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Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable plants in the world In its wild state it is a tiny bitter root with little appeal as a food but years of human cultivation and domestication with a helping hand from nature has made it an extremely versatile vegetable appearing in several colors shapes and sizes Although cultivated for over 2000 years and originally used only as a
Carrot History and Iconography,John Stolarczyk and Jules Janick. erratic growth The purple red pigment based, Carrot is one of the most important root vegetable plants in the world In its wild state it is a tiny on anthocyanins turns brown upon cooking. bitter root with little appeal as a food but years of human cultivation and domestication with and stains hands and cookware. a helping hand from nature has made it an extremely versatile vegetable appearing in several The Western group evolved later and has un. colors shapes and sizes Although cultivated for over 2000 years and originally used only as a branched carotenoid pigmented roots that. medicinal plant the domestic carrot Daucus carota var sativus Apiaceae or Umbelliferae re are yellow orange or red and occasionally. mains an important world crop with production expanding rapidly in Asia Current world annual white The strongly dissected leaves are bright. production is 27 million tonnes the leading producing countries China Russia and USA pro yellowish green and slightly hairy Plants re. duce 45 of World output FAO 2008 The swollen taproots are eaten both raw and cooked in quire extended exposure to low temperatures. sweet and savoury dishes and it is known for its high beta carotene content which the body con before bolting The centre of diversity for the. verts to Vitamin A It also forms a major ingredient in the food processing industry a signi cant western carrot is the Anatolian region of Asia. constituent of cosmetic products and its image has long been used to symbolize healthy eating Minor Turkey and Iran Vavilov 1926 1951. The leaves are also consumed in salads and the seeds made into an herbal tea Orange carrots found in wild germplasm could. suggest a Turkish origin Simon 2000 These,orange types displaced the purple forms in Eu. ORIGINS have been found dating from Mesolithic times rope and the Mediterranean by the 17th cen. approximately 10 000 years ago Different tury through human preference and selection. The domestic carrot is a cool season biennial forms of wild carrot usually recognized as D and formed the basis of modern commercial. plant that grows a rosette of leaves in the spring carota var carota have small spindle shaped cultivars around the world mainly because of. and summer while building up the stout tap whitish slender roots that are aromatic and their superior taste versatility and nutritional. root which stores large amounts of carbohy acrid with a disagreeable taste In some coun value Thus the Asia Minor Mediterranean. drates for the plant to ower in the second year tries it is considered a weed Wild carrot and do basin Turkey and temperate Europe regions. The owering stem grows to about 1 m tall mesticated carrot continue to grow side by side have been considered a secondary center of ori. with an umbel of white owers The roots are in the modern world It is a popular myth that gin for carrot and the majority of modern com. greatly enlarged and sweet with good storage domestic carrot was developed directly from mercial cultivars belong to this group. ability Predominantly a temperate climate plant wild carrot probably because of its similar odor The yellow orange color of western carrots is. the carrot is also cultivated in tropical and sub leaf pattern and growth characteristics Bota caused by the plastid bound pigment caroten. tropical regions especially at high elevations nists have failed to develop an edible vegetable oids carotene and xanthophyll White carrots. Originally wild in many parts of Europe and from the wild carrot and when the garden car contain only traces of pigment mainly carotene. Asia it was rst domesticated in Afghanistan rot reverts to an ancestral wild type it is quite and xanthophyll Ladizinsky 1998 The yellow. considered to be the primary center of diversity distinct from the wild form and white types probably originated by muta. and from there spread over Europe the Medi,tion Purple carrots contain anthocyanins a. terranean and Asia with Turkey recognised as The Domesticated Carrot powerful antioxidant whilst red contain lyco. a second center of diversity During this spread, Almost ve thousand years ago carrots were pene good for eye health and also found in. across the world it introgressed with local wild, rst cultivated in the Iranian Plateau Afghani tomato Rubatzky et al 1999. types some of which have existed since pre, historic times stan Pakistan and Iran and then in the Persian The modern carrot appears to derive from a. Empire Brothwell and Brothwell 1969 Color combination of mutation and selection from a. Although fossil pollen of the Apiaceae has and avor were the primary selection criteria complex gene pool These involve yellow rooted. been identi ed from the Eocene period 55 to for domestication Root color changed signi eastern carrots cultivated white rooted deriva. 34 million years ago the wide distribution of cantly over the domestication period Wild car tives of wild carrot grown as medicinal plants. wild carrot the absence of carrot root remains rots are white or pale yellow while purple or since classical times and wild unselected popu. in archaeological excavations and the scarcity, yellow were the rst colors of domesticates The lations from Europe and the Mediterranean. of documentary evidence make it dif cult to, domesticated types were divided into two sub Banga 1957a b 1963a b Heywood 1983. determine precisely where when and how car, groups Eastern Asiatic Group var altorubens Orange carrots probably arrived from mutations. rot domestication was initiated Cultivation of, and Western Group var sativus as described by of yellow forms and then from human selec. carrot in ancient times is still much disputed, Vavilov 1926 1951 tion commonly thought to be originated in the. mainly because the wild carrot also known as, The Eastern Asiatic group the original domes Netherlands. Queen Anne s Lace inter crosses freely with the, cultivated carrot Seeds of wild and early do ticates have anthocyanin pigmented roots. mesticated carrot were used medicinally in the purple pink or orangey yellow that are often HISTORY AND ICONOGRAPHY. Mediterranean region before they were used as branched with pubescent slightly dissected. a root vegetable leaves that give the plant leaves a grey green One of the problems in unravelling the ancient. appearance Plants are prone to early owering history of carrot is that there is confusion be. The center of diversity was the Himalayan Hindu tween parsnip and carrot Hedrick 1919 The. Wild Carrot Kush region Kashmir Afghanistan and around distinction between the two was nally clari ed. Wild carrot is indigenous to Europe Northern Turkestan Mackevic 1929 Heywood 1983 when Linnaeus published Species Plantarum. Africa and parts of western Asia and seeds The purple types have poor storage quality and in 1753 creating scienti c nomenclature He. CHRONICA HORTICULTURAE VOL 51 NUMBER 2 2011 13, called carrots Daucus carota combining Greek Crete Daucus creticus or Athamanta cretensis Figure 1 Carrot or parsnip from a wall. and Latin names and parsnips Pastinaca sativa the next best being the produce of Achaia and painting in a Roman tavern in Ostia. of all dry localities It resembles fennel in ap Caseggiato del Termopolio early 2nd. century CE http www ostia antica org, Antiquity pearance only that its leaves are whiter more. regio1 2 2 5 htm, The Greeks refer to wild carrot as keras sta diminutive and hairy on the surface The stem. phylinos agrios and daukos and early forms of is upright and a foot in length and the root has. carrot began to be cultivated in the last few cen a remarkably pleasant taste and smell This kind. turies BCE Dalby 2003 Carrot karo was rst grows in stony localities with a southern aspect. mentioned in the third century BCE by Diphilus The inferior sorts are found growing every. of Siphnos Theophrastus 371 287 BCE in En where upon declivities for instance and in the. quiry into Plants IX 15 states that daukon grows hedges of elds but always in a rich soil The. in Arcadia and is saffron colored Hort 1926 It leaves are like those of coriander the stem be. seems clear that the Greeks were aware of car ing a cubit in length the heads round often. rot wild carrot and parsnips three or more in number and the root ligneous. Wild carrot was reported as a medicinal plant in and good for nothing when dry The seed of this. the gardens of ancient Rome where it was used kind is like that of cumin while that of the rst. as an aphrodisiac and in some cases as part of kind bears a resemblance to millet in all cases it. a concoction to prevent poisoning In fact the is white acrid hot and odoriferous The seed of. root of the wild carrot was less t to be eaten, seeds of wild carrot contain estrogen and in the second kind has more active properties than. than the domestic one Grant 2000 Dalby, some cultures are used as an effective method that of the rst for which reason it should be. of contraception Archaeobotanists using DNA used more sparingly. This name for the garden carrot is found rst in, analysis have found Roman made pills recov If it is considered really desirable to recognize. the Roman writings of Athenaeus in 200 and, ered from a 130 BCE shipwreck that appear to a third variety of the daucus there is a plant. in a book on cookery by Apicius Czclius in 230, contain carrot Fleischer et al 2010 of this nature very similar to the staphylinos. in which 3 recipes speci cally include carrot, The famous herbal Peri Ylis Iatrikis latinized as known as the pastinaca erratica with an ob. One in particular draws interest as it is entitled. Materia Medica written in Greek about 65 CE by long seed and a sweet root Quadrupeds will. Carotae seu pastinacae suggesting that it is, Pedanius Dioscorides a Roman army physician touch none of these plants either in winter. a recipe for carrots with parsnip as a substitute, from Anazabos Cilicia now Turkey describes or in summer except indeed after abortion. Apicius was a gourmet and always tried to in, staphylinos which bears umbellae of white The seed of the various kinds is used with the. clude the best ingredients So here he is perhaps, owers which are purple or red in the middle exception of that of Crete in which case it is. suggesting that carrot is preferred to parsnip, Beck 2005 This characteristic can only apply the root that is employed this root being par. ticularly useful for the stings of serpents The An alphabetical recension of the Materia Medi. to carrot as parsnip has yellow owers Both, proper dose is one drachma taken in wine It is ca of Dioscorides was illustrated in 512 Juliana. wild agrios and cultivated hemeros forms are, administered also to cattle when stung by those Anicia Codex for presentation to Juliana Ani. discussed The wild plant was thought to ward, reptiles Bostock 1855 XXV 64 cia the daughter of Emperor Anicius Olybrius. off reptiles aid in conception act as a diuretic,A facsimile of this herbal with commentary by. aphrodisiac and even as an abortifacient when In speaking of the medicinal virtue he adds the. Otto Mazel has been published Der Wiener, used as a vaginal suppository pessary The cul cultivated form has the same as the wild kind. Dioskurides 1998 1999 This most famous, tivated carrot was described as more edible but though the latter is more powerful especially. herbal illustrates cultivated and wild carrots Fig. less medicinally effective when grown in stony places Pliny called its. 2 Figure 2A the rst clear depictions of an, Interestingly there is also a reference to daukos root pasticana gallica food for Gauls Pliny. orange carrot is labelled Staphylinos Keras or, called Cretan in which both the seed and root speaks of four kinds of wild carrot daucus. cultivated carrot and portrays a deeply orange, draw out the menstrual period foetus and some of which grow everywhere on earthy hills. straight root with rosette of leaves that looks, urine relieve colic allay chronic coughs come and cross paths having leaves like those of co. very close to our modern carrot Figure 2B la, to the aid of people bitten by poisonous spiders riander a stem a cubit high and round heads. belled Staphylinos Agrios wild carrot shows a, when drunk with wine and disperse swellings Among other vegetables that Syria produces plant in ower with slenderer orange roots Fig. The Cretan carrot is a related plant Athamanta Pliny refers to one very similar to the sta ure 2C labelled Gingidion shows a owering. cretensis sometimes called candy carrot Candie phylinos and known to some persons as gin plant with an extremely ne yellow root and has. was the ancient name for Crete Dioscorides gidion wild or French carrot only that it is been identi ed as Daucus gingidium Elaphobo. also refers to a plant he called elaphoboscon more slender than the staphylinos and more bit scom parsnip is illustrated separately. that had umbellae with yellow owers No other ter though it has just the same properties Eaten. umbelliferous plant has yellow owers and an either raw or boiled it is very bene cial to the Medieval. esculent root except parsnip The white sweet stomach as it entirely absorbs all humours with. In 795 King Charlemagne included carrots in, edible root is described at about three ngers which it may happen to be surcharged Bostock. the list of plants recommended for cultivation, long and a nger thick with stalk and is used 1855 XX 16. in the Frankish empire covering western and, as a vegetable when fresh Thus Dioscorides There is an intriguing wall painting of a food central Europe Fox 1933 Throughout the. clearly distinguishes carrot from parsnip scene in the Roman tavern in Ostia Caseggiato Dark Ages and early Middle Ages carrots and. At about the same time the Roman historian del Termopolio built in the Trajanic Hadrianic parsnips were the main starchy vegetables for. Pliny the Elder 23 79 in Historia Naturalis writ period 98 138 Fig 1 that closely resembles ordinary people in Europe as they were easy to. ten in the year 77 refers to a plant grown in carrot or parsnip If this is so it is the rst known grow and store and a very welcome food to eat. Syria resembling a parsnip called gallicam in depiction of one of these root vegetables from during the lean winter months In the Geoponi. Italy and daucon in Greece any period ca a 20 volume work compiled during the 10th. Petronius Diodotus has distinguished four Galen 2nd century CE was the rst to use the century in Constantinople for the Byzantine em. kinds of daucus which it would be useless here words daucus and carota to distinguish carrot peror Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus daucon. to describe the varieties being in reality but two from parsnip pastinaca Galen con rms that is named among kitchen vegetables Colored. in number The most esteemed kind is that of carota was cultivated when he wrote that the illustrations of carrot do not appear again until. Figure 2 Cultivated and wild carrots from the Juliana Anicia Codex of 512 A Staphylinos Keras the cultivated carrot B Staphylinos Agrios the. wild carrot but appears to be a primitive type of cultivated carrot C Gingidion the wild carrot Daucus gingidium. the 11th century but as typical of early medi roots Fig 3A The script indicated that the century carrots were reported in Spain followed. eval images are very crude yet nevertheless Greeks called it sta limagriam others called by Italy in the 13th and France Germany Hol. quite accurate Fig 3 it giger or eggon the Romans called it udon land and England by the 14th century. Towards the end of the Dark Ages purple red aulion the Carthaginians called it siccansade The discovery of a large quantity of what ap. and yellow carrots were reintroduced to Europe the Calabria Italy called it pastinaca silvatica pear to be processed carrot roots was found in. from Central Asia by the Arabs Around 950 Ibn The text states It grows in stony places and the main market square in Krakow Poland in. Sayya r al Warra q of Baghdad produced a cook mounds for women who suffer at childbirth an organic layer dated to the 14th century Mu. book the most comprehensive work of its kind and are not purged With Herba pastinaca eller Bienik 2010 The exquisitely illustrated. with more than 600 recipes that included red cooked together with the same water in which manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis a. orange yellow or white carrot jazar Harvey it was cooked you take 30 peppercorns mix to medieval handbook on wellness commissioned. 1992 These were cultivated in Persia in 900 gether and give to drink she will be purged The by northern Italian nobility during the last dec. Iran and northern Arabia and the Middle East same recipe as written above also works against ades of the 14th century contains images of. in the 10th century in Syria about the 11th cen toothache Two manuscripts Ashmole 1462 plants called pastinace but some of them are. tury and in Europe about 1100 Banga 1957a labelled Pastinaca Silvatica Fig 3B a yellow or obviously carrot Fig 4. 1963a Carrots were valued for their sugar ange root and Ashmole 1431 labelled Pastinaca. content and sweet dishes like jam syrups and Fig 3C a darker red root contain essentially Herbals. desserts and became part of traditional English the same text The advent of printing in the 15th century and. cookery during this medieval period Arab traders and Moorish invaders brought car the technology of the woodblock print had an. The late 11th century witnessed an intriguing rots to the Northern Mediterranean while at enormous in uence on books about plants The. manuscript Bodlean 130 Herbal of Pseudo the same time carrots travelled eastwards along 15th and16th centuries the age of explora. Apuleius which illustrates carrot root leaves the caravan routes and the Silk Road Davidson tion and the beginnings of scienti c inquiry. and ower quite accurately with yellow orange 1999 Grigson 1974 Dalby 2003 By the 12th saw an unprecedented demand for the printed. Figure 3 Orange and reddish carrots from C,11th century manuscripts A Herba pasti. naca Pseudo Apuleius Dioscorides from,Bury St Edmonds England B Pastinaca. Silvatica Bodlean Image Ashmole 1462,C Pastinaca Bodlean Image MS Ashmole. CHRONICA HORTICULTURAE VOL 51 NUMBER 2 2011 15, Figure 4 Peasant digging carrots from Plantes Gerard uses the English name carrot Figure 7 Purple and pale yellow car. the Tacuinum Sanitatis Roma 4182 1380 but in Latin calls it Pastinaca P sativa var tenui rots in Vegetable Market 1655 1665. 1400 The long thin roots either purple folia the yellow carrot and P sativa atro rubens Nicholaas Maes Dutch Rijksmuseum. or light yellow intermingled in the fore Amsterdam. the red carrot He distinguishes parsnips from,ground row and in the harvested pile. clearly represent carrot The Latin text,carrots calling the former P latifolia sativa and. reports that pastinace stimulates sexual the latter P latifolia sylvestris and expresses dis. intercourse but slows down digestion satisfaction with the name similarity He notes. and that the purple type ripe in winter Daucus as a name for carrot used by Galen but. is the best notes that many Roman writers called it pasti. nace or other names,Renaissance Paintings,The villa of Agostino Chigi in Rome contains. decorations by Raphael Sanzio made between,1515 and 1517 The ceiling of the loggia of. Cupid and Psyche derived from the Metamor,phoses Golden Ass of Apuleius in the 2nd. century contains festoons painted by Giovanni,Martini da Udine that illustrate 160 species of. plants An orange carrot appears alongside a,purple root Fig 6 Another ceiling panel de. picts an orange carrot alongside a white rooted,Figure 6 Orange and purple carrot from. the Loggia of Cupid and Psyche figures,Figure 8 Still life with Game Vegetables. painted by Raphael Sanzio festoon,and Fruits of Juan S nchez Cot n. painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine,Spanish 1602 showing purple and yel. low carrot left and radish Museo del,herbal by physicians apothecaries and wealthy. Prado Madrid,people who needed a source for remedies that. existed at the time For the rst time carrot root,colors were accurately described while hand. tinted editions con rm what color was being,referred to in the text Leonhart Fuchs in 1542. in his Historia Stirpium On the History of Plants,described red and yellow garden carrots and. wild carrots but names them all Pastinaca The,famous Flemish physician and botanist Rembert. Dodoens is best known for his herbal Cruyde,boeck written in old Flemish and published in. 1554 Fig 5 It was illustrated by 715 woodcuts,of plants including many copies from those in. the Fuchs herbal He indicates the localities and Figure 9 Yellow carrots and parsnips from. times of owering in the Low Countries The The Greengrocer 1731 Willem van Mieris. work was used for several centuries as a stand Dutch Wallace Collection London. ard reference book for physicians and the Latin,translation was used by Gerard as a source for. his now famous 1597 Herball The Historie of,Figure 5 Yellow and red carrots from. Rembert Dodoens Cruijdeboeck 1554,The emergence of Dutch and Spanish paintings. depicting market and kitchen scenes in the 16th,century coincides with the period and location. that carrot was further developed in Europe,Figures 7 9 provide examples of the colors and. shapes of carrot and parsnip roots and similar,paintings from the same era and locality were. used as evidence by Banga 1963b to develop,his treatises on the origin and distribution of. western carrots, The Modern Era chie y relied on native plants he advised the are proving popular in the farmers markets in. European carrot improvement began with ma sufferer of asthma to live a fortnight on boiled the US and the UK In a quite bizarre way the. terial imported from Arab countries consisting Carrots only it seldom fails A carrot poultice is purple carrot has turned full circle and the color. of a purple type called red by authors before also recommended for putrid wounds originally used to dye the royal robes of ancient. 1700 and a yellow type Purple types were Carrot arrived in America with the Pilgrims in Afghans is now an essential part of the food. noted in France in the 1300s and a bit later in 1609 and soon became part of the staple diet coloring industry. Holland and Germany The yellow forms were It was also adopted by the native Indians as a The natural colorant from purple carrots is used. noted in England France and Germany in the food source The British took the carrot to Aus in a myriad of items such as candies juices and. 1500s The yellow carrot became more gener tralia in 1788 The cheap and accessible orange fruit preparations Many countries are now mar. ally used than purple and it gradually spread root was constantly popular as a staple food keting rainbow carrots mixed bags of red. throughout Europe superseding the purple in throughout Victorian times Many books and yellow white purple and orange carrots and. the 16th century Banga 1957b literature on household management extolled this novelty seems to be successful Fig 12. By the 1700s Holland was a leading country in the virtues of the versatile and tasty humble Modern breeding now concentrates on produc. carrot development and Banga proposed that carrot such as Mrs Beeton s Cookbook of 1861 ing strains with even coloring uniform size. modern orange version is directly descended the most famous and esteemed English cookery. from the Dutch bred carrots of that time The book of that era bringing basic cooking advice. Figure 12 A wide range of carrots avail, Horn carrots named after the town of Hoorn to the masses in a form and structure that is able today photo credit USDA. and common in Amsterdam about 1610 were still used. developed in Holland and the Long Orange World War II revived the popularity of the car. was likely to be from selection of a yellow pos rot elevating it from a mere animal feed to a. sibly crossed with an orange red variety that major food source The character Doctor Carrot. was unpalatable Fig 10 By 1763 carrots were Fig 11 was devised in 1941 by the UK Ministry. classed as one of four types Long Orange and of Food to promote carrots as a substitute for. three cultivars of Horn Carrot Late Half Long other more scarce vegetables in the campaign. Early Half Long and Early Scarlet Horn The called Dig for Victory The legend about eating. modern western orange cultivars of carrots carrots to improve night blindness has its roots. derive from these four types Smartt and Sim in World War II when the British government tender avor and greater yield Simon 2000. monds 1976 urging people to grow and eat carrots to ease Greater resistance to bolting is another aim. food shortages put out a story that the con of breeders together with carrot y resistance. Figure 10 Carrots from Vilmorin s sumption of special high carotene carrots was. Vegetable Garden 1586 A Early Horn and increasing tolerance to heat and drought. the reason for the success of the Royal Air Force Carotene present in small amounts in wild car. B Dutch Horn, gunners during the blitz as a ruse to obscure rot has been increased by centuries of selection. A the launch of the new airborne radar system as and development but volatile oils have been de. well as the use of red light which helps preserve creased in this process affecting avor. night vision in aircraft instruments Eating car, rots does not improve your vision but the lack Baby carrots were created in the late 1980s as a. of vitamin A can cause night blindness and car way of making use of carrots that are too twist. rots are high in vitamin A ed or knobbly for sale as full size These were. heavily promoted in the US in 2010 through a, Figure 11 Dr Carrot a UK promotion in 25 million campaign to attract young people. 1941 during World War II to eat more carrots through the Eat em like. junk food campaign They are on sale in school,vending machines and via seasonal promotions. B such as Scarrots at Halloween Some baby,types are actually young carrots planted at very. high densities and generally are more expensive,but most are created from pieces of larger. roots Fig 13,Recent Developments,The virtues of carrot are still being expanded in. In the 1960s carrots became more standardised the 21st century In 2008 a super carrot was. as supermarkets demanded uniform size and announced containing much higher levels of cal. shape The supermarket boom continued into cium Carrots have been promoted as a future. the 1970s Pre packaging became the order of ingredient in biofuels A polymer derived from. the day and gave the producers more advertis,ing and marketing opportunities with brightly. colored orange striped plastic bags making the Figure 13 Organic baby carrots. Grimmway image,carrots inside look even more attractive a prac. tice that continues today Breeders introduced,literally hundreds of cultivars the most widely. favored types grown in temperate climates are, In the 18th and 19th centuries an increasing Danvers Imperator Nantes and Chante. amount of horticultural literature emerged and nay whereas in subtropical areas Kuroda. carrots were included in several homeopathic Brasilia and tropical Nantes are popular. remedies For instance John Wesley s little trea In China and Japan however yellow and red. tise entitled Primitive Physic Or an Easy and types are very popular The purple and yellow. Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases 1761 carrot varieties are making a comeback and. CHRONICA HORTICULTURAE VOL 51 NUMBER 2 2011 17,carrots and other root vegetables is now used to. fabricate a racing car steering wheel and shing ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. rods The oil from carrot seeds has proved to be, Appreciation is expressed to B C Barker Benfield Philipp W Simon Judith Taylor Bill Thayer and Anna. an excellent lubricant in industrial applications Whipkey for assistance with this manuscript We acknowledge Bodleian Library Imperial War Museum. Carrot appears in a multitude of skin and hair Museo del Prado Rijksmuseum Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew Library Staatliche Museen Wallace. care products Finally a plant compound found Collection London. in carrots called luteolin has been shown to help,reduce age related in ammation in the brain. and memory de cits Jang et al 2010,REFERENCES, Banga O 1957a Origin of the European cultivated carrot Euphtyica 6 54 63. Parsnip The Cinderella of the Banga O 1957b The development of the original European carrot material Euphytica 7 64 76. Banga O 1963a Main Types of the Western Carotene Carrot and Their Origin W E J Tjeenk Willink. Vegetable Kingdom,Zwolle The Netherlands, If carrot is the Prince Charming of the root Banga O 1963b Origin and distribution of the western cultivated carrot Genetica Agraria 17 357 370. vegetables then parsnip is surely Cinderella Beck L Y trans 2005 Dioscorides Pedanius of Anazarbus De Materia Medica Oolms Weidmann. unloved ignored and rejected This sweet Hildeshem Zurich. and delicious root vegetable resembling Bostock J 1855 The Natural History Pliny the Elder with Copious Notes and Illustrations Taylor and Francis. Red Lion Court Fleet Street,an overgrown ivory skinned carrot prob. Brothwell D and Brothwell P 1969 Food in Antiquity Johns Hopkins Univ Press Baltimore p 111 112. ably had equal and aristocratic status with Dalby A 2003 Food in the Ancient World from A to Z Routledge Taylor Francis Group London and. the carrot in Greek and Roman times and its New York p 75. spread into Western Europe is not separately Davidson A 1999 Oxford Companion to Food Oxford Univ Press Oxford p 741. documented Historical references to carrot Der Wiener Dioskurides 1998 1999 2 vol Akademische Druck u Verlagsanstalt Graz. and parsnip are intertwined early medieval FAO 2008 FAOSTAT Rome. carrots and parsnips were both thin and Fleischer R M Touwaide A Appetiti E Harbaugh D and Kress J 2010 Composition of pharmaceuticals. woody and mostly of a vaguely whitish color from a 1st century BC AD Roman shipwreck based on chloroplast DNA sequences Fourth Intl Symp on. Biomolecular Archaeology Copenhagen http www isba4 net ISBA4 FINAL pdf. This being the case almost everyone up to, Fox H M 1933 Gardening with Herbs for Flavor and Fragrance Macmillan New York Reprinted Dover. the early modern period can perhaps be for Publ Inc 1970 p 45. given for failing to distinguish between the Gerard e J 1597 The Herball or General Historie of Plantes John Norton London. two however frustrating this may be for the Grant M 2000 Galen on Food and Diet translation and notes Routledge Taylor Francis Group London. food and agricultural historian and New York p 151. In classical and medieval writings both veg Grigson J 1974 World Atlas of Food Mitchell Beazley London p 170. Harvey J H 1992 Garden plants of Moorish Spain A fresh look Garden History 20 1 71 82. etables seem to have been sometimes called, Hedrick U P 1919 Sturtevant s Edible Plants of the World J B Lyobn Albany N Y p 265. pastinaca and without associated evidence Heywood V H 1983 Relationships and evolution in the Daucus carota complex Israel J Bot 32 51 65. of color or taste it is dif cult to distinguish Hort A F trans 1926 Theophrastus Enquiry into Plants Loeb Classic Library Cambridge Mass. the two By the Middle Ages the parsnip was Jang S Dilger R N and Johnson R W 2010 Luteolin inhibits microglia and alters hippocampal dependent. a popular vegetable in Europe particularly spatial working memory in aged mice J Nutr 140 10 1892 1898. as eshier and tastier roots were developed Ladizinsky G 1998 Plant Evolution under Domestication Kluwer Academic Publishers The Netherlands. and often used to sweeten dishes in the ab p 192, sence of sugarcane not yet imported in bulk Mackevic V I 1929 The carrot of Afghanistan Bul Appl Bot Genetics Plant Breed 20 517 562. Mueller Bienik A 2010 Carrot Daucus carota L in Medieval Krak w S Poland A cultivated form J. from the New World plantations and at a,Archaeolog Sci 37 7 1725 1730. time when honey was a rare and expensive Rubatzky V E Quiros C F and Simon P W 1999 Carrots and Related Vegetable Umbelliferae CAB. luxury Before the potato arrived in Europe International Wallingford p 2 9. parsnip was the staple starch crop Simon P WW 2000 Domestication historical development and modern breeding of carrot Plant Breed. Gerard s 1597 Herball speaking of its uses Rev 19 147 190. as a vegetable observes The Parsneps Smartt N W and Simmonds J W eds 1976 Evolution of Crop Plants 2nd ed Longman Sci Technol. Harlow p 291 293, nourish more than do the Turneps or the Vavilov N I 1926 Centres of Origin of Cultivated Plants Leningrad. Carrots and the nourishment is somewhat Vavilov N I 1951 The origin variation immunity and breeding of cultivated plants Chron Bot 13 1 366. thicker but not faultie nor bad There is a translated from Russian by Starr Chester. good and pleasant foode or bread made of Wesley J 1761 Primitive Physic Or an Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases General Books. the rootes of Parsneps as my friend Master LLC 2009 Paperback 112p also on Google Books pdf. Plat hath set foorth in his booke of experi,ments It is said that Marmalade made with. the roots and a small quantity of sugar will,ABOUT THE AUTHORS. John Stolarczyk is the Founder and Curator of the,improve the appetite and serve as a restora. on line World Carrot Museum www carrotmu, tive to invalids seum com based in the UK The mission of the. Although parsnip was introduced by Euro virtual museum is to educate inform and amuse. peans into North America with the carrot it visitors through the collection preservation. never really sustained favor and was placed interpretation and exhibition of objects relating. in the shadow of the gorgeous carrot and to the carrot. Email curator carrotmuseum com, the more productive potato This under rat Jules Janick is the James Troop Distinguished. ed vegetable needs further attention from Professor in Horticulture Department of. the scienti c community as there is a genu Horticulture Landscape Architecture Purdue. ine fear that it will disappear into obscurity John Stolarczyk Jules Janick University West Lafayette Indiana USA Email. Like Cinderella it deserves a much higher janick purdue edu.