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Coastal and marine protected areas as key elements for tourism in small islands 463 as a nature reserve PICO 01 fig 2 and hostd protected habitats and species Protected areas in the coastal zone are divided in two categories a protected landscape of vineyard culture PICO 14 15 16 17

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462 Fonseca et al,SMARTPARKS Project,SMARTPARKS Project Planning and Management System. for Small Islands Protected Areas is a research project. coordinated by Azores University and funded by the Portuguese. Foundation for Science and Technology It attempts to facilitate. the development of sustainable protected areas based on an active. involvement of stakeholders economic and cultural activities. compatible with nature conservation and an innovative planning. and management scheme for protected areas at island scale Pico. Island Natural Park was selected as the case study due to its. singularity percentage of classified area diversity and. representativeness of protection categories It comprises Pico. Mountain highest point in Portugal 2 351 m important coastal. sections and the unique vineyard landscape classified as. UNESCO World Heritage Site, Involving stakeholders in planning and management brings. Figure 1 Azores Archipelago Source Centre of Geographic for the protection of the area greater public involvement in. Information Systems University of the Azores decision making and closer links between conservation and. development This promotes communication potentially leading to. the identification and resolution of problems Gil et al 2011. an Therefore stakeholders, area equal to or less than 10 000 km2 and 500 000 residents or less Natural Park was one of the ambitions of SMARTPARKS and the. Hess 1990 each of the Azorean islands is included in this methodological approach included public presentations interviews. classification the archipelago itself occupies only 2 330 km2 and and thematic workshops and surveys to residents and tourists. has just over 246 000 inhabitants Fonseca et al 2011 Stakeholders are individuals groups or. The environment is assumed to be a transverse pillar for all of communities likely to affect or to be affected by the management. Azorean of the protected area Alexander 2008 thus tourists were. Regional Government 2008a This assumption is confirmed by targeted by the project To better understand tourism activities and. the quantity 16 and diversity of current legal land based an exploratory survey was developed and. instruments with environmental and spatial incidence in the applied The objectives of such a survey were to identify the. Azores regulating and acting at the archipelagic island and reasons to choose Pico as a destination understand how tourists. municipal scale Gil et al 2012 Azores natural characteristics perceive the island and the existing offered tourism identify. linked with its rich historical architectural and cultural heritage preferred areas and activities and their relation with protected. provide opportunities for the development of tourism as an areas. economic activity of regional significance DROTRH IA 2001 This paper presents preliminary. Moniz 2009 Cruz et al 2011 In fact tourism in the Azores has highlighting the relevance of coastal areas and maritime tourist. grown since the mid 1990s and maritime and coastal recreational activities as an attractiveness factor and discussing the relation. activities are major tourist attractions namely whale watching and between protected areas and tourism in Pico Island. diving Bentz et al 2013 Calado et al 2011 Therefore the. local authorities based its Tourism Strategy on the high value of. nature landscape flag species whales and dolphins and outdoor. experiences hiking bicycling with a strong environmental. friendly label Azorean Regional Government 2008b Study area. Although part of the Macaronesia Biogeographic Region the Pico Island is the second largest in the archipelago with a total. Azores Archipelago presents distinctive characteristics in terms of surface of 445 km2 and 152 km of coastline length The main. climate and species composition due to a stronger influence of. northern European species Sundseth 2009 When compared to sustainability are linked with traditional value chains agriculture. other archipelagos of Macaronesia the diversity of terrestrial livestock fisheries and tourism The island has 14 144 inhabitants. species is relatively poor but the occurrence of endemism makes it 2011 and receives a similar number of tourists per year mostly. equally important for conservation Cardoso et al 2008 attracted by landscape natural and cultural values Pico Island. The regional network of protected areas includes 9 Island offers 40 tourist accommodation establishments from which 35. Natural Parks one for each island of the archipelago This scheme are classified as rural tourism and country houses There are 16. is the outcome of a reclassification process undertaken in 2007 in enterprises providing maritime tourist activities such as whale. which was applied the IUCN classification system As a result watching boat tours boat rental diving recreational fishing and. each island has a single park comprising several management windsurfing Despite the absence of sandy beaches bathing is also. units each of which is assigned with one of the following a significant attraction with 57 classified bathing areas. categories nature reserve natural monument protected area for Pico Island Natural Park is composed by 22 areas 4 classified. habitat species management protected landscape and protected as nature reserve one as natural monument 8 as protected area for. area for resources management Such classification seeks to habitat species management 6 as protected landscape and 3 as. highlight the link between the statutory level of a protected area protected area for resource management fig 2 The total. its natural and cultural values and required management actions protected area represents 35 of the island territory. Pico Mountain is a majestic landscape feature and major. tourism attraction especially for hiking enthusiasts It is classified. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue No 70 2014. Coastal and marine protected areas as key elements for tourism in small islands 463. PICO01 nature reserve of Montanha do Pico mountain PICO12 protected area for habitats species management of Ribeiras. PICO02 nature reserve of Caveiro PICO13 protected area for habitats species management of Zona do Morro. PICO03 nature reserve of Mist rio da Prainha PICO14 protected landscape of vineyard culture Ponta da Ilha. PICO04 nature reserve of Furnas de S Ant nio PICO15 protected landscape of vineyard culture Ponta do Mist rio. PICO05 natural monument of Gruta das Torres PICO16 protected landscape of vineyard culture northern area. PICO06 protected area for habitats species management of Lagoa do Caiado PICO17 protected landscape of vineyard culture S Mateus S Caetano. PICO07 protected area for habitats species management of Lajes do Pico PICO18 protected landscape of vineyard culture western area. PICO08 protected area for habitats species management of Furnas de S Ant nio PICO19 protected landscape of central area. PICO09 protected area for habitats species management of Silveira PICO20 protected area for resources management of Porto das Lajes. PICO10 protected area for habitats species management of Mist rio de S Jo o PICO21 protected area for resources management of Ponta da Ilha. PICO11 protected area for habitats species management of Terra Alta PICO22 protected area for resources management of Canal Faial Pico. Figure 2 Pico Island Natural Park Source Centre of Geographic Information Systems University of the Azores. as a nature reserve PICO 01 fig 2 and hostd protected habitats visited sites and activities ii perceptions and preferences. and species knowledge about the island positive and negative aspects and. Protected areas in the coastal zone are divided in two categories iii position towards protected areas. a protected landscape of vineyard culture PICO 14 15 16 17 This paper focuses on two first sections including the following. and 18 fig 2 and b protected areas for habitat species questions. management PICO 07 08 09 10 11 12 and 13 fig 2 The Q1. first group includes larger areas mainly concentrated in the Q2 Please indicate which activities have you done plan to do. western part of the island with well preserved structures of small during your vacations at Pico it was possible to select more than. walled vineyard fields Portuguese currais Some are classified one activity. as UNESCO World Heritage Site The second group comprises Q3 Please indicate on the map the areas you have. areas included in Natura 2000 network and some important bird visited plan to visit during your vacations at Pico. areas particularly relevant for protected seabirds such as Sterna Q4 What do you associate to Pico landscape. dougallii Sterna hirundo and Calonectris deomedea Q5 Which are the 3 places you like the most at Pico. The marine protected areas included in Pico Island Natural Park Q6 Which are the 3 places you dislike the most at Pico. PICO 20 21 and 22 fig 2 are near shore and contiguous to Q7 Please indicate the 3 most positive aspects of Pico. terrestrial protected areas and coincide with areas closed to Q8 Please indicate the 3 most negative aspects of Pico. limpets harvesting Q9 Which are the activities developed at Pico that you. consider positive and that you would like to see,Survey promoted protected. A total of 134 questionnaires were conducted during July 2011 Q10 Would you be willing to pay a fee to help to protect Pico. with national and international tourists visiting Pico Island The protected areas If yes that fee should be directly applied for the. following information was collected on respondents gender age protection of which areas or species. occupation and nationality The full questionnaire was composed Valid responses to Q5 and Q6 were classified as coastal or. of 22 questions taking around 20 minutes to complete It was inland locations considering the characteristics of Pico Island. divided into three main sections i information about the inland landscape is associated to higher altitudes usually more. respondent visit to the island motivation duration expenses than 400 meters. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue No 70 2014. 464 Fonseca et al,Sample characterization, The sample was composed of 73 males and 50 females 11.
persons have chosen not to answer belonging mostly to the age. group 45 54 years 27 and 25 34 24 6, As for occupation the majority was intellectual scientific. professionals 32 respondents associate professionals 18. respondents senior executives 16 respondents administrative. professionals 11 respondents and students 11 respondents. Regarding nationality 35 were national tourists and. international visitants were from different countries mostly. European with France slightly standing out 11 Table 1. Table 1 Distribution of respondents by their,nationality frequency and percentage. Nationality Frequency,American 1 1,Austrian 5 4,Belgian 8 6. Canadian 6 4 Figure 3 Recreational activities tourists enjoyed during their stay. Dutch 7 5 at Pico Q2,English 10 7,French 15 11, German 6 4 Activities considered positive and to be promoted Q9 were. Italian 8 6 mainly maritime tourist activities 20 1 handicraft and culture. Polish 3 2 17 2 and outdoor activities 13 4,Portuguese 47 35 Regarding.
Scottish 1 1 areas Q10 61 2 of the answers were positive Of these 27 6. Spanish 5 4 think the fee should be directed to the conservation of the vineyard. Swiss 5 4 culture landscape 20 9 to the mountain and 9 to the. Not responding 7 5 conservation of areas not yet classified as protected. Total 134 100,DISCUSSION, Results show that Pico Island is much appreciated for its. RESULTS landscape and natural values validating the Regional. Q1 mainly because of its landscape and natural values 21 6 Maritime tourist activities play an important role in Pico. maritime tourist activities 20 1 and peculiarity 14 9 attractiveness with a potential to increase since visitors think these. As for recreational activities during their stay Q2 tourists activities are positive and should be promoted Currently whale. indicated mainly visits to museums others cultural manifestations watching is the most significant of those activities but diving and. and events 63 pedestrian trails 59 bathing 57 bathing are also relevant Other popular activities such as. mountain climbing 45 and whale watching 44 fig 3 pedestrian trails and visits to museums fig 3 can be partially. Regarding the most visited areas Q3 34 3 of respondents linked with coastal and marine features A significant part of. indicated marine protected areas 45 5 the Pico Mountain PICO existing trails have coastal segments and the two most important. 01 55 2 the central plateau area PICO 19 66 4 the Lajes museums on the island alongside with the vineyard culture. village where most of the whale watching companies are located interpretation centre are related to the old whaling industry. 67 2 vineyard areas mainly PICO 16 and PICO 18 and 84 3 The relevance of the coastal zone in Pico Island can be. of respondents pointed protected areas other than those already explained by the typical territorial organization of an island with. mentioned volcanic origin and high altitude The combination of biophysical. The landscape of Pico Island Q4 was inevitably associated to structure climate and dependence on sea as a privileged route of. the mountain 40 3 and to other landscape and natural values communication contributes to concentrating human settlements. 34 3 along the coast and population tends to decrease with an elevation. Despite the relevance of the mountain most of the preferred of above 350 meters Azorean Regional Government 2008b. areas Q5 are largely coastal 60 The same applies to most Therefore it is natural that both preferred and problematic places. disliked places Q6 85 of responses are placed on the coast are pinpointed in the coastal zone this being the most used. When asked about Pico Island most positive aspects Q7 enjoyed and impacted area on the island. 73 1 of respondents indicated landscape and natural values Although coastal areas are highly valued and the sea is indicated. as one of the main positive aspects of the island Pico Mountain is. hospitality and 25 4 the sea As for negative aspects Q8 the a unique and imposing scenic feature attracting tourists inland. most mentioned were access and transports other than aerial This mountain sea contrast can be explored as complementary. transport 18 7 spatial planning and urban development tourism products based on a high environmental quality label. related issues 17 2 and environmental quality problems. Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue No 70 2014. Coastal and marine protected areas as key elements for tourism in small islands 465. But if the mountain maritime tourism LITERATURE CITED. activities should be promoted and diversified Birdwatching Alexander M 2008 Management planning for nature conservation a. industry should also be fostered mostly at coastal sites in order to theoretical basis and practical guide Dordrecht The Netherlands. establish synergies with further coastal based touristic activities Springer 426p. Azorean Regional Government 2008a, the Outermost Regions Achievements and Future Prospec. Communication COM 2007 507 Final Ponta Delgada Portugal. and the existing protected areas are expected to contribute highly. to its maintenance However with 35 of the isl Azorean Regional Government 2008b Plano Regional de Ordenamento. included in the Island Natural Park management can be a do Territ rio para a Regi o Aut noma dos A ores Regi o Aut noma. challenge both in terms of human and financial resources On the dos A ores Portugal in Portuguese. other hand tourism can have negative effects on protected areas Baldacchino G and Niles D Eds 2011 Island Futures Conservation. and biodiversity The implementation of a fee system can help and Development Across the Asia Pacific Region Tokyo Japan. finance protected areas and minimize environmental impacts of Springer 182 pp. visitors There are several examples worldwide where fee systems Bentz J Dearden P And Calado H 2013 Strategies for marine wildlife. tourism in small islands the case of the Azores In Conley D C. have been successfully implemented providing revenues for. protecting monitoring and restoring protected areas International Coastal Symposium Plymouth England Journal of. Steckenreuter Wolf 2013 However tourism related benefits Coastal Research Special Issue No 65 pp 874 879 ISSN 0749 0208. can generate socio economic inequalities if not properly shared Brockington D Duffy R and Igoe J 2008 Nature Unbound. among local communities accruing human conservation conflicts Conservation capitalism and the future of Protected Areas London. and increasing environmental impacts e g exceeding carrying UK Earthscan 249p. capacity etc Brockington et al 2008 Calado H Ng K Borges P Alves F and Sousa L 2011 Climate. With 61 2 of respondents declaring their willingness to pay a Change and Coastal Tourism in Azores Archipelago In Jones A J and. Phillips M eds Disappearing Destinations Climate Change and the. Future Challenges for Coastal Tourism UK and USA CAB Intl 296p. namely the Island Natural Park management board can explore Calado H Quintela A and Porteiro J 2007 Integrated Coastal Zone. suitable alternatives to implement such a fee including voluntary Management Strategies on Small Islands Journal of Coastal Research. tools SI 50 Proceedings of the 9th International Coastal Symposium 125. 129 Gold Coast Australia ISSN 0749 0208, Cardoso P Borges P A V Costa A C Cunha R T Gabriel R. CONCLUSION Frias Martins A M Silva L Homem N Martins M Rodrigues P. Tourism is expected to grow in the Azores in the next years Martins B and Mendon a E 2008 A perspectiva arquipel gica. drawn by the high environmental quality of its territory This is a A ores In Mart n J L Arechavaleta M Borges P A V and Faria B. key element for the development of these small islands Top 100 Las 100 especies amenazadas priorit rias de gesti n en la. counterbalancing their natural disadvantages regi n europea biogeogr fica de la Macaronesia Espanha Consijer a. Our study at Pico Island explores the role of protected areas in de Medio Ambiente y Ordenaci n Territorial Gobierno de Can rias pp. tourism attractiveness and highlights the contribution of coastal 421 449 in Portuguese. and marine areas and activities There is a clear potential for the Cruz A Benedicto J and Gil A 2011 Socio economic Benefits of. Natura 2000 in Azores Islands a case study approach on the ecosystem. growth of tourism on this island as well as in others islands with services provided by a Special Protected Area Journal of Coastal. similar characteristics but such potential must be carefully Research SI 64 Proceedings of the 11th International Coastal. exploited ensuring the maintenance of the natural and cultural Symposium 1955 1959 Szczecin Poland ISSN 0749 0208. heritage and the environmental quality and crucial elements of DROTRH IA 2001 Plano Regional da gua Relat rio T cnico Vers o. s attractiveness as a tourism destination To this end tourist para Consulta P blica Secretaria Regional do Ambiente Direc o. activities must be managed through an integrated approach Regional do Ordenamento do Territ rio e dos Recursos H dricos 414p. promoting diversity and complementarity Also the adequate in Portuguese. management of protected areas must be ensured in order to Emerton L Bishop J and Thomas L 2006 Sustainable Financing of. Protected Areas A global review of challenges and options Gland. guarantee the preservation of natural values Further studies Switzerland and Cambridge UK IUCN x 97p. should be conducted regarding carrying capacity and limits of Fonseca C Calado H Pereira da Silva C and Gil A 2011 New. acceptable change to determine the parameters which will allow approaches to environment conservation and sustainability in Small. the balance between conservation and enjoyment Islands The Project SMARTPARKS Journal of Coastal Research SI. By facing visitors as stakeholders in the management of 64 Proceedings of the 11th International Coastal Symposium 1970. protected areas SMARTPARKS Project gathered important 1974 Szczecin Poland ISSN 0749 0208. information for decision making agencies with respect to Gil A Fonseca C Lobo A and Calado H 2012 Linking GMES Space. problems to be addressed and their possible solutions through Component to the development of land policies in Outermost Regions. the Azores Portugal case study European Journal of Remote Sensing. tourism 45 263 281 DOI 10 5721 EuJRS20124524, Gil A Calado H Costa L T Bentz J Fonseca C Lobo A Verg lio M. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT and Benedicto J 2011 A Methodological Proposal for the. The authors want to express their gratitude to Andrea Zita Development of Natura 2000 Sites Management Plans Journal of. Coastal Research SI 64 Proceedings of the 11th International Coastal. Botelho Cl udia Gomes In s Carapinha Kiat Ng and Jos. Symposium 1326 1330 Szczecin Poland ISSN 0749 0208. Benedicto Royuela for their assistance during surveys Also thank Hess A L 1990 Overview Sustainable Development and Environmental. to Fernando Oliveira and Manuel Paulino da Costa as Directors of Management of Small Islands In W B P and Hein P eds. Pico Island Natural Park and Madalena Lajes do Pico and S Sustainable Development and Environmental Management of Small. Roque municipal councils for all their support to SMARTPARKS Islands Paris France UNESCO pp 3 14. At last the authors wish to acknowledge Kafyri A Hovardas T and Poirazidis K 2012 Determinants of Visitor. Pro Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands Is. funding Project PTDC AAC AMB 098786 2008 Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas Environmental. Management 50 64 76, Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue No 70 2014.
466 Fonseca et al, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 Ecosystems and human well. being current state and trends Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Series vol 1 Washington DC USA Island Press, Moniz A 2009 A sustentabilidade do turismo em ilhas de pequena. dimens o o caso dos A ores Ponta Delgada Centro de Estudos de. Economia Aplicada do Atl ntico in Portuguese, Rietbergen S Hammond T Sayegh C Hesselink F and Mooney K. 2007 Island voices island choices Developing strategies for living. with rapid ecosystem change in small islands Gland Switzerland. Schubert S F Brida J G and Risso W A 2011 The impacts of. international tourism demand on economic growth of small economies. dependent on tourism Tourism Management 32 377 385. Seetanah B 2011 Assessing the dynamic economic impact of tourism for. island economies Annals of Tourism Research 38 1 291 308. Steckenreuter A and Wolf I D 2013 How to use persuasive. communication to encourage visitors to pay park user fees Tourism. Management 37 58 70, Sundseth K 2009 Natura 2000 in the Macaronesian Region European. Commission Environment Directorate General Luxembourg Office. for Official Publications of the European Communities 12p. Tisdell C and Wilson C 2012 Nature based Tourism and. Conservation New Economic Insights and Case Studies UK and USA. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited 520p, Journal of Coastal Research Special Issue No 70 2014.

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