Combined Heat and Power CHP Systems Guide

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Installing Natural Gas fueled Combined Heat and Power CHP Systems A Guide to Required Permits Inspections and Available Incentive Programs for Property Owners and

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Commissioner s Welcome 2,Property Owners,I What Is CHP 3. II How Do I Decide if CHP is Right for My Building 4. Construction Industry,III CHP Installation Process 7. IV Gas Connection Application Approval and Inspection 8. V Con Edison Electric Interconnections 10, VI New York City Department of Buildings Permit Applications and Inspections 12. Reciprocating Engines,Microturbines, Special Requirements for High Pressure Gas Service. VII New York City Fire Department Permit Applications 16. Capacity of 500 kW and Less,Capacity Greater than 500 kW.
ew York City Department of Environmental Protection. Permit Applications and Inspections 19,Air Permits. Environmental Quality Review,IX Installation Inspection and Sign Off 20. DOB Inspection,Gas Activation,DOB Final Inspection. Fire Permanent Permit Sign Off,Con Edison Electrical InterconnectionTesting. Commissioner s Welcome,December 2010,Dear Fellow New Yorker.
The Department of Buildings is helping make New York City a national leader in sustainability. We re committed to improving the energy efficiency of buildings since they generate 75 of our. City s greenhouse gas emissions By focusing on small and large buildings and new and existing. construction we re making it easier for the real estate industry and homeowners to go green. Property owners homeowners the industry and the Department can do this together The Depart. ment s Buildings Sustainability Board determines which new green products and materials are safe. and what safety improvements are needed to bring them to New York City We are also working with. utility companies and coordinating our efforts with the NYC Fire Department and NYC Department. of Environmental Protection to make it easier to embrace green technologies including combined. heat and power systems, This guide to installing CHP systems is just one tool we re providing to make going green easier. Together we can make New York a greener greater City for us and for generations to come. Robert D LiMandri,Commissioner,New York City Department of Buildings. build safe live safe 2,Property OwnerS,I What Is CHP. Generators heat up when they produce electricity Combined heat and power or CHP systems. can capture this heat and use it to regulate a building s temperature or heat water This can save. money by cutting the amount of energy needed from a utility company CHP systems also improve. our environment by lowering the demand on New York City s electrical grid helping local power. plants be more efficient and reducing our carbon emissions. While CHP systems may use any kind of fuel or renewable source this guide addresses turbines. and reciprocating engines that use natural gas to generate electricity Turbines and reciprocating. engines capture waste heat but they generate electricity differently A mechanical engineer skilled. in CHP systems can recommend the appropriate system type for your building. This guide provides a summary of the requirements to install a CHP system Please refer to the New. York City Construction Codes the New York City Fire Code and the rules and regulations of the New. York City Department of Environmental Protection for complete information and consult with a. New York State licensed professional engineer with expertise in CHP systems. Combined Heat and Power Systems, CHP energy is much more efficient than non renewable power sources. 80 fuel efficiency,20 of energy is lost through flue and radiation.
Engine or Turbine,Heat Exchanger Generator, 50 of the energy is converted to heat 30 of the energy is. for hot water furnace or steam converted to electricity. DISCLAIMER This is a guidance document for the convenience of the public It does not substitute for any applicable. laws rules or regulations and information in it regarding procedures is subject to change without notice. build safe live safe 3,Property OwnerS, II How Do I Decide if CHP is Right for My Building. Not all of the energy in the fuel used by a turbine or engine provides power to drive the generator. Much of the fuel energy becomes heat It s radiated off the engine is lost or must be taken out of. the engine to protect the equipment This is called waste heat Systems that can use waste heat are. referred to as combined heat and power CHP systems otherwise known as cogeneration systems. This guide addresses two types of cogeneration systems turbines and reciprocating engines. The percentage of fuel that can be converted into energy is the simple cycle efficiency of the system. Depending upon the type and size the simple cycle efficiency of a turbine or engine converting. natural gas to electricity can range from 15 to 45 When the waste heat is put to use the system. cycle efficiency can reach 80,Acquiring a Cogeneration System. If your building requires heat and electricity simultaneously then a cogeneration system could be. a wise investment The Department of Buildings highly recommends that any building owner retain the. services of an independent third party NYS licensed and registered professional engineer with expertise. in cogeneration systems to evaluate any product and the building s site specific conditions The profes. sional engineer can aid in determining the appropriate system for your building and can guide the. building owner through the permitting process and utility interconnection. The selection process for a cogeneration system will depend upon the size of the facility and the. capabilities of the organization that will own and operate it The consumer has many options. Pre engineered factory manufactured Purchased or,Custom designed for the site Leased. Here are a few preliminary considerations to get you started. The current CHP systems available provide the greatest benefit to buildings with electric bills higher. than 100 000 per year and where the CHP system will run continuously This can help you determine. the appropriate size and type of system CHP system sizes are measured in terms of kilowatts kW of. electricity produced,Efficiency, You should consider how much you would use the heat produced by the cogeneration system The.
more the heat will be used the better the candidate for CHP When determining this only contem. plate the heat that s produced by the generation of electricity If your building will use less than half. of the heat that the CHP system will generate cogeneration may not be practical For the fastest. return on investment a good general rule is to size the CHP system according to your typical electric. and thermal consumption Your building s energy use should at minimum meet the CHP system s. minimum output of thermal and electric energy,build safe live safe 4. Property OwnerS, CHP equipment comes in various shapes and sizes so some makes or models could be more appro. priate than others for your building Determine whether adequate space is available to house the. equipment and provide supply air for combustion Plus you must comply with the New York City. Building Code and Zoning Resolution which may limit the location of mechanical equipment CHP. systems also include external components including gas lines and meters entering the system. electrical lines and equipment exiting the system vents and other distribution for the heat and. stacks to carry away waste products of combustion These components are not necessarily confined. to one room within a building,Type of CHP System, An owner has the option of installing an inductive also called asynchronous or a synchronous. system Inductive generators use the power grid to excite them and they operate while the grid is. active These systems stop working if there s a blackout An inductive generator is easier to intercon. nect and operate in parallel with the grid A synchronous system self excites and starts on its own. These don t require the electric grid to operate and will work during a blackout Synchronous paral. leling installations may be permitted for installation by the electric utility but the interconnection. may present greater challenges in being approved by the utility Consult with the local utility before. proceeding with any grid interconnection,Fuel Source and Pressure. This guide only addresses CHP systems that utilize natural gas as the fuel source Some cogenera. tion systems require elevated gas pressure to operate efficiently Different zones within the City. are supplied with different pressures and different City agencies have varying standards for what. constitutes high pressure Consult with your local natural gas utility to determine the appropriate. system for your facility It is recommended that you do not purchase any CHP equipment until a. complete evaluation has been made The infrastructure investment required to deliver adequate. volumes of natural gas to your building may make a CHP system impractical. Maintenance, Most small cogeneration facilities do not require continuous on site supervision but all CHP facili.
ties require maintenance Much of the maintenance can be contracted through the engine vendors. There will be easy but important minor maintenance required through the life of the equip. ment such as oil and filter changes You must consider the maintenance cost when analyzing the. economic feasibility of installing a CHP system,build safe live safe 5. Property OwnerS,How Can I Offset the Costs, Numerous incentive programs are available for owners who install and operate certain types of CHP. systems Utility companies and public sector groups offer these incentives The following informa. tion is a sample of CHP incentive programs though be sure to contact these organizations directly. for the most up to date information,Con Edison,Incentive rate gas Rider H rate. Ability to participate in Targeted Economic and Emergency Demand Side Management and. Energy Efficiency Programs, Specifications under development for participation in NYISO Ancillary Markets. Net metering extended to CHP and Fuel Cells under 10kW for residential customers. Visit www coned com dg incentive programs incentivePrograms asp for more information. National Grid, To learn more about National Grid s energy efficiency programs please visit their website at.
http www2 nationalgridus com pshome energy index ny kedny jsp for homes and. http www2 nationalgridus com psbusiness energy index ny kedny jsp for businesses. New York State Energy Research and Development Authority NYSERDA. Numerous CHP programs address specific needs at various points in the process from before. installation and through the equipment s maturity A detailed list of current programs is available at. http www nyserda org funding funding asp, Many of NYSERDA s programs cover more than one category of project NYSERDA currently supports. the following five project categories, 1 Development projects to assess the viability of new technologies and business plans. 2 Demonstration projects to select promising technologies for in field testing. 3 Deployment projects to accelerate the adoption of proven technologies. 4 Feasibility studies for site specific evaluations and. 5 Technology Transfer Studies to provide market intelligence to a broader audience. Visit www nyserda org programs dgchp asp for more information. Federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit, The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act allows taxpayers eligible for the federal renewable. electricity production tax credit PTC to take the federal business energy investment tax credit ITC. Those eligible for the PTC or ITC can receive a grant from the US Treasury Department instead of taking. the tax credit for new installations The credit is equal to 10 of expenditures Eligible property includes. Up to a two megawatt MW capacity with an electricity only generation efficiency of 26 or higher and. Up to a 50 MW capacity that exceeds 60 energy efficiency. Use the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency at. http www dsireusa org incentives incentive cfm Incentive Code US02F. build safe live safe 6,Construction Industry,III The CHP Installation Process. Installation of the CHP unit must satisfy, DEP DOB and FDNY permit and inspec Submit a gas connection application.
tion requirements The gas connection,Submit an electric. utility approval is up to the outlet of,interconnection application. the meter The electric utility will be,involved with the initial start up and. interconnection testing to ensure that,Secure all required permits from. the CHP equipment does not interfere,City agencies.
with the local grid,DOB Permit,Once you have received sign off for. permits from all agencies and the final FDNY Permit and Certificate of Fitness. inspection is completed the Build DEP Air Permit, ings Information System or BIS on Determine if a SEQRA CEQR analysis. the Department of Buildings website will also be required. will display the permit and will state,Testing phase completed and final. Install the unit according to approved plans,authorization for official start up of the. manufacturer s specifications and the utility,CHP unit installation.
company s inspections and standards,Have final inspections performed by the. City agencies,DOB Inspection Gas Inspection,FDNY Inspection Electric Inspection. build safe live safe 7,Construction Industry, IV Gas Connection Application Approval and Inspection. A dedicated connection to natural gas service may be necessary to operate a gas fired CHP system. Two companies provide this service in New York City Con Edison and National Grid Con Edison. provides natural gas to the Bronx Manhattan and Queens First Long Island City Astoria and Third. Flushing Bayside Wards National Grid serves the remaining Queens wards Brooklyn and Staten. Island If your building is located on the border of any Queens ward contact both utility companies. before proceeding,Con Edison, Con Edison s Energy Services website at www coned com es gives access to the resources necessary. to process requests for new additional removal or relocation of gas service provided by Con Edison. Customers can also access existing requests through the Project Center. Con Ed will assign a Customer Project Manager CPM to the application The CPM will act as the. single point of contact throughout the permit process You should expect the following steps. 1 Load Letter Submit a load letter to Con Edison Energy Services division. 2 Specifications Con Ed will inform the applicant of the required gas specifications to follow. for service, 3 Planning Group Meeting All parties involved should meet to discuss all construction aspects.
of the project Timelines and milestones should be set. 4 CPM Follow up CPM will follow up with the owner consultant and contractor with a complete. package so the project can be worked, 5 Gas Meter Authorization The CHP unit requires a dedicated gas connection line and a sepa. rate meter is necessary to apply for the Cogeneration Rate Use the Con Ed Rider H applica. tion A Department of Buildings gas authorization is required for all new gas meters. 6 Notification The utility must be notified prior to any CHP unit being bought or installed by a. building owner,build safe live safe 8,Construction Industry. National Grid, The customer shall submit a gas load letter for review and processing and it must detail the proposed. installation s manufacturer model number firing rate and required pressure The Gas Engineering. division will determine the impact of the proposed additional load on the National Grid system. and determine if it can be supplied by high pressure service low pressure service or low pressure. service with a booster, The contractor shall obtain all necessary permits and certifications A Department of Buildings gas. authorization is required for all new gas meters, All meter sets shall be located on the outside of any building unless it s impractical or unsafe They.
shall be installed following the clearance requirements indicated in the appropriate National Grid. Construction Standard, National Grid shall not be obligated to begin construction on the gas service or to supply gas to the. customer until the applicant, rovides all required permits to National Grid with proof of any necessary easements and or. rights of way, as an application that has been approved by proper officers or duly authorized representa. tives of National Grid,3 Makes all necessary payments and. 4 Provides a copy of the signed contract between the customer owner and the contractor. For information on National Grid s technical requirements engineers should check the section. of National Grid s website for Business Partners at. http www2 nationalgridus com partners index ny kedny jsp. They should also read National Grid s Blue Book Specifications and Requirements for Gas. Installations at www nationalgridus com bluebook,build safe live safe 9.
Construction Industry,V Con Edison Electric Interconnections. For most customers with a CHP system their monthly energy use will be reduced by the amount. of electricity generated and used CHP systems can also produce excess electrical energy that can. be sold back to the electric grid in a process called Distributed Generation DG Con Edison defines. a typical DG facility as a small electric production facility up to 20 megawatts that s dedicated. to support the customer s electric load It must conform to the utility company s standards when. connected to the utility s electric system, In limited cases electricity can be directed to the local electric grid with an electrical interconnection. To install an electrical interconnection Con Ed customers may apply through the Energy Services. portal at www coned com es Electrical interconnections should be filed as distributed generation. projects Gas and electrical connections require separate applications Visit Con Edison s distributed. generation website at www coned com dg for more information. Net Metering Account Credits, Customers who generate more electricity than they need may qualify for net energy metering or. net metering A net meter registers the difference between the electricity supplied by the utility. company and the electricity provided to the utility company so it will run in reverse when the CHP. equipment generates more power than the customer is using. With net metering monthly electric bills reflect the net or overall amount of electricity used or. supplied When customers generate more electricity for the utility company than what they take. during a billing period they ll receive a credit At the end of each year customers may be eligible for. a payment or credit The amount is based upon the wholesale rate at which the utility would have. otherwise purchased the energy See the eligibility details outlined in Rider R of the Electric Tariff. available at http www coned com dg,Installation Applications. Installing an interconnecting generation system up to 2 megawatts requires an additional appli. cation The PSC Standardized Interconnection Requirement SIR lays out the steps and expected. timelines It s available at http www dps state ny us Modified SIR July2010 Final pdf Applica. tions can be expedited for systems under 25 kilowatts NYPA customers must also apply for an inter. connection and the NYPA will determine the rate, The following is a list of items to be submitted with an interconnection application.
1 Authorization letter authorizing the contractor to represent the customer in the interconnection. 2 E quipment Detail Application Form found in the NYS Public Service Commission s Standard. ized Interconnections Requirements SIR or filled out through the Online Project Center. application process,build safe live safe 10,Construction Industry. 3 S tandardized Contract signed by the customer available in the NYS Public Service Commis. sion s Standardized Interconnections Requirements,4 Three Line Diagram attached to the application. 5 Copy of the manufacturer data sheets,6 Operations and Verification Test Procedures and. 7 Application fee which is waived for projects under 25 kilowatts. Application Approval Process, on Ed will review the application to determine if it s complete and meets the requirements. outlined in the Standardized Interconnections Requirements SIR and by the utility See. ost estimate for the Coordinated Electric System Interconnection Review CESIR typically. for projects over 300 kilowatts,a Applicant commits to CESIR.
b Utility completes CESIR, c Customer commits to company construction of power distribution system modifications. and construction of its own plant based on the final company approved design. 3 Customer generation facility is tested according to standardized interconnection requirements. 4 Interconnection and operation, 5 Final acceptance and company cost reconciliation. Please note that different protection requirements apply as spelled out in Con Ed s EO 2115. depending upon whether the generator is a synchronous an induction or has an inverter interface. Other Utility Companies, Electric customers in Far Rockaway Queens are serviced by the Long Island Power Authority. LIPA For more information on the programs offered by LIPA please visit their website at. http www lipower org,build safe live safe 11,Construction Industry. VI New York City Department of Buildings Permit Applications. The Department approves CHP applications issues permits for installation and inspects them before. operation All CHP installations must comply with New York City s Construction Codes Electrical. Code and Zoning Resolution Together these regulations cover fuel gas piping egress fire protec. tion fire detection electrical power and ventilation. The Department has different application and filing requirements for turbines and reciprocating. engines This section addresses the regulations for each of these types of CHPs A mechanical engi. neer skilled in CHP systems can recommend the appropriate type of system for your building. Reciprocating Engines, Reciprocating engines must comply with the NYC Mechanical Code Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 37.
except where the Codes are more restrictive, Application Submission The PW1 permit application must be filed with the Department of Build. ings Schedule C PW1C form for heating and combustion equipment and a plumbing permit for. gas service, Equipment Locations Reciprocating engines may be located outside of buildings or inside and. housed in fire resistance rated construction as per the separation requirements of Chapter 5 of the. NYC Building Code, Filings and Inspections The type of heat recovery system determines the filing and inspection. requirements, Low pressure Heat Recovery No other filing is needed. Heat Recovery Systems Employing Steam The system is deemed to be low pressure if the relief. valve is set at 15 psig or lower so no other filing is needed. Heat Recovery Systems Employing Hot Water The system is deemed to be low pressure if the. relief valve is set below 160 psig so no other filing is needed It is not necessary to file for a boiler. permit and conduct inspections for low pressure heat recovery devices though a plumbing. permit is still required, High pressure Boilers Water based heat recovery systems exceeding 160 psig limits are consid.
ered to be high pressure boilers These require 24 7 coverage by a licensed NYC high pressure. boiler operator When the CHP system is installed and ready to be put into service the DOB s. Boiler unit will inspect prior to operation If all requirements have been satisfied the inspector will. issue a boiler card for high pressure devices,build safe live safe 12. Construction Industry,Microturbines, Microturbines with a maximum capacity of 500 kilowatts per single unit must also comply with. 1 RCNY 50 01 available at http www nyc gov html dob downloads rules 1 RCNY 50 01 pdf. and NFPA 37 unless the Codes or Rules are more restrictive. Application Submission A New York State licensed professional engineer must submit the Depart. ment s PW1 form and construction documents to install a microturbine Design professionals may. not professionally certify a microturbine application. Service Contract At the time the Department approves the microturbine installation the property. owner must have a service contract from the microturbine manufacturer or a service company quali. fied by the manufacturer This contract must be in place during the life of the unit. Fire Alarm and Suppression Systems The CHP equipment room shall be fully sprinklered or have. an equivalent fire suppression system that is acceptable to DOB The Fire Department must also be. satisfied with the fire alarm system, Structural Analysis A registered professional engineer must evaluate the structural system that. will support the equipment including measures necessary to mitigate vibrations. Outdoor Locations Microturbines may be located outdoors on grade on a roof or setback or within. a weatherproof enclosure acceptable to the manufacturer. Minimum Clearance Requirements for All System Components. 4 feet from a wall or parapet,5 feet from any exhaust termination or chimney. 8 feet from any building opening including doors operable windows or intake openings. Minimum Clearances for Any System Located Outdoors on Grade. 50 feet from any subway entrance exit vent or other opening. 20 feet from any above ground flammable or combustible liquid storage tank. 10 feet from any lot line or 4 feet if in or adjacent to a Manufacturing zoning district. 5 feet from any vent or fill line of any flammable or combustible liquid storage tank. 5 feet from any motor vehicle parking space, Indoor Locations CHP equipment must be enclosed within a minimum 2 hour fire resistance.
rated enclosure and the room must be sprinklered The room must have ventilation gas detectors. and alarms These alarms must alert a location that is constantly attended and must trip the micro. turbine No combustible storage is permitted in the CHP equipment room A dedicated mechan. ical equipment penthouse housing the equipment shall be classified as Occupancy Group F 2 and. ventilated and no combustible materials may be stored there. build safe live safe 13,Construction Industry, Special Requirements for High Pressure Gas Service. Dedicated gas piping is required for a CHP system that uses high pressure gas This is to prevent. accidental tapping into an elevated pressure pipe that has other uses such as for domestic appli. ances that operate at a lower pressure and use a four inch water column. A single building may not have CHP systems with a total nominal electrical capacity at standard. ized operating conditions that exceeds 2 000 kilowatts The natural gas inlet pressure to the system. cannot exceed 3 psig but the pressure can be boosted to greater than 15 psig within the unit or. room enclosure DOB considers high pressure gas to mean pressure greater than 15 psig FDNY. considers high pressure gas to be greater than 6 psig. Low pressure Gas Boosters, Some systems that require more than the four inches of water inlet pressure must have a low. pressure gas booster to reach their necessary to 1 psig to operate In these cases this equip. ment will only require the types of controls and installation components needed for low pressure. gas boosters,External Compressors, The following requirements must be met for systems utilizing high pressure gas with an external. compressor, Solid welded joints Gas connections between the compressor and the CHP equipment must be. solid welded threaded joints are not permitted, Flame arrestor A flame arrestor must be installed upstream of the gas compressor to prevent.
flames traveling to the natural gas distribution lines. Limits to length of pipe The gas compressor and combustion device must be in the same room. and the gas piping that connects them shall not exceed 12 feet. Site specific approval External compressors must obtain a site specific approval from OTCR To. learn more about OTCR visit http www nyc gov html dob html forms forms otcr shtml. Gas Detector and Alarm The gas detector s alarm must sound at a supervised location on the. premises to alert people of any abnormal conditions in the system The detector must also trip the. Automatic Gas Shut off Valve An automatic shut off valve must be installed It must be activated. by a malfunction alarm from any component of the turbine system. Emergency Gas Shut off Valve A normally closed solenoid gas shut off valve is required It must. be located immediately after the equipment connection that provides dedicated service to the. valve This emergency gas shut off valve must have manual and remote controls outside the door s. to the CHP equipment room and at the on site supervised location Signs must clearly identify the. gas shut off valve and controls, Shut off Valves NYC Fuel Gas Code 409 requires that piping systems shall be provided A dedi. cated distribution pipe or a main gas shut off valve serving multiple gas systems is usually located. at the gas meter and must be protected from damage It must also be readily accessible allowing.

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