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FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS April 7 1943 FM 21 11 Basic Field Manual certain types of first aid 4 IMPORTANT FIRST AID RULES a
BASIC FIELD MANUAL,FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS,Prepared under directon of the. Commanding General,Army Service Forces,UNITED STATES. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE,WASHINGTON 1943, For sale by the Suprintendent of Documents U S Government Printing Offe. Washington D C,WAR DEPARTMENT,WASHINGTON April 7 1943. FM 21 11 Basic Field Manual First Aid for Soldiers is. published for the information and guidance of all concerned. A G 062 11 9 15 42,BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR. G C MARSHALL,Chief of Staff,Major General,The Adjutant General. DISTRIBUTION,For explanation of symbol see FM 21 6. TABLE OF CONTENTS,Paragrnphs Page,SECnoX 1 General 1 5 1. II Wounds 6 13 2,III Fractures dislocations and sprains 14 28 13. IV Common emergencies and health,me auues 29 48,V 3ffects of severe heat anL measures. for use in the desert 49 52 50,VI Effects of severe cold and measures. for use in the Arctic 53 58 53,VII Measures for use in the jungle and. VII Measures for use in aircraft and tank,Injuries 63 64 61. IX Transportation of sick and injured 65 67 65,X War gases. XI Description of first aid kits and,XII Uses of contents of first aid kits and. packets 81 127 104,BASIC FIELD MANUAL,FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS. The matter contained herein supersedes chapter 10 FM 21 10. and section II chapter 14 FM 21 100, 1 PURPOSE OF MANUAL The purpose of this manual is to. teach the soldier what he can do for himself or a fellow. soldier if injury or sickness occurs when no medical officer. or Medical Department soldier is nearby Information is also. given concerning the use of certain supplies which are for. the purpose of helping to keep well If a soldier does the right. thing he may save his own or someone else s life or at least. relieve suffering If he does the wrong thing he may do. more harm than if he does nothing,2 DErnnnoN First aid means those medical measures. which a soldier can carry out for himself or a companion and. does not apply to the emergency medical treatment which is. given by a medical officer or a Medical Department soldier. 3 SOLDIER S EQUIPMENT FOR iFRsT AmD Every soldier is. issued certain equipment for giving first aid Besides the. supplies which he carries other equipment will be found in. the first aid kits and packets in motor vehicles airplanes or. among special troops Soldiers whose assignments may re. quire them to know how to use special first aid equipment. can find descriptions illustrations and directions for use of. these supplies in sections XI and 2X In addition to the. first aid supplies mentioned many objects which are a reg. ular part of every soldier s clothing and general equipment. or which will be found almost anywhere can be used in giving. certain types of first aid,4 IMPORTANT FIRST AID RULES. a Do not get excited act quickly but calmly,b Do not try to do too much. 4 7 BASIC FIELD MRNUAL,c Handle an injured person gently. d Keep an injured person warm, e Whenever possible give an injured person first aid. before he is moved, f Do not pour liquids into the mouth of an unconscious. person to do this may choke him, g Do not try to bring an unconscious injured person to. consciousness Let him lie quietly face down with his head. turned to one side, h Remember that drugs are dangerous if too much is. given follow directions when using drugs in first aid kits. and packets, i Anyone who has been given first aid f or a serious con. dition should be seen as soon as possible by a medical officer. 5 FIRST AID IN CoMnaT Successful accomplishment of the. assigned mission is the aim of battle The combat soldier. will administer first aid only when he can do so without. interfering with his combat duties When administration of. first aid in actual combat is possible usually only those. measures will be taken which are immediately necessary to. save life The wounded person should be placed where he. is protected from enemy fire and the elements marking the. spot where he lies so that he can be easily found by Medical. Department personnel,SECTION II,6 GENERAL Wounds are the most common conditions. which require first aid Prompt and correct first aid for. wounds will not only speed their healing but will often. save a life First aid for wounds includes measures to stop. bleeding overcome shock relieve pain and prevent infection. 7 ExrosUrE oF WOUND To give proper first aid the en. tire wound must be well exposed in order to ascertain. exactly where it is how large it is and how much it is. bleeding When a wound has been caused by a bullet a. shell fragment or other object which could have gone all. the way through a part of the body look for a wound where. the object may have come out because the wound where. FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS 7 8, it comes out is usually larger than the wound where it goes. in In order to see all wounds which may be present cut. tear or remove the clothing as much as necessary Do not. drag clothes over a wound carefully lift them off, 8 BLEEDING All open wounds bleed more or less Bleed. ing from an artery is known as arterial bleeding and bleeding. from a vein is known as venous bleeding Bleeding from the. arteries is more dangerous because the blood flows fast and. will soon cause a person to bleed to death unless the flow. of blood is stopped In most severe wounds there is bleeding. from both arteries and veins Bleeding of any type must be. stopped as soon as possible The first aid methods to stop. bleeding are to press directly over the wound to elevate the. wounded part or to use a tourniquet, a Direct pressure over wound Direct pressure over the. wound should always be tried first To do this put a sterile. dressing such as the one in your individual first aid packet. Flua 1 Dltect pressure over a wound to stop bleeding. 8 DASIC FIELD MANUAL, over the wound and press firmly on the dressing as shown. in figure 1 Keep up the pressure for at least 5 minutes and. then hold the dressing in place by bandaging See par. lid More than one dressing may be needed for large. b Elevating wounded part Raisinga wounded arm or leg. high above the body as shown in figure 2 will help to stop. FlcuRs 2 Elevation of an arm to help stop bleeding. bleeding The wounded person must lie down and the arm. or leg must be held up as high as possible while direct pres. sure is made on the wound and a sterile dressing is put on. c Use of tourniquet 1 Do not use a tourniquet unless. bleeding cannot be stopped by other means Bleeding from. a wound canrl usually be sto ped by applying a sterile dressing. pressing directly over the wound and if possible raising the. wounded part If a regular issue tourniquet is used the. buckle should be on the inside of the upper arm or thigh. as shown in figures 3 and 4 and the strap should be pulled. FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS 8, in a downward direction while the injured part is steadied. If bleeding cannot be stopped by simply pulling the tourniquet. tight loosen it enough to slip a bayonet or other object under. it so that it can be made tight enough by twisting. 2 For bleeding from the arm and hand put on the, tourniquet about a hand s breadth below the armpit as shown. in Figure 3 For the thigh and leg put it on about a hand s. breadth below the crotch as shown in figure 4,FIGrmE 3 Application of tourniquet to arm. 3 If a regular tourniquet is not available a triangular. bandage a tie a belt or a handkerchief will do instead. Figure 5 shows how a tourniquet is tightened by twisting it. with a bayonet or a stick, 4 Tighten a tourniquet only as much as is necessary to. stop bleeding, 5 A properly applied tourniquet stops all the blood going. to the injured part and gangrene may develop if a tourniquet. is left on too long It should be loosened every 20 or 30. minutes and then tightened again after 10 or 15 seconds. 6 Do not cover a tourniquet with a bandage or a splint. because if covered it may be forgotten and left on too long. BASIC FIELD MANUAL,FIGuR 4 Application of tourniquet to leg. FloGE 5 An improvised tourniquet,FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS 8 9. If you put a tourniquet on a wounded person who is conscious. and then leave him tell him to be sure to get someone to. loosen it for at least 10 or 15 seconds every 20 or 30 minutes. 9 SnocK a Shock is a condition of weakness which, usually follows wounds burns or other injuries When se. vere shock has developed the injured person is pale and his. skin is cold and wet with sweat Remember however that. these are signs of severe and fully developed shock A person. who is suffering from a mild degree of shock may not show. these signs First aid measures for shock should whenever. possible be started before the injured person has developed. definite signs of shock Shock is especially likely to occur if. a person is bleeding Shock can also be caused or increased. by exposure to cold fatigue or hunger A certain amount. of shock follows all injuries and burns it may be slight and. last only for a few minutes or it may be severe and last for a. long time and may even cause death As a rule the more. severe an injury or burn the greater will be the amount of. shock Shock often does not appear until many minutes or. even several hours after a wound burn or other injury Even. before shock can be noticed take measures to prevent it. b Handle the injured person gently avoid unnecessary. moving of the injured part or of the injured person and in all. other ways make him as comfortable as possible, c To prevent or overcome shock put the injured person. on his back with his head ang shoulders lower than his legs. and hips If he is unconscious keep him face down with. his head turned to one side and with his head and shoulders. lower than his legs and hips,d Stop any bleeding as soon as possible. e Remove the individual s pack and loosen tight clothing. Keep an injured person warm but be sure not to over. heat him because overheating can increase shock instead of. preventing or overcoming it Ordinarily simply cover him. with extra clothing or blankets If the weather is cold apply. heat by means of bottles or canteens filled with hot water or. by means of warm stones or bricks These warm objects can. be placed between the legs under the armpits and beside the. waist they should be covered or placed between blankets and. 9 11 BASIC FIELD MANUAL, should not be put against bare skin or against very thin. clothing because they may burn the person, g Warm drinks are helpful in shock If a person has a. wound of the abdomen or throat never give him more than a. few small sips of water to wet his lips Unless very thirsty. a person with a wound of the abdomen or throat should be. given nothing to drink and should never be given anything. 10 PAN Some pain occurs sooner or later following all. wounds Pain is often so slight that it does not bother the. injured person enough to require any particular attention. but if pain is severe it must be relieved as much as possible. Pain can often be prevented or relieved by simple measures. such as keeping an injured person quiet and warm carefully. changing his position to make him comfortable splinting. an injured arm or leg and gentle handling during transporta. tion Only when pain is severe or when a badly injured. person must be moved quickly as from a wrecked vehicle or. aircraft is it wise to give him morphine If pain is severe. however a dose of morphine will not only relieve the pain but. will also lessen shock If morphine is needed to relieve pain. it will be found in certain first aid kits and packets already. prepared for injection in a collapsible tube with an attached. needle Directions for its use are given in paragraph 110 and. are shown in figures 96 and 97, Caution The full effects of morphine are not felt for. 20 to 30 minutes after injection A second injection of mor. phine for continued severe pain should not be given sooner. than 2 hours after the first one Never give a second dose. of morphine to a person who is breathing 12 or less times a. minute Never give morphine to an unconscious person. 11 INFECrroN a Whenever the skin is torn or cut infec. tion may occur Infection is very likely to take place if a. wound touches the ground or if anything else dirty touches. or gets into it A wound which becomes infected is much. more serious than one which is kept clean so the prevention. of infection is a very important first aid measure At the. same time that bleeding is being stopped and a dressing ap. plied as well as after these first aid measures have been. FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS 11, carried out care must be taken to keep a wound clean so. as to prevent infection, b Do not touch a wound with dirty hands or dirty clothing. Do not allow a wound to touch the ground Do not wash a. vnaueE 6 First aid packet being opened by pulling on metal tape. which seals the container, c If there is only a small amount of bleeding from a wound. when first seen or if bleeding has been easily stopped sprinkle. sulfanilamide which is in the first aid packet figs 6 and 7. into the wound as shown in figure 8 and then apply the sterile. dressing which is also in the first aid packet When bleeding. has been hard to stop do not lift up or take off the dressing. to sprinkle sulfanilamide into the wound removing the dress. ing may start bleeding again, d The proper application of a sterile dressing is an im. portant means of preventing infection as well as of stopping. bleeding To use the dressing in the first aid packet care. fully remove the wrapper as shown in figure 9 Open the. BASIC FIELD MiANUAL,FIoun i7 Contents of first aid packet. FIlW 8l prinkling sullanillnide into a wound,FIRST AID FOR SOLDIERS. FlounE 9 Removal of wrapper from dressing,FIGoUE 10 Method of opening compress.