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Effects of sunflower seeds on fasting blood glucose in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients Cheenam B and Leena P Department of Clinical Nutrition Fortis Escorts Hospital Amritsar Pujnab India Department of Botany Seth G L Bihani S D P G College Sri Ganganagar Rajasthan India ABSTRACT The present study was conducted with the aim to assess and analyse the effect of
Cheenam B and Leena P J Chem Pharm Res 2016 8 4 1211 1217. Crunchy Nutty and sweet sunflower seeds prove to be an incredible source of calories minerals vitamins and. essential fatty acids The seeds are most commonly utilized in the extraction of edible oil at a commercial scale. throughout the world The seeds of sunflower can be consumed as a delicious snack 4. Sunflower plant is an erect herbaceous tall annual plant belonging to the family of Asteraceae of the genus. Helianthus The botanical name of the sunflower seeds is Helianthus annuus The seeds first originated in the. Middle American region It is from this place that it escalated as an important commercial crop all over the world. Delicious and crunchy sunflower seeds are widely appraised as great health food They are high in calories and also. an impressive source of health benefiting nutrients vitamins minerals and antioxidants A good amount of their. calories come from the fatty acids The seeds are specifically rich in PUFA i e poly unsaturated fatty acid mainly. linoleic acid which contribute around 50 fatty acids in them Oleic acid a mono unsaturated fatty acid MUFA is. also found in good amounts in the seeds Research studies suggest daily diet schedule with good amounts of MUFA. prevent cardiac disorders and stroke by maintaining a healthy lipid profile 5. Sunflower seeds like other nuts are also a rich source of proteins with high quality of amino acids such as tryptophan. present in it Tryptophan is essential for growth especially in children In addition to this these seeds contain health. promoting poly phenol compounds such as quinic acid caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid These contain certain. natural anti oxidants in it that help discard harmful oxidant molecules in simpler terms toxins from the body 5. Sunflower kernels are one of the richest sources of B complex vitamins Very precisely these are very good sources. of niacin folic acid thiamin vitamin B1 pyridoxine vitamin B6 pantothenic acid and riboflavin 6 The seeds. are also incredibly rich sources of many essential minerals Iron Zinc Manganese Copper Selenium and Calcium. are especially concentrated in sunflower Many of these minerals play a vital role in hormone production enzyme. synthesis red blood cell production bone mineralization as well as regulation of metabolic cardiac and skeletal. muscle activities 7, In this study the effects of sunflower seeds were studied on the blood glucose levels of patients with diabetes type 2. The blood glucose evaluation includes Fasting Blood Glucose FBS. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION, The sample of about 60 people 33 males and 23 females was selected from the state of Punjab with age ranging. from 45 55yrs sample patients selected under the knowledge of the administration The sample was divided into. two groups control and case group 30 people in each group where the control group was only given the required. diet counseling whereas the case group was fed on 2 gm sunflower seeds per day along with the required diet. counseling 8, The pre supplementation data in both the cases was collected with the help of a dietary survey anthropometric. measurements biochemical testing which comprised of their diet history diabetes history height chart BMI FBS. The sunflower seeds slightly roasted for about 2 minutes were fed to the control group for a period of 6 months The. pre and post supplementation data was recorded and the various biochemical parameters were checked at each. month s end The data collected was put to statistical analysis using SPSS software and unpaired t test to find out. the result 8, Cheenam B and Leena P J Chem Pharm Res 2016 8 4 1211 1217. Comparison of Readings,143 5 148 7,FBS 1 FBS 3 FBS 6 FBS 1 FBS 3 FBS 6. Case Control, Fig 1 The comparison between the control and case group showing the mean of the values of FBS per visit. Comparison of,Readings G,113 4 114 4 115 4,95 7 97 4 96 6. Visit 1 Visit 3 Visit 6 Visit 1 Visit 3 Visit 6,Case Control. Fig 2 The comparison between case and control group showing the mean of the values of LDL per visit. Cheenam B and Leena P J Chem Pharm Res 2016 8 4 1211 1217. Comparison of Readings,HDL 1 HDL 3 HDL 6 HDL 1 HDL 3 HDL 6. Case Control, Fig 3 The comparison between case and control group showing the mean of the values of HDL per visit. Comparison of,Readings G,128 9 129 3,Visit 1 Visit 3 Visit 6 Visit 1 Visit 3 Visit 6. Case Control, Fig 4 The comparison between Case and control group showing the mean of the values of Triglycerides Tgl per visit. Cheenam B and Leena P J Chem Pharm Res 2016 8 4 1211 1217. Comparison of,Readings G,164 3 163 8,146 6 146 0,Visit 1 Visit 3 Visit 6 Visit 1 Visit 3 Visit 6. Case Control, Fig 5 The comparison between case and control group showing the mean values of Cholesterol Chol per visit. Closely observing the graphs it gives a view how the case group the ones being fed with sunflower seeds shows a. better decrease in the levels of FBS Control group 163 mg dl to 119 2mg dl Case group 186 2 mg dl to 109 9. mg dl as shown in Fig 1 Along with the FBS the values of Cholesterol Control group 167 mg dl to 163 8 mg dl. Case group 154 9 mg dl to 146 mg dl showed in Fig 5 and triglycerides Control group 129 3 mg dl to 125 6. mg dl Case group 128 9 mg dl to 120 3 mg dl also show a positive and better decrease than the control group as. shown in Fig 4 Apart from FBS Cholesterol Chol and Triglycerides Tgl HDL the good cholesterol also show. a good increase in the case group than the control group Control group 37 1 mg dl to 40 mg dl Case group 34 9. mg dl to 43 1 mg dl can be seen in Fig 3, Applying the simple paired t test using SPSS Software the following results were achieved. Table 1 2 The case and control group with the relative readings. Group Experiment Experiment Experiment Experiment Experiment. Case Chol Tgl LDL HDL FBS, Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post. Mean 154 90 146 03 128 93 120 33 95 70 96 63 34 9 43 1 186 2 109 9. S D 25 769 16 395 31 488 17 173 16 348 16 325 6 133 9 070 29 362 5 495. Paired T test 3 733 2 806 0 499 2 612 11 195,P value 0 001 0 009 0 622 0 014 0 000. Table Value at 0 05 df 29 2 05 2 05 2 05 2 05 2 05. Result Significant Significant Not Significant Significant Significant. Group Control Control Control Control Control,Control Chol Tgl LDL HDL FBS. Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post. Mean 167 93 163 83 129 33 125 60 113 37 115 37 37 1 40 163 119 20. S D 20 139 13 277 13 817 9 775 14 993 11 034 4 041 1 086 30 393 6 578. Paired T test 2 194 3 123 1 711 6 931 12 830,P value 0 036 0 004 0 098 0 000 0 000. Table Value at 0 05 df 29 2 05 2 05 2 05 2 05 2 05. Result Significant Significant Not Significant Significant Significant. NOTE S D Standard Deviation Significant Non Significant n 60 30 case 30 control. Chol Cholesterol Tgl Triglycerides LDL Low Density Lipoprotein HDL High Density Lipoprotein. Cheenam B and Leena P J Chem Pharm Res 2016 8 4 1211 1217. In table 1 Case group for cholesterol the p value comes out to be 0 001 0 05 for triglycerides it comes out to. be 0 009 0 05 for HDL 0 014 0 05 for FBS 0 00 0 05 making these values significant whereas in case of. LDL the p value comes out to be 0 622 0 05 hence making it insignificant. In table 2 Control group for cholesterol the p value comes out to be 0 036 0 05 for triglycerides it comes out to. be 0 004 0 05 for HDL 0 00 0 05 for FBS 0 00 0 05 making these values significant whereas in case of. LDL the p value comes out to be 0 098 0 05 hence making it insignificant. DISCUSSION, As per the results the sunflower seeds have proved to show a positive and a better effect in reducing the FBS levels. in patients with Diabetes type 2 along with a good increase in HDL good cholesterol Just half a spoon of. sunflower seeds every day provides the recommended level of proteins vitamins minerals and phenolic anti. oxidants Further as already discussed sunflower seeds are rich in chlorogenic acid The chlorogenic acid helps in. controlling the blood sugar levels by reducing or limiting the glycogen breakdown which takes place in the liver. Hence leads to a good control of the blood sugar levels in the patients with Diabetes type 2 6. Amongst other studies Flax seeds were used to find out their effectiveness to control the blood sugar levels Brining. to use a randomized crossover design nine glucose intolerant obese people were told to consume 40 g ground. flaxseed every day for around 12 weeks 84 days with a 4 week washout period The study s results weakly. supported the decrease in insulin resistance due to the antioxidant activity of flaxseed 9. The effect of fenugreek was studied on the RBS Random Blood Sugar or the postprandial glucose. and insulin levels following the MTT Meal Tolerance Test in non insulin dependent diabetics NIDDM The. powdered fenugreek seed around 15gm was soaked in water and given It was significantly found to reduce the. respective postprandial glucose levels The fenugreek was also found to lower the plasma insulin level in NIDDM. but without a statistical difference Fenugreek did not show a very good effect on lipid levels 3 hrs post the. MTT Fenugreek proved to propagate a potential benefit in the treatment of NIDDM 10. In the above studies flax seeds do not show a good effect whereas fenugreek seeds do show a good effect but only. on the blood glucose levels but does not show good effect in consideration to the heart health Also fenugreek seeds. used in the study is about 15gm per day which is much higher that the quantity of sunflower seeds shown in the. present study 2gm, Sunflower seeds have about 3 grams of fiber and 5 grams of protein in an ounce of kernels apart from the other. benefits 7 Thus a small amount of sunflower seeds taken on a regular basis say being added on top of salads in. the vegetable mixtures in oats or other cereals or can be taken as it is as a health snack in moderation This would. help the masses in better control of their blood sugar levels and maintain their heart health too by maintaining the. level of HDL in the blood,CONCLUSION, The crunchy nutty and delicious sunflower seeds are highly considered to be a great health food They are energy. dense seeds 100 g seeds provide about 584 calories Along with this they are phenomenal source of health. benefiting antioxidants minerals vitamins and nutrients Sunflower Seeds with a mild nutty taste and a wide range. of the above mentioned nutrients can serve as a filling as well as a nutritious food With respect to the gathered. results in the study sunflower seeds can be recommended as a great household and a natural remedy to render. control over the blood sugar levels in patients with diabetes type 2 Also it leads to a good increase in HDL good. cholesterol levels which help maintain the heart health in people. 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