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44 Indian Naval Strategy in the 21st Century James R Holmes Andrew C Winner and Toshi Yoshihara 45 Seapower A Guide for the Twenty First Century Second Edition Geoffrey Till 46 Naval Power and Expeditionary Warfare Peripheral Campaigns and New Theatres of Naval Warfare Edited by Bruce Elleman and S C M Paine 47 Sea Power and the Asia Pacific
Maritime Diplomacy in the,21st Century, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. This book aims to redefine maritime diplomacy for the modern era. Maritime diplomacy encompasses a spectrum of activities from co operative. measures such as port visits exercises and humanitarian assistance to persuasive. deployment and coercion It is an activity no longer confined to just navies but. in the modern era is pursued by coastguards civilian vessels and non state. groups As states such as China and India develop they are increasingly using. this most flexible form of soft and hard power, Maritime Diplomacy in the 21st Century describes and analyses the concept. of maritime diplomacy which has been largely neglected in academic literature. The use of such diplomacy can be interesting not just for the parochial effects of. any activity but because any event can reflect changes in the international order. while acting as an excellent gauge for the existence and severity of international. tension Further maritime diplomacy can act as a valve through which any. tension can be released without resort to conflict Written in an accessible but. authoritative style this book describes the continued use of coercion outside of. war by navies while also situating it more clearly within the various roles and. effects that maritime forces have in peacetime, This book will be of much interest to students of seapower naval history. strategic studies diplomacy and international relations. Christian Le Mi re is a senior fellow for naval forces and maritime security at. the International Institute for Strategic Studies London. Cass Series Naval Policy and History,Series Editor Geoffrey Till. ISSN 1366 9478, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. This series consists primarily of original manuscripts by research scholars in the. general area of naval policy and history without national or chronological lim. itations It will from time to time also include collections of important articles as. well as reprints of classic works, 1 Austro Hungarian Naval Policy 7 The Italian Navy and Fascist. 1904 1914 Expansionism 1935 1940,Milan N Vego Robert Mallett. 2 Far Flung Lines 8 The Merchant Marine and, Studies in Imperial Defence in International Affairs 1850 1950. Honour of Edited by Greg Kennedy,Donald Mackenzie Schurman. Edited by Keith Neilson and 9 Naval Strategy in Northeast Asia. Greg Kennedy Geo strategic Goals Policies and,3 Maritime Strategy and Duk Ki Kim. Continental Wars, Rear Admiral Raja Menon 10 Naval Policy and Strategy in the. Mediterranean Sea,4 The Royal Navy and Past Present and Future. German Naval Disarmament Edited by John B Hattendorf. Chris Madsen 11 Stalin s Ocean going Fleet,Soviet Naval Strategy and. 5 Naval Strategy and Operations Shipbuilding Programmes. in Narrow Seas 1935 1953,Milan N Vego J rgen Rohwer and. Mikhail S Monakov,6 The Pen and Ink Sailor, Charles Middleton and the King s 12 Imperial Defence 1868 1887. Navy 1778 1813 Donald Mackenzie Schurman,John E Talbott edited by John Beeler. 13 Technology and Naval Combat 22 Royal Navy Strategy in the Far. in the Twentieth Century and East 1919 1939,Beyond Planning for a War against Japan. Edited by Phillips Payson O Brien Andrew Field,14 The Royal Navy and Nuclear 23 Seapower. Weapons A Guide for the Twenty first,Richard Moore Century. Geoffrey Till,15 The Royal Navy and the, Capital Ship in the Interwar 24 Britain s Economic Blockade of. Period Germany 1914 1919, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. An Operational Perspective Eric W Osborne,Joseph Moretz. 25 A Life of Admiral of the Fleet,16 Chinese Grand Strategy and Andrew Cunningham. Maritime Power A Twentieth Century Naval Leader,Thomas M Kane Michael Simpson. 17 Britain s Anti submarine 26 Navies in Northern Waters. Capability 1919 1939 1721 2000,George Franklin Edited by Rolf Hobson and. Tom Kristiansen,18 Britain France and the Naval,Arms Trade in the Baltic 27 German Naval Strategy. 1919 1939 1856 1888,Grand Strategy and Failure Forerunners to Tirpitz. Donald Stoker David Olivier, 19 Naval Mutinies of the Twentieth 28 British Naval Strategy East of. Century Suez 1900 2000, An International Perspective Influences and Actions. Edited by Christopher Bell and Edited by Greg Kennedy. Bruce Elleman,29 The Rise and Fall of the Soviet,20 The Road to Oran Navy in the Baltic 1921 1940. Anglo French Naval Relations Gunnar Aselius,September 1939 July 1940. David Brown 30 The Royal Navy 1930 1990,Innovation and Defence. 21 The Secret War against Sweden Edited by Richard Harding. US and British Submarine, Deception and Political Control in 31 The Royal Navy and Maritime. the 1980s Power in the Twentieth Century,Ola Tunander Edited by Ian Speller. 32 Dreadnought Gunnery and the 41 Naval Coalition Warfare. Battle of Jutland From the Napoleonic War to, The Question of Fire Control Operation Iraqi Freedom. John Brooks Edited by Bruce A Elleman and,S C M Paine. 33 Greek Naval Strategy and,Policy 1910 1919 42 Operational Warfare at Sea. Zisis Fotakis Theory and Practice,Milan Vego,34 Naval Blockades and Seapower. Strategies and Counter Strategies 43 Naval Peacekeeping and. 1805 2005 Humanitarian Operations, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. Edited by Bruce A Elleman and Stability from the Sea. Sarah C M Paine Edited by James J Wirtz and,Jeffrey A Larsen. 35 The Pacific Campaign in World,War II 44 Indian Naval Strategy in the. From Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal 21st Century,William Bruce Johnson James R Holmes. Andrew C Winner and,36 Anti Submarine Warfare in Toshi Yoshihara. World War I,British Naval Aviation and the 45 Seapower. Defeat of the U Boats A Guide for the Twenty First. John J Abbatiello Century Second Edition,Geoffrey Till. 37 The Royal Navy and Anti, Submarine Warfare 1944 49 46 Naval Power and Expeditionary. Malcolm Llewellyn Jones Warfare,Peripheral Campaigns and New. 38 The Development of British Theatres of Naval Warfare. Naval Thinking Edited by Bruce Elleman and,Essays in Memory of Bryan Ranft S C M Paine. Edited by Geoffrey Till,47 Sea Power and the Asia Pacific. 39 Educating the Royal Navy The Triumph of Neptune. 18th and 19th Century Education Edited by Geoffrey Till and. for Officers Patrick Bratton,H W Dickinson,48 Maritime Private Security. 40 Chinese Naval Strategy in the Market Responses to Piracy. 21st Century Terrorism and Waterborne, The Turn to Mahan Security Risks in the 21st Century. James R Holmes and Edited by Claude Berube and,Toshi Yoshihara Patrick Cullen. 49 Twenty First Century 52 Naval Modernisation in,Seapower South East Asia. Cooperation and Conflict at Sea Nature Causes and Consequences. Edited by Peter Dutton Edited by Geoffrey Till and. Robert S Ross and ystein Tunsj Jane Chan,53 Empire Technology and. 50 Navies of South East Asia,A Comparative Study,Royal Navy Crisis in the Age of. James Goldrick and,Palmerston,Jack McCaffrie,Howard J Fuller. 51 Seapower 54 Maritime Diplomacy in the, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. A Guide for the Twenty First 21st Century,Century Third Edition Drivers and Challenges. Geoffrey Till Christian Le Mi re, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. This page intentionally left blank,Maritime Diplomacy in the. 21st Century,Drivers and Challenges, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. Christian Le Mi re,First published 2014,by Routledge. 2 Park Square Milton Park Abingdon Oxon OX14 4RN,and by Routledge. 711 Third Avenue New York NY 10017, Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor Francis Group an informa business. 2014 Christian Le Mi re, The right of Christian Le Mi re to be identified as author of this work has. been asserted by him in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the. Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988, All rights reserved No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or. Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. utilised in any form or by any electronic mechanical or other means now. known or hereafter invented including photocopying and recording or in. any information storage or retrieval system without permission in writing. from the publishers, Trademark notice Product or corporate names may be trademarks or. registered trademarks and are used only for identification and explanation. without intent to infringe,British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data. A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. LeMiere Christian, Maritime diplomacy in the 21st century Christian LeMiere. pages cm Cass series naval policy and history ISSN 1366 9478. Includes bibliographical references and index,V25 L47 2014. 359 03 dc23 2013045028,ISBN 978 0 415 82800 0 hbk,ISBN 978 0 203 55559 0 ebk. Typeset in Times New Roman,by Wearset Ltd Boldon Tyne and Wear. Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. List of figures x,List of tables xi,Acknowledgements xii. Introduction 1,1 Defining maritime diplomacy 6,2 Paragunboat diplomacy 30. 3 Categories and properties of maritime diplomacy 48. 4 The utility of maritime diplomacy 66,5 Contemporary drivers of maritime diplomacy 83. 6 Maritime diplomacy and game theory 103,Conclusion 119. Appendix case study East Asian maritime diplomacy in. the twenty first century 126,Bibliography 139, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. 1 1 Forms of co operative maritime diplomacy and its goals 9. 3 1 Visualising the Panther to Agadir 61,3 2 The Baltic patrol and the Panther compared 62. 3 3 US intervention in Taiwan and Exercise Dawn Blitz compared 64. 5 1 Global armed conflicts by type 1946 2012 94,6 1 Sequential modelling of a crisis 113. 6 2 The 1973 Mediterranean stand off modelled sequentially 114. 6 3 The 2013 Syrian crisis modelled sequentially 115. C 1 The seapower diamond maritime forces and their roles. mapped 122,A 1 The 2009 Impeccable incident visualised 129. A 2 The 2012 Scarborough Shoal stand off sequentially mapped 132. A 3 The 2010 Chinese trawler incident sequentially mapped 133. Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. 1 1 The political application of naval power a typology according. to Edward Luttwak 22, 1 2 Defining maritime diplomacy in relation to other definitions 26. 6 1 The Prisoners Dilemma 105,6 2 The Stag Hunt Game 106. 6 3 The Hedging Game 106,6 4 The Stand off Game 107. 6 5 The Beckham or Stravinsky Game 109,6 6 The Exercises Game 109. A 1 The 2012 Scarborough Shoal stand off pay off matrix 131. Acknowledgements, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. It is impossible to quantify the effects certain individuals have on the planning. and creation of a book Whether it be guidance direct intervention or just general. support it is inevitable that a task that at times appeared to be a lonely indi. vidual chore was nevertheless reliant on a number of people who offered guid. ance encouragement or support, The initial idea was given credence by conversations several years ago with. Professor Geoffrey Till that renowned maritime scholar whose advice is always. sage Yet its evolution into a broader and more accessible topic owed much to. the input of the team at Routledge particularly Andrew Humphrys the senior. editor of military strategic and security studies Equally the development of the. topic was assisted by earlier drafts of articles on the topics of gunboat diplomacy. and paramilitary development edited by individuals at the International Institute. for Strategic Studies particularly the ever vigilant Dr Jeffrey Mazo. Unsurprisingly much support has been provided over a longer timescale by. my parents and family who have afforded me the confidence education and. liberty to pursue projects such as this one, However the greatest share of the burden has undoubtedly been borne by my. wife Melissa Gronlund Tolerating my anti social work schedules providing. much needed moral support at times and wielding a red pen like the profes. sional she is her input has been invaluable Truly without her this would not. have been possible,Introduction, Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. The navy has always been an instrument of the policy of states an important aid. to diplomacy in peacetime,Admiral of the Soviet Fleet Sergei Gorshkov 19791. Gunboat diplomacy is a term that seems most suited to a bygone era The phrase. conjures up images of European warships sitting askance off the coast of a. developing country occasionally bombarding coastal forts in order to exact. recompense It seems to be a quasi oxymoronic term used by powerful states to. veil their bullying imperial tactics in an era when military inequality and insuf. ficient international law allowed brazen acts of intimidation This seems increas. ingly irrelevant as the unipolarity of the 1990s and early 2000s is ceding ground. to a progressively more multipolar world meaning that the former victims of. imperialism particularly in Asia are now able to deal with their erstwhile colo. nial rulers, Yet gunboat diplomacy is not an activity or an idea confined to history. Gunboat diplomacy has been used by both developed and developing countries. in recent years It maintains its relevance through its utility gunboat diplomacy. is a pursuit that allows actors to coerce others while avoiding large scale conflict. and its attendant costs, Recent examples abound In December 2011 and January 2012 Iran held the. Velayat 90 naval exercises which showcased a variety of naval capabilities. from anti ship missiles to submarines The stated intent of the exercises was to. demonstrate and therefore implicitly threaten an ability to close the Strait of. Hormuz the world s most important maritime chokepoint Just days later the. USS Abraham Lincoln one of the world s largest warships sailed through the. strait flanked by American cruisers and destroyers while a British and a French. frigate also accompanied her The transit was part of a routine rotation of a US. aircraft carrier in the Persian Gulf but the international flavour of the flotilla was. a strong message of unity among the Western allies in the face of overt Iranian. Given the rise of powers in the region it is unsurprising that East Asia has. been a particular crucible for recent gunboat diplomacy The most obvious recent. 2 Introduction, examples have involved another US aircraft carrier the USS George Washing. ton which in July 2010 participated in the Invincible Spirit exercises in the East. Sea Sea of Japan Organised in response to the sinking of the Cheonan a South. Korean corvette in March of that year the exercises were performed to demon. strate to North Korea Washington s resolve in and capabilities to support Seoul. The same carrier was used in November 2010 in joint exercises in the Yellow. Sea with South Korea announced a day after North Korea shelled Yeongpyeong. Island with a similar goal in mind 3, In fact gunboat diplomacy has never disappeared even in post imperial. times Amid the apparent certainty of the bipolar Cold War world when the. Soviet Union and the US acted as restraints on each other s and other states. actions gunboat diplomacy was used by actors as diverse as the Korean People s. Downloaded by University of Defence at 20 29 19 May 2016. Navy and the Royal Navy, It is true however that gunboat diplomacy seems a phrase unsuited to the. 21st century with its drones missiles and satellites In the modern era of guided. missile frigates and destroyers the very term gunboat seems anachronistic and. hence the concept outdated While the activity persists therefore the misnomer. of gunboat diplomacy is ripe for updating and redefinition. That is the primary goal of this book to describe better the continued use of. coercion outside of war by navies while also situating it more clearly within the. various roles and effects that maritime forces have in peacetime The main thesis. is that gunboat diplomacy is now just a subset of a much wider group of operations. short of war undertaken by navies which can usefully be defined as maritime. diplomacy This wider classification expounded in Chapter 1 would include a. spectrum of activities from those co operative maritime diplomatic activities. such as port calls joint exercises and training through persuasive maritime diplo. matic activities such as naval presence roles to coercive maritime diplomatic. activities which would incorporate the historical term gunboat diplomacy. Readers may already be confused by the use of two separate but seemingly. similar terms namely naval and maritime As Chapter 2 will suggest the. term maritime diplomacy is used rather than naval diplomacy as there are a. variety of non military agencies that can have similar diplomatic effects to those. traditionally reserved for navies Indeed maritime constabulary or paramilitary. agencies have in certain areas of the world become the primary agents for. effecting diplomacy at sea rather than the more confrontational navies. What this new definition does is recognise that a range of maritime activities. have an intended or unintended diplomatic effect It essentially highlights a grey. area between war and politics that is filled by diplomacy undertaken by state run. security services, This suggests that the Clausewitzian description of war as a continuation of. policy by other means is too broad as military operations other than war such. as those described in this book are clearly also policy through the use of other. means Eminent German lawyer and theorist Wolfgang G Friedmann has already. suggested such a state by claiming that there could be a state of intermediacy. between peace and war characterised by hostility between the opposing.