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Combined eat and Poer Resource Guide 4 Introduction Introduction to Combined Heat and Power CHP What is CHP Combined heat and power CHP also known as
Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide,Introduction to CHP 4. Permit Guide 10,Planning Resources 14,Contact Directory 16. Financing Incentives 19,Appendix 22,IUB Informational Guide for On Site Generation. Midwest CHP TAP Market Analysis Summary for Iowa,CHP Case Studies. This document was developed with grant funds provided by the. U S Department of Energy,Table of Contents 3,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. Introduction to Combined Heat and Power CHP,What is CHP. Combined heat and power CHP also known as cogeneration is the simultaneous production of electricity and. heat from a single fuel source such as natural gas biomass biogas coal waste heat or oil The two most. common CHP system configurations are,Gas turbine or engine with heat recovery unit. Steam boiler with steam turbine, See www energy gov eere amo combined heat and power basics for additional information. Why Should Facilities Consider CHP, For facilities with favorable conditions for CHP the efficiency of producing electricity and thermal energy from. the same source can be significantly higher than producing them separately See illustration below. TRADITIONAL CHP,SYSTEM SYSTEM,Power Plant ELECTRICITY. Boiler HEAT,50 Efficiency 75 Efficiency, This greater efficiency can translate into lower operating costs and decreased levels of emissions In some. circumstances CHP may also offer increased reliability and reductions in congestion and losses on the. transmission and distribution systems,Is My Facility a Good CHP Candidate. In order for a facility to be a good candidate for CHP it must have a need for electricity and thermal energy that. occurs simultaneously as both will be produced from the same source. 4 Introduction,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. Thermal energy applications may include steam hot water chilled water hot air or other similar uses. CHP may be beneficial for many types of facilities The following types of Iowa businesses have been identified. as having the potential for economical CHP installations. Industrial manufacturers chemical refining ethanol pulp and paper food processing lumber and. wood rubber and plastics primary and fabricated metals machinery and computer equipment and. transportation equipment, Institutions colleges and universities hospitals and prisons. Commercial buildings hotels and casinos large office buildings nursing homes food stores and. restaurants data centers and other retail establishments. Municipal Governmental wastewater treatment facilities and office buildings. Residential multi family housing, Any business that has an ongoing need for both electricity and thermal energy may be a good candidate. however even if not specifically part of the identified list. Other factors that favor consideration of CHP include. the number of hours your facility is in operation more than 5 000 year is beneficial. the importance of energy to your business, relatively high costs of electricity at least 0 07 kWh despite implementation of energy efficiency measures. the importance of high levels of reliability to your business. plans for significant changes to your central plant or other significant construction project within 3 5 years. a desire to limit the impact of your facility on the environment. adequate available square footage at the facility to incorporate a CHP installation. the amount and quality of steam needed by your business if applicable. How Long Will CHP Evaluation and Project Development Take. The timeline below shows the steps involved in CHP evaluation and development and gives an estimate of. the time required for each Information regarding the permitting process and associated time requirements is. presented in the next section of this guide,Development. Screening Feasibility Investment Grade 3 30 months. Analysis Study Analysis depending on,30 minutes 4 6 weeks 1 4 Months system. complexity,Introduction 5,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. What Do I Need for Further Evaluation, A next step to take to determine if a more detailed CHP feasibility study may be beneficial is to undertake. a CHP qualification screening analysis A screening analysis provides a first analysis to determine the initial. economic viability of a CHP project This type of analysis is a first cut screening for CHP economic viability at. a specific site It is based on a simple spark spread analysis and utilizes minimal site information Typically. the operating cost of a CHP system at your site including fuel maintenance and credit for displaced thermal. energy is estimated assuming performance characteristics of a typical CHP system and prevailing fuel price. assumptions for the specified site location Qualitative information is also factored in to determine if the site is a. potential candidate for CHP Complimentary resources are available through the U S EPA CHP Partnership and. the U S DOE CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships to complete these types of analyses. Information that is typically needed to complete a screening analysis includes. Type of business of the facility, Average monthly electricity usage kWh or average electric demand kW. Monthly heating load or fuel use MMBTu or average thermal demand MMBTU hr. Number of hours the facility operates in a year,Average fuel price MMBTu. Average all in electric price kWh check with utility to review tariffs as a change in load factor may impact. rate structure,Existing thermal equipment efficiency. Specifics on the two federal tools for screening are as follows. US EPA CHP Partnership Spark Spread Estimator, The US EPA CHP Partnership seeks to reduce the environmental impacts of electric power generation by. promoting the use of CHP The Spark Spread Estimator calculates the difference between the delivered. electricity price and the total cost to generate power with a prospective CHP system The Estimator will help. individuals evaluate a prospective CHP system for its potential economic feasibility The Excel model can be. downloaded free of charge from the EPA s website below under Resources inset on the right hand side of the. www epa gov chp project development stage1 html, While actual values are preferable for all information the estimator will use default values for information not. readily available Electricity and natural gas usage and cost can be obtained from the local utility ies The. results of the spark spread estimator will provide an indication of the potential savings from CHP The estimator. will also identify the best technology for use in a CHP application at your facility. 6 Introduction,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. U S DOE Midwest CHP Technical Assistance Partnership CHP Screening Site Qualification. The U S DOE Midwest CHP Technical Assistance Partnership CHP TAP assists regional businesses and. communities reduce their energy costs improve efficiency and strengthen their energy resiliency and reliability. through the use of CHP The Midwest CHP TAP is one of seven regional CHP TAPs formed by the U S. Department of Energy to promote and assist in transforming the market for CHP throughout the United States. The Midwest CHP TAP provides unbiased fuel neutral and technology neutral resources and expertise to help. industrial commercial federal institutional and other large energy users consider and evaluate CHP for their. facilities The Midwest CHP TAP assists facilities through the project development process from initial CHP. screening to project installation, The Midwest CHP TAP provides complimentary analyses that are first cut screenings for CHP economic viability. at a specific site The analysis is based on a simple spark spread analysis and utilizes minimal site information. The operating cost of a CHP system at your site including fuel maintenance and credit for displaced thermal. energy is estimated assuming performance characteristics of a typical CHP system and prevailing fuel price. assumptions for your site location Qualitative information is also factored in to determine if your site is a. potential candidate for CHP, To begin this process please visit the Midwest CHP Technical Assistance Partnership at. www midwestchptap org or call 312 355 3476,What If My Screening Analysis Looks Good. If the results of the screening analysis indicate that CHP may be beneficial for a facility the next step is a. feasibility analysis using more detailed site specific information Feasibility studies can be completed through. the following entities, 1 Completing a high level feasibility analysis can be contracted out to an engineering firm developer and or. consultant These contacts are listed in the contact directory section of this Guide. 2 The US EPA CHP Partnership maintains a partner s list which includes supporters of CHP such as federal. state and local government agencies and private organizations such as energy users energy service. companies CHP project developers and consultants and equipment manufacturers. www epa gov chp aboutus partners html, 3 The Midwest CHP TAP can provide direct assistance in completing feasibility analyses. www midwestchptap org support AssistanceScope pdf, Your local utility may also be a resource for funding a CHP feasibility study. Introduction 7,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. Information and Data Needed for a Feasibility Study. A list of data items needed for a feasibility study has been compiled by the TAP and can be downloaded at. www midwestchptap org support documents Walkthrough Checklist pdf. The feasibility analysis is based on utility bills from the previous year information on daily and seasonal electric. and thermal load profiles and insights into site specific issues such as expansion plans or power reliability. problems that may factor into CHP system selection or sizing Different CHP technology or system options. may be evaluated with budgetary pricing and economic analysis developed for each option The results of the. analysis provide a sense of the estimated economic operational reliability energy security and other benefits. that CHP might offer your facility, Additional information you may need to complete this study includes. Hourly electric loads, Electric interconnection requirements contact your utility for details. MidAmerican Energy interconnection requirements can be referenced at. www midamericanenergy com rates7 aspx,Alliant requirements can be referenced at. www alliantenergy com sellmypower, Iowa Utilities Board rules regarding utility interconnection standards can be found at. www legis iowa gov docs ACO chapter 199 45 pdf, For members served by a municipal utility or rural electric cooperative contact the utility Contact. information is provided on your most recent electric bill statement. Electric tariff for current electric rate electric standby supplemental service tariff and rate for utility purchase. of excess energy,MidAmerican Iowa electric tariffs can be found at. www midamericanenergy com rates1 aspx,Alliant Energy tariffs can be found at. www alliantenergy com rates, For members served by a municipal utility or rural electric cooperative contact the utility Contact. information is provided on your most recent electric bill statement. Environmental permitting requirements further detail provided within this guide. Available utility rebates design assistance further detail provided within this guide. 8 Introduction,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. Where Do I Go for an Investment Grade Analysis, If the feasibility study indicates CHP would be beneficial the next step is to commission an investment grade. analysis This will require assistance from an engineering design firm The contact directory section of this. guide can provide assistance in finding an engineering design firm in Iowa and the Midwest with CHP expertise. The EPA also maintains a partner s list which includes supporters of CHP such as federal state and local. government agencies and private organizations such as energy users energy service companies CHP project. developers and consultants and equipment manufacturers. www epa gov chp aboutus partners html, The Midwest CHP TAP can provide unbiased technical third party reviews of vendor proposals and. investment grade analyses,www midwestchptap org support AssistanceScope pdf. The resources directory of this guide provides links to additional documents and websites of interest when. evaluating the role of CHP in a facility,Introduction 9. Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide,Siting and General Permits. CHP projects may require the following permits and approvals from local agencies before. constructing a CHP system, City or County Planning Department check with local agencies for regulations or guidelines. on noise setbacks zoning and land use, State or Local Building and Fire Departments check with local agencies regarding project. design fire safety electrical and structural requirements. Definitions related to permits are found at the end of this seciton. Air Quality Permits, Any project that includes construction of a new facility or modification of an existing facility which. emits air contaminants requires authorization from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. DNR Construction Permits Section Permits and approvals are affected by project size. and complexity location technology infrastructure modifications and environmental impacts. Allow a minimum of 60 days for standard projects and six months for Prevention of Significant. Deterioration permits For projects located in Linn and Polk counties construction permits are. administered by local air program requirements and fees apply. Figure 1 depicts the steps for an applicant in the construction permit process while Figure 2. outlines the review process the DNR follows for permit applications The forms required for a. construction permit application are found at the DNR website The forms required will depend on. the system specifications but will typically include. Facilities Information form,Emissions Unit form one per unit such as boiler. Stack Vent Information form,Emissions Calculations form. Emissions Inventory form,Control Equipment form if applicable. Dispersion Modeling information,Iowa Department of Natural Resources. www iowadnr gov InsideDNR RegulatoryAir ConstructionPermits aspx. Construction Permitting helpline toll free at 1 877 AIR IOWA 1 877 247 4692. Polk County Air Quality Division,www polkcountyiowa gov airquality. 515 286 3705, Linn County Public Health Department Air Quality Division. www linncleanair org,319 892 6000,10 Permit Guide,Air Quality Bureau Permitting Requirements. for Combined Heat and Power Projects,Facility Prepare Submit. Standard Permit Ongoing,Finalizes Construction to DNR Requirements. Application Issued,Plans Permit, Equipment size Standard application forms Allow 60 days for Testing. burner capacity from web site standard projects Monitoring. electrical capacity www iowadnr gov InsideDNR Refer to DNR process Reporting. steam capacity, RegulatoryAir ConstructionPermits map for review steps. solid coal biomass,liquid diesel veg oil,gaseous natural gas. Purpose Prepare,Permit Guide,electricity generation Prevention of. steam generation Significant Pre Application Submit Permit Ongoing. drying Deterioration Meeting to DNR Issued Requirements. PSD permit,Any piece of,equipment or control,equipment that emits. any regulated, pollutant constructed Minor or new source Application forms Allow 6 months for Testing. modified exceed PSD standards and PSD checklist PSD projects Monitoring. Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide, re constructed or Existing major sources from web site Reporting. altered after Sept 23 with significant,1970 is required to emissions increase. obtain a construction,Air Quality Bureau Permitting Requirements. for Combined Heat and Power Projects,Air Quality Determine. Possible Possible,Bureau Major Minor,Federal State. Begins Source,Rules Rules,Review Status, A Interact with applicant A Boilers A PM standards 100 250 tpy level. during review NSPS Da Db Dc NESHAP 5U 5D 6J 0 1 gr dscf. B Interact with dispersion B Turbine 0 2 lb mmBtu Minor sources take synthetic. modeling section to NSPS GG KKKK NESHAP YYYY 0 6 lb mmBtu minor limits. assure NAAQS C Engines B SO2 standards, compliance NSPS 4I 4J NESHAP ZZZZ solid fuels 6 lb mmBtu Major sources check for. D Cement Kilns liquid fuel 2 5 lb mmBtu significant. NSPS F NESHAP LLL gaseous fuels 500 ppm increases,Permit Guide. Develop Determine Finalize,Operating Testing Permits. Limits Requirements,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. Hours of operation One time test Review draft permits. with facility,Fuel limitations Periodic tests,Issue permits when. Pollution control Continuous emissions differences resolved. requirements monitoring CEM,Material sampling,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. Definitions, Major Title V Source A facility that emits or has the potential to emit one hundred tons or more of a. regulated pollutant per year, Minor Title V Source A facility that has the potential to emit of less than one hundred tons per year of. a regulated pollutant, PSD Project Prevention of Significant Deterioration A project for major sources when emission. increases exceed the levels in 40 CFR 52 21 b 23 i A PSD project imposes limitations beyond the. typical construction permits, Major PSD Source A facility that has the potential to emit of more than two hundred fifty tons per year. of a regulated pollutant or one hundred tons per year if one of the 28 named source categories listed in. 40 CFR 52 21 b 1 i a, Minor PSD Source A facility that has the potential to emit of less than two hundred fifty tons per year. of a regulated pollutant or one hundred tons per year if one of the 28 named source categories listed in. 40 CFR 52 21 b 1 i a, Potential to Emit The maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical. and operational design, Single Source The collection of pollutant emitting activities located on contiguous or adjacent. properties which belong to the same industrial grouping and under common control. Second Party Ownership An emission unit owned or operated by an individual located on the. property of a second individual, Operational Limitations Limitations in a federally enforceable permit on a unit s throughput hours of. operation material usage or other factors that limit the potential to emit. Certified Engine A Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine RICE certified to meet the applicable. NSPS IIII or NSPS JJJJ standards The engine should have a certificate of conformity from the EPA. Waste Heat to Power Waste Heat to Power WHP is the process of capturing heat discarded by. an existing industrial process and using that heat to generate power The process is termed a bottom. cycling system in which fuel is burned to provide thermal input to a furnace or other industrial process. and heat rejected from the process is then used to produce electricity. Combined Heat and Power CHP Combined Heat and Power also known as cogeneration. refers to the simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from a single fuel source CHP. systems can be configured either as a topping or a bottoming cycle In a typical topping cycle system. fuel is burned in a prime mover to generate electricity Energy normally lost is the prime mover s hot. exhaust and cooling systems is instead recovered to provide heat A bottoming cycle system is known. as Waste Heat Recovery see definition of Waste Heat Recovery for system detail. Exemption from Permitting Exemptions from the requirement to obtain a construction permit are. located in 567 IAC 22 1 2 An exemption does not relieve the owner from meeting any applicable. emission standards,Permit Guide 13,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. General CHP Information and Resources, EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership The EPA Combined Heat and Power CHP Partnership. provides resources about CHP technologies incentives emission profiles and other information on its website. www epa gov chp, U S Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy CHP Deployment. Resources The Advanced Manufacturing Office s CHP Deployment Program provides stakeholders with. the resources necessary to identify CHP market opportunities and support implementation of CHP systems in. industrial federal commercial institutional and other applications. www energy gov eere amo chp deployment, Midwest CHP TAPs The Department of Energy s CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships TAPs promote and. assist in transforming the market for CHP waste heat to power and district energy with CHP throughout the. United States The Midwest Center is located with the Energy Resources Center at the University of Illinois at. www midwestchptap org,CHP Project Development, CHP Project Development Handbook Prepared by the EPA Combined Heat and Power Partnership this. document was developed to assist energy users design install and operate CHP systems at their facilities. www epa gov chp documents chp handbook pdf,CHP Project Profiles. The U S DOE CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships have published a series of project profiles of existing. CHP projects A searchable database is located at the U S DOE EERE webpage. www1 eere energy gov manufacturing distributedenergy chp database. U S DOE CHP Installation Database, The DOE CHP Installation Database is a data collection effort sponsored by the U S Department of Energy and. maintained by ICF International The database contains a comprehensive listing of combined heat and power. installations throughout the country ICF tracks installations of all sizes from large industrial systems that are. hundreds of megawatts in size to small commercial microturbine and fuel cell systems that are tens of kilowatts. The database is updated on an annual basis and is composed of information from a variety sources including. the seven DOE CHP Technical Assistance Partnerships CHP TAPs the Energy Information Administration. EIA the EPA CHP Partnership utility lists incentive program data CHP developers and equipment suppliers. industry periodicals and news releases,doe icfwebservices com chpdb. CHP as a Reliability Asset, Guides to enable CHP as an alternative source of power for critical infrastructure during emergencies. 14 Planning Resources,Combined Heat and Power Resource Guide. Guide to Using Combined Heat and Power for Enhancing Reliability and Resiliency in Buildings. www energy gov sites prod files 2013 11 f4 chp for reliability guidance pdf. Combined Heat and Power Enabling Resilient Energy Infrastructure for Critical Facilities. www energy gov sites prod files 2013 11 f4 chp critical facilities pdf. CHP Environmental Considerations, The CHP Emissions Calculator is a Microsoft Excel based tool that calculates and compares the estimated. air pollutant emissions of a CHP system and comparable separate heat and power. www epa gov chp basic calculator html,Planning Resources 15.