6, ARCHITECTURE Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings 115. the emergency planning process,2 CHP IN STATE,Incorporating CHP in AND. CriticalLOCAL, years acted as a catalyst to propel the adoption of. Infrastructure Planning Some State and local governments have. critical infrastructure policies in Texas and Louisiana. RESILIENCY,developed PLANNING,or are in the process of developing policies. ThesetoStates,include CHP,have bothand other laws,adopted forms of clean. stating that all,distributed generation in critical. CHP can effectively contribute,infrastructure planning critical. to State and local,to ensure the energy,government securitymust. buildings and evaluate,reliabilityinstalling,planning facilities. efforts to build e g hospitals,resiliency fire stations. for both critical and emergency shelters For example the damageof. CHP in new buildings or during major retrofits,caused by hurricanes. infrastructure and other along the including,facilities Texas and Louisiana Gulf existing. Coastsbuildings,in the past,several years acted as a. catalyst to housing,multifamily propel the CHP adoption. systemsof critical,allow infrastructure, facilities to policies in Texas and Louisiana These States. have both functional,adopted in the,lawsevent of athat. stating disaster and forgovernment buildings must evaluate installing CHP in. all critical, non critical loads to resume functionality as quickly 3 CHP BASICS AND BENEFITS. new buildings or during major retrofits of existing buildings 10. as possible e g CHP systems with back start capability. and that meet other technical requirements can ensure CHP also known as cogeneration is the simultaneous. seamless operation during a grid outage Key facilities production of electricity and heat from a single fuel. 3 CHP Basics and Benefits, across sectors can be protected from disruptions to the source such as natural gas biomass biogas coal. electricity grid through the use of CHP and other forms waste heat or oil Instead of purchasing electricity. of distributed energy from the grid and burning fuel in an on site furnace or. CHP also known as cogeneration is the simultaneous production boiler to produceof electricity. thermaland heat for,energy from a single,heating cooling. Prioritizing,fuel source CHP Applications,such as naturalA gas first step in. biomass biogas coal waste heat ororoil,dehumidification. processInstead of facilities,needs purchasing can use. considering how to incorporate CHP is to review, electricity from the grid and burning fuel in an CHP to provide both energy services electric power. the Department of Homeland Security s National Figure energy. and thermal 1 CHP Efficiency Comparison step 12,in one energy efficient. on site furnace,Infrastructure and or boiler toPlan. Protection produce,NIPP thermal,energy for,provides heating. emergency cooling with,planners dehumidification,a variety of. or process needs facilities,assessment tools This tool has been can used. use in CHP to,provide both energy services electric can. reviewing critical infrastructure assets and power. potentially,and thermal be used,energyfor other,in onefacilities including. energy efficient,multifamily housing In 2009 the New York State. step 12 CHP can improve a facility s operation,Energy Research and Development Authority. by increasing,NYSERDA both theanefficiency,conducted assessment andwithreliability. of its energy supply therefore, assistance of the NIPP and found that the most providing. economic and,appropriate focusenvironmental,and prioritization benefits. should be at hospitals and water treatment,Benefitsfacilities. of CHP followed Figure by nursing homes the,1 illustrates. prisons and places of refuge 7 8 NYSERDA in a,efficiency benefits of a CHP system compared. current funding solicitation specified a preference. for a separate,systems heat that can andrun power,during system. grid outagesCHP, to provide electric power to the site s priority the. provides numerous benefits including, loads for all facilities and not just critical Source EPA CHP Partnership. facilities 9,Figure 1 CHP Efficiency Comparison,The Need Reduces energy costs. for Coordination To for the continued,ensure user,progress Reducesaddressing. towards risk of electricgrid grid disruptions and enhances. and infrastructure CHP can energy reliability,improve for theoperation. a facility s user by increasing,resilience through stability. technologies for the user,such as in the improved,CHP both the efficiency. face of uncertain electricity prices and reliability of its energy supply. coordination between government emergency planners therefore providing economic and environmental. Offers a low cost approach to new electricity generation capacity. and the electricity sector must occur State utility benefits. Provides an immediate path to lower greenhouse gas emissions through increased energy. regulators can facilitate that coordination and help. efficiencybarriers to CHP so that these systems Benefits of CHP Figure 1 illustrates the efficiency. reduce regulatory benefits of a CHP system compared to a separate heat. can be Lessens,safely and the,more need forinstalled. easily new transmission,in critical and distribution. and power T D infrastructure,system CHP provides and enhances. numerous benefits, infrastructurepower grid securityHaving specific resolutions. applications including the following 13 14, or policies in place facilitates the deployment of. CHP and can help promote the development of this Reduces energy costs for the user. resource and ensure its inclusion in the emergency. iii process as defined by FEMA include hospitals fire stations Reduces risk of electric grid disruptions and enhances. Critical facilities police stations storage of critical records and. energy reliability for the user,similar facilities. Incorporating CHP in Critical Infrastructure Planning. Some When designing,State and locala CHP system for an. governments emergency,have developed facility, or a critical infrastructure application it is important that. theinsystem,are can operate,the process independently. of developing fromto,policies the grid islanding,include and that. iii Critical it includes,facilities black start,as defined capability. by FEMA include hospitals, CHP and other forms of clean distributed generation fire stations police stations storage of critical records and. in critical infrastructure planning to ensure the energy similar facilities. security and reliability of emergency facilitiesiii e g. iv When designing a CHP system for an emergency facility. hospitals fire stations and emergency shelters iv For a critical infrastructure application it is important that. example the damage caused by hurricanes along the 4 the system can operate independently from the grid. Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts in the past several islanding and that it includes black start capability. 116 Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings ARCHITECTURE. Brevoort Co op Greenwich,Brevoort Co op Greenwich Di. Village New York, Provides stability for the user in the face of uncertain electricity prices Village New York. currently provides over 82 gigawatts Brevoort Co op Greenwich. During Hurricane Sandy the,Offers a low cost approach GW of generation. to new electricitycapacity at more,generation than 4 100. capacity During Hurricane Sandy the O, est used in applications that have coincident power and thermal loads i e where the Village New York. Brevoort Co op was the only re, Provides an immediate path to lower greenhouse gas emissions through Brevoort Co op was the only. rical power and heat occur at the same time building on lower Fifththe. increased energy efficiency buildingHurricane,During Sandy. on lower Fifth Avenue,able toCo op,Brevoort provide wasenergy. the onlyand full to,of existing CHP capacity,Lessens the needis for. in commercial and institutional,new transmission applications. and distribution T D providing able to provide energy. serviceontolower Fifth Avenue,its residents thanks to en. and coolinginfrastructure,to multifamilyandhousing hospitals. enhances power schools university campuses hotels,grid security service. able to its residents thanks to,kilowattenergy,kW and CHPfull to. nd office buildings Figure 2 currently provides over 82 gigawatts GW of generation its 400 kilowatt. service kW CHP,to its residents thanks,Current Use CHP system kilowatt. The building has 277 sy, capacity at more than 4 100 facilities 15 It is best used in applications that system. to its 400 The building kW hasCHP277,system andbuilding. typicallyhashouses 720,ight seven percent,have of CHP. coincident power and thermal loads i e where the demand for units and typically houses277 720 W. rily in industrial applications Figure 2 Commercial Sector CHP Sites residents. units and However,typically housesthose, electrical power and heat occur at the same time residents However those CH. r and steam to energy 720numbers,residents swelled. However to 1 500,thoseafter,numbers swelled to 1 500. 1 500 after,es such asThirteen percent,chemicals paper numbers. the storm as Brevoort residents,Brevoort residents. of existing CHP, processing and metals the storm as Brevoort residents. took in friends and family th,capacity is in took,took inin friends. friends andand family,members without power,commercial and members. members without power,without power Be,institutional. mmercial CHP sites over half di,applications,ommercial institutional and. providing or,erties as power,shown in Figure 2,unt of existing commercial. and cooling us,he Northeast is at municipal,to multifamily Th. tes followed by universities,housing re,ltifamily buildings. mily Residential,university Buildings,00 multifamily housing sites be. ntly use hotels nursing,CHP representing CH,homes and CHP. existing commercial un,office buildings, six of these sites are public Salem Community College cit. Salem Community College,Figure 2 Carney s Point New Jersey co. pments A table in the Source ICF CHP Installation Database 2013 Carney s Point New Jersey. e end of Thethis document,remaining Salem Community College ex. Figure 2 Commercial Sector CHP Sites During Hurricane Sandy the 300. ultifamily eight seven, facilities as well as assisted living and other critical facilities with CHP systems During. Carney sHurricane,Point Sandy the 300,New Jersey re. kW CHP system operated,erational percent of CHP Sandy. during Hurricane kW CHPHurricane,system operated,Sandy the Tr. capacity is primarily in industrial applications providing power and steam continuously for almost 48. continuously,kW CHP for almost,operated ne,acilities to energy. Critical intensive,facilities industries,as defined such asinclude. by FEMA chemicals paper,hospitals refining,fire stations food. police The American Red Cross,hours The American,continuously for almostRed48Cross Ad. processing and metals manufacturing, of critical records and similar facilities according to FEMA these facilities should be opened American. a disaster Red,reliefCross,opened a disaster relief. hours The shelter ap,nsiderationOf when formulating. the 2 300 commercialregulatory,CHP sites alternatives. over halfand floodplain,are at management,various commercial in Davidow. opened Hall,a disaster oneshelter,relief of the inmain. in Davidow Hall one of the main m, DOE reportinstitutional and multifamily properties as shown in Figure 2 for. discusses how CHP can enable resilient energy infrastructure Thecritical campus. Davidow buildings,Hall one of The,campus buildings The CHP Se. port showcases,largest several,amountexamples of commercial. of existing how CHP systems in New in,CHP capacity Yorktheand across the. Northeast is system,campus was the The,buildings onlyCHP. system was the,was the only,only source,source of of m. d to run and provide their,at municipal host sites. district energywith electricity,sites followed and. bythermal needs hospitals,universities during extreme. and power for Davidow Hall during,multifamily,ergency events including buildings. examples of universities health care centers hospitals data power for Davidow Hall. power for Davidow Hall duringduring ra,the storm and operations ran. mily housing and local municipal utilities 17 Buildings Approximately 200 multifamily the. and operations,operations ran ran Co, CHP in Multifamily Residential flawlessly providing shelter to. flawlessly,flawlessly providing shelter,providing shelter to. housing sites nationwide currently use CHP representing nine percent 85 85 people. of existing commercial CHP systems Twenty six of these sites are public 85 people pr. housing developments A table in the Appendix at the end of this. document shows several multifamily facilities as well as assisted living and. other critical facilities with CHP systems that remained operational during. Hurricane Sandy, CHP in Critical Facilities Critical facilities as defined by FEMA include. hospitals fire stations police stations storage of critical records and. similar facilities according to FEMA these facilities should be given special. consideration when formulating regulatory alternatives and floodplain. management plans 16 A 2013 DOE report discusses how CHP can enable. resilient energy infrastructure,5 for critical facilities The report showcases. several examples of how CHP systems in New York and across the country. continued to run and provide their host sites with electricity and thermal. ARCHITECTURE Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings 117. needs during extreme weather and emergency events 4 CHP SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR. including examples of universities health care centers. hospitals data centers multi family housing and local RELIABILITY. municipal utilities 17 Properly sized and configured CHP systems can. effectively insulate facilities from a grid failure In. so doing they provide continuity of critical services. and free up power restoration efforts to be focused on. District Energy Microgrids and CHP other facilities The design elements necessary so that a. Overview Microgrids typically integrate small scale CHP system can be isolated from the grid i e operate. distributed energy resources into low voltage electricity in island mode are system specific and include. systems within clearly defined electrical boundaries additional controls and switchgear 25 For an example. that act as a single controllable entity with respect of a CHP system running in island mode see the box. to the grid District Energy DE systems typically on Greenwich Hospital 26 In order to operate during a. distribute thermal energy such as steam hot water utility system outage the CHP system must have the. or chilled water from a central plant to a number following features. of facilities connected through a piped distribution. system 18 1 Black start capability Similar to the way a car. battery is used to start the engine of a car a CHP. Where feasible both DE systems and microgrids can be. system needs an electrical signal from a battery or. operated with CHP and provide an attractive option. backup generator located on site to allow it to start. for meeting the power and thermal energy needs of,operating when the grid experiences an outage If. multiple facilities located in close proximity that can. both the grid and the CHP system are down and not,benefit from a centralized supply of energy. supplying power at the same time then the CHP,system will need to be outfitted with black start. Benefits Microgrids and DE systems can be designed. capability to begin operating,to connect and disconnect from the grid to enable. it to operate in both grid connected or in an island. mode 19 They can save the end users such as office 2 CHP electric generator capable of operating. and multifamily buildings significant space in their independently of the utility grid CHP systems. buildings since these users do not now need to operate use either synchronous or induction generators. their own separate boilers or chillers They can use a Synchronous generators do not need to be. mix of fuels and most DE systems can operate at a connected to an external power grid to operate and. reliability of five nines 99 999 percent 20 are the only option for island mode However. they need additional safeguards to ensure the CHP, Example Projects and Programs Due to their system cannot export power to the downed. resiliency and reliability benefits many universities grid which could injure utility personnel or repair. and cities are interested in DE systems with CHP or equipment Induction generators require an external. microgrids that incorporate CHP DE CHP systems source of power to operate This external power. in cities and university campuses currently represent typically comes from the local grid High frequency. 5 GW of installed CHP 21 Many city and local generators microturbines or DC generators fuel. planning departments have recently begun to require cells also need to have inverter technology to. the consideration of CHP in any new mixed use ensure they can operate independently of the grid. developments 22 For example the City of San Francisco. is moving forward on a large redevelopment project 3 Ample carrying capacity The size of the CHP. termed the Transit Center District Plan The Transit system must be matched to the critical loads in. Center District Plan identifies CHP and DE as priorities the facility During the design phase of the project. in this new dense mixed use development In addition a decision will need to be made on whether to a. the Obama Administration is working closely with size the system for optimal energy and economic. New Jersey on a range of new approaches to improve efficiency and designate critical loads that will be. the resiliency of the grid with a focus on microgrids supplied during a grid outage or b size the system. and CHP New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and for all of the site electrical requirements and arrange. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz recently announced to export power to the grid or operate at partial load. an agreement to develop a microgrid that would help on typical days. ensure continued operation of the NJ Transit rail, system after a major disaster such as Hurricane Sandy 23 4 Parallel utility interconnection and switchgear. In addition Connecticut established the nation s control When a CHP system disconnects from the. first Statewide microgrid pilot program and recently utility grid in an outage appropriate switchgear and. awarded a total of 18 million to nine microgrid controls are required to transition to serve critical. projects that will keep critical building powered during loads without overloading the generator capacity. grid outages 24 These critical loads must be isolated from the rest. 118 Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings ARCHITECTURE. facilities from a grid failure In so doing they provide continuity of. The area surrounding, critical services and free up power restoration efforts to be focused on. Greenwich Hospital lost,of facilities non critical. the facility s The design elements,loads whichnecessary so that. must be shut down a during,CHP system, system outage through the installed switchgear and control logic power due Hospital. Greenwich to Hurricane, can be isolated from the grid i e operate in island mode are. 25 Sandy for seven,Greenwich Connecticut days The,system specific. The and include,switching capability can beadditional. designed controls andtransfer,for manual switchgear For. transition from using grid,an examplepower,emergency of a within. CHP system,severalrunning in island,minutes mode,automatic see the. transfer box on,providing The area surrounding,emergency power to operating solely. Greenwichpower in a26few,Hospital Incycles,ordertotoa few seconds. operate or a a,during static transfer,utility system Greenwich Hospital lost power. system which provides seamless transfer from the grid to the CHP dueontothe 2 5 MW Sandy. Hurricane CHP system, outage the CHP system must have the following features. system in a stand alone mode The ability to seamlessly transfer from wentdays. seven smoothly The entire,The transition from, being grid interconnected to operating in an uninterrupted or island process. using grid took,power about 5,to operating,mode startanother. can add capability,5 toSimilar,10 totothe,way acapital. car battery is more,costs or used to solely on the. minutes for2 5,theMW CHPto,depending on engine,the size of a complexity. and car a CHP system needs27an electrical signal,of the system system went smoothly The. shut down and restart in, from a battery or backup generator located on site to allow it to entire process took about 5. island mode,minutes for the while,system power, start operating when the grid experiences an outage If both the. 5 DETERMINING,grid and the CHP systemIF CHP IS A and. are down GOOD FIT power at the,not supplying,was supplied to the. down and restart in island hospital,mode while generators. power was suppliedThe,Buildings time then,or facilities that the CHP systemwhether. are considering will need,CHPtomakes,be outfitted,sense forwith. them should examine the following items system allowed. the hospital by backup the, black start capability to begin operating generators The CHP system. hospital to continue normal,allowed the hospital to continue. Financial Considerations operations throughout the. 2 CHP electric generator capable of operating independently of the normal operations throughout. The up front capitalCHP,investment storm,stormand admit additional. utility grid systemsrequired to install,use either CHP or replace. synchronous an,or induction the and admit additional. existing boiler may also include the additional features that enable patients. patients that,that could,not bebeseen, generators Synchronous generators do not need to be connected. islanding and black start capability at seen,otheratfacilities. other facilities, to an external power grid to operate and are the only option for. Anticipated operations and maintenance O M costs, island mode However they need additional safeguards to. The monetary,ensure thesavings that result,CHP system fromexport. cannot not paying,to grid provided,the downed grid. electricity and separate thermal energy, which could injure utility personnel or repair equipment Induction. generators,The monetary andrequire an external,other benefits sourcefrom. that result of power to operate,maintaining critical This. operations during,external gridtypically,power disruptions e g. comes datathe,from servers,local research,grid Highand. development activities caring for hospital patients wastewater. generators microturbines or DC generators fuel cells also need. to have inverter technology to ensure they can operate. Meeting organizational,independently financial,of the grid targets e g rate of return return on. investment,Availability,3 Ampleofcarrying,State local utility or. capacity TheFederal financial,size of the CHPincentives. systemfor CHP be, matched to the critical loads in the facility During the design. Environmental and Compliance Considerations, phase of the project a decision will need to be made on whether. Compliance with air quality requirements through permitting. to a size the system for optimal energy and economic efficiency. Compliance with localcritical,and designate ordinances. thatbuilding,will be codes fire during,supplied regulations. outage ofororganizational,Achievement b size thesustainability climate. system for all of change,the site electrical,requirements. State policies and arrangegoverning,and requirements to exportutility. poweractions,to thethat,gridimpact,or operate,at partial. CHP system load on e g,operation typical days,interconnection standards standby charges. CHP4 Project Development,Parallel There are a variety. utility interconnection of items that,and switchgear are important. control When a, to successful development of CHP projects including engaging. CHP system disconnects from the utility grid in an outage with a. knowledgeable developer who has dealt with installation challenges and. appropriate,has extensive switchgear,experience and controls. in assessing arefactors,the various required,thattoshould. transition, serve critical loads without overloading the generator. taken into account as well as engaging early on with the local utility capacity. These critical loads must be isolated from the rest of the facility s. The development,non criticalofloads,a CHP which,project must. generally follows,be shut five phases,down during a system. outage through the installed switchgear and control logic. Site qualification, Level 1 feasibility analysis Level 2 investment grade analysis. Permitting and procurement and,Developing an operation and maintenance plan. Please consult EPA s CHP Partnership Project Development Handbook28. for details on these phases as well as tips for managing the development. ARCHITECTURE Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings 119. process The DOE Technical Assistance Partnerships DOE s Advanced Manufacturing Office provides. TAPs 29 can also provide technical assistance through CHP screenings feasibility analysis and third party. out the project development process including project review of request for proposals and CHP project. screenings feasibility analyses and third party review development proposals through its regional CHP. Technical Assistance Partnerships CHP TAPs 31,Available Assessment Tools EPA DOE and HUD have. developed tools and resources and offer technical HUD also provides a CHP Screening Tool developed. assistance to aid in the CHP decision making process for multifamily housing 32. EPA s CHP Partnership program offers a Spark Spread The Economics of CHP Table 1 presents an economic. Estimator that calculates the difference between comparison of a sample CHP system to the installation. the delivered electricity price and the total cost to of new natural gas boilers The CHP system consists of. generate power with a prospective CHP system a combustion turbine that produces electrical power. providing an initial indication of its potential and a heat recovery steam generator The assessment. economic feasibility The Partnership also offers is based on a CHP system that is sized appropriately. a Project Development Handbook that provides to meet the steam needs of a medium to large sized. information and tools for developing a CHP project 30 institutional facility v. Table 1 Comparative Economics between CHP and Natural Gas Boilers33. New Natural Gas New Natural Gas Comparison,Boilers CHP. Peak Boiler Capacity MMBtu hr input 120 120,Peak Steam Capacity MMBtu hr 96 96. Avg Steam Demand MMBtu hr 76 8 76 8,Boiler Efficiency 80 NA. CHP Capacity MW NA 14,CHP Electric Efficiency NA 31. CHP Total Efficiency NA 74,Annual Steam Use MMBtu 614 400 614 400 0. Annual Steam Use MMlbs 558 6 558 6 0, Annual Power Generation kWh NA 106 400 000 106 400 000. Fuel Use MMBtu year 768 000 1 317 786 549 786,Annual Fuel Cost 4 608 000 7 906 719 3 298 719. Annual O M Cost 729 600 1 687 200 957 600,Annual Electric Savings 0 6 703 200 6 703 200. Net Annual Operating Costs 5 337 600 2 890 269 2 447 331. Steam Costs MMBtu 9 56 5 18 4 38,Capital Costs 4 200 000 21 000 000 16 800 000. 10 Year Net Cash Flow output 65 389 602 54 138 850 11 250 752. Incremental CHP Payback 6 9 years,10 Year IRR CHP vs Gas Boiler 10. 10 Year NPV CHP vs Gas Boiler 2 411 765,Source ICF International. Notes Based on 8 000 hours of operation 7 cents per kWh electricity price and 6 MMBtu natural gas price CHP system cost of. 1 500 kWh O M costs of 0 009 kWh and 31 percent electrical efficiency CHP availability of 95 percent and portion of electric. price avoided by on site generation of 90 percent are assumed values Natural gas boiler estimated cost of 35 MBtu input was. provided by Worley Parsons Net cash flow is based on a sum of 10 year operating costs escalated at 3 percent annually including. capital cost as a Year 1 cost All efficiency values and natural gas prices are expressed as higher heating values. v A medium to large sized institutional facility is typically a facility that could use a 10 to 20 MW CHP system with an average. steam demand of at least 50 MMBtu hr, 120 Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings ARCHITECTURE. In this example a CHP system is installed at a cost of the incremental investment of 16 8 million for the. 21 million compared to the cost of a standard gas CHP system provides an annual net savings of 2 4. boiler costing 4 2 million 34 However the overall million In addition the additional investment offers. economics show that the incremental cost more than an internal rate of return of 10 percent and a payback. pays for itself in terms of electricity savings resulting period of less than 7 years and an internal rate of. from the CHP system As shown in Table 1 both the return IRR of 10 percent. new boiler and the CHP system would serve the same. steam demand 76 8 million BTU hr and provide Comparing CHP to Back up Generators Many. the same thermal output during the year 614 400 facilities utilize back up diesel generators to provide. million BTUs annually However the CHP system power during grid outages These provide power and. also provides power generation 106 4 million KWh keep critical systems operational Another option. annually for facilities installing a diesel backup generator to. provide outage protection is to design that capability. Since the CHP system provides both heat and into a CHP system vi In this type of configuration. electricity from natural gas the CHP system consumes the CHP system would be sized to meet both the. significantly more natural gas than the boiler alone base load thermal and electricity needs of the facility. 1 31 million vs 768 000 million BTUs year As Supplemental power from the grid would serve the. a result fuel costs for CHP in this example are facility s peak power needs on a normal basis and. almost double that of the boiler 7 9 million vs would provide the entire facility s power when the. 4 6 million there is also an additional 957 000 CHP system is down for planned or unplanned. in operating and maintenance O M costs These maintenance However the CHP system would also. additional fuel and O M costs are more than offset by need to be sized large enough to maintain critical. the electricity savings of 6 7 million which yields a facility loads in the event of an extended grid outage vii. net savings of over 2 4 million year If all operating. costs are attributed to the steam production including To assess the comparative benefits of CHP systems over. the annual electric savings steam costs decrease from backup generators facilities need to carefully evaluate. their year round energy needs as well as their backup. 9 56 MMBtu to 5 18 MMBtu with the CHP system,power needs and determine whether these needs can. The cost of installing a CHP system in this example be met economically and strategically with either a. is significantly higher than the cost of installing CHP system or a backup generator Table 2 provides a. a gas boiler However as a result of the significant comparison between CHP and backup generators on. savings from the CHP system s electricity production several important metrics. Table 2 Comparison between CHP and Backup Generators. CHP Backup Generators, System Performance Designed and maintained to run Only used during emergencies. continuously,High performance reliability, Fuel Supply Natural gas infrastructure typically not Limited by on site storage. impacted by severe weather, Transition from Grid Power May be configured for flicker free transfer Lag time may impact critical. from grid connection to island mode system performance. Energy Outputs Electricity Electricity,Thermal heating cooling hot chilled. Emissions Typically natural gas fueled Commonly burn diesel fuel. Achieve greater system efficiencies 80,Lower emissions. vi Some health care facilities cannot forgo a backup generator During the CHP development process ensure all legal. requirements relative to backup generators are considered. vii The ability to seamlessly transfer from being grid interconnected to operating in an uninterrupted or island mode can add. another 5 to 10 to the system capital costs or more depending on the size and complexity of the system. ARCHITECTURE Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings 121. 6 OPTIONS FOR FINANCING CHP General CHP Information. For companies or communities deciding whether or Department of Energy CHP Deployment Program. not to invest in CHP there are a number of private http www1 eere energy gov manufacturing. public and public private financing options available distributedenergy. to help spread risk and overcome capital constraints EPA CHP Partnership http www epa gov chp index. Private Sector Private financing options for CHP html. systems range from power purchase agreements35 and SEE Action Guide to the Successful Implementation. other third party financing options to lease financing36 of State Combined Heat and Power Policies http. and debt financing 37 www1 eere energy gov seeaction pdfs see action. Public Sector Public financing options include chp policies guide pdf. revolving loan funds 38 grant or rebate programs DOE and EPA Combined Heat and Power A Clean. State tax incentives loan guarantees State bonds Energy Solution http www1 eere energy gov. renewable thermal energy credit RECs markets and manufacturing distributedenergy pdfs chp clean. property assessed clean energy PACE financingviii energy solution pdf. Some examples of Federal and State financing, programs that are either focused on Hurricane Sandy. relief efforts or focused on energy efficiency projects CHP for Reliability Resiliency. such as CHP are cited below 39,CHP Enabling Resilient Energy Infrastructure for. FEMA The Federal Emergency Management Agency Critical Facilities http www1 eere energy gov. FEMA has two programs available under which manufacturing distributedenergy pdfs chp critical. CHP systems could potentially qualify the FEMA facilities pdf. Public Assistance Program 40 and the FEMA Hazard, Mitigation Program 41 Environmental and Energy Study Institute Energy. Efficient Infrastructure for More Resilient Local, New York State In New York State the Community Economies The Role of District Energy CHP and. Reconstruction Zone CRZ Program was Microgrids http www eesi org 050813idea. recently launched to help communities develop, comprehensive local rebuilding plans funded by NYSERDA The Contribution of CHP to Infrastructure. the State and federal government 42 CHP could be Resiliency in New York State http www energetics. part of the strategy for this CRZ effort New York com resourcecenter products studies Pages CHP. recently established the CHP Acceleration Program Contribution Infrastructure NY aspx. administered by NYSERDA 43, New Jersey In New Jersey the Economic Project Development Process. Development Authority EDA provides grants for the, installation of CHP or fuel cells 44 CHP Project Development Handbook http www. epa gov chp project development index html,Connecticut In Connecticut the Clean Energy. Finance and Investment Authority currently has 5 HUD CHP Screening Tools 46 http portal hud. million in financing available for grants loans loan gov hudportal HUD src program offices comm. enhancements and power purchase incentives for planning library energy. CHP projects 45,DOE Clean Energy Application Centers CHP. Technical Assistance Partnerships http www1 eere,energy gov manufacturing distributedenergy. 7 RESOURCES FOR MORE,INFORMATION,Availability of Incentives. There are a number of resources available to help, determine if CHP is a good option for Sandy rebuilding EPA CHP Partnership CHPP incentive database http. efforts The EPA CHP Partnership U S Department www epa gov chp policies database html. of Energy and the U S Department of Housing,Database of State Incentives for Renewables and. and Urban Development provide a number of CHP,Efficiency http www dsireusa org. screening tools which provide information on CHP, technology options estimated costs of installing CHP Federal Finance Facilities Available for Energy. financing opportunities along with projected benefits Efficiency Upgrades and Clean Energy Deployment. from such installations A Guide for State Local Tribal Leaders and their. viii Commercial property assessed clean energy PACE programs allow building owners to receive full financing for eligible. energy saving measures which can include CHP repaid as a property tax assessment for up to 20 years. 122 Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings ARCHITECTURE. Partners http energy gov sites prod files 2013 08 Other. f2 Federal 20Finance 20Facilities 20Available 20, for 20Energy 20Efficiency 20Upgrades 20 HUD Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force http. and 20Clean 20Energy 20Deployment pdf portal hud gov hudportal HUD src sandyrebuilding. Table Snapshot of 11 Facilities with CHP and their Operation during Hurricane Sandy. Name of Facility Type Size CHP Location Operational during Sandy. MULTIFAMILY BUILDINGS, Co op City Multifamily 15 372 40 000 kW Bronx NY The CHP plant at Co op City provided the. units 60 000 plus residents with power and heating. throughout the storm and its aftermath, Seaside Multifamily 275 units 100 kW Staten Island Yes. Apartments NY, Heritage House Assisted Living 56 units 75 kW Falmouth MA The CHP system was operational during Sandy. providing standby capabilities to the facility, Schwab House Multifamily 654 units 300 kW New York NY Yes. Toren Multifamily 240 units 500 kW Brooklyn NY Yes. Condominiums,CRITICAL FACILITIES HEALTHCARE, St Joachims and Nursing 200 beds 300 kW Brooklyn NY The Center stayed open and continued to. Ann Nursing provide 24 hour care to more than 200,Rehab residents. South Oaks Hospital 245 beds 1 250 kW Amityville NY South Oaks was able to provide critical services. Hospital for two weeks relying solely on its CHP system. Christian Health Hospital 300 beds 260 kW Wyckoff NJ The CHCC CHP system ran independently of. Care Center the grid for 97 hours meeting all of its. residents power heat and hot water needs,CRITICAL FACILITIES COLLEGES UNIVERSITIES. The College of College 39 major 5 200 kW Ewing NJ The campus CHP system stayed in island. New Jersey buildings mode for about a week because of severe utility. infrastructure problems providing more than,40 of the campus electricity needs. Princeton University 180 on 15 000 kW Princeton NJ The CHP system provided the university with. University campus power heating and cooling throughout the. buildings storm and its aftermath The CHP plant was. vital to maintaining important university,facilities such as research labs experiments and. data that could have been compromised by a,loss of power. CRITICAL FACILITIES PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE, Bergen County Water Serves 47 2 800 kW Little Ferry NJ The CHP system operated seamlessly for 24. Utilities Treatment communities hours without support from the local utility. Wastewater and was praised by the adjacent power plant. Plant for being able to provide treated cooling water. throughout the storm event, ARCHITECTURE Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings 123.