Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Chapter 14 Southern Pudu Pudu Puda Molina 1782
140 SPECIES SYNONYMY Capra puda Molina 1782 310 Not Capra Linnaeus 1758 Capra puda Anonymous 1808 Ovis Pudu sic Gmelin 1788 200 Not Ovis Linnaeus
CHAPTER 14,SOUTHERN PUDU Pudu puda Molina 1782,Authors JAIME E JIM NEZ. Associate Editor MARIANO GIMENEZ DIXON, SPECIES SYNONYMY Chilo Island should be examined The main reason for. Capra puda Molina 1782 310 Not Capra Linnaeus this is that contrary to what would be expected according. 1758 to the island rule Lomolino 1985 individuals from Chilo. Capra puda Anonymous 1808 island are larger than those from the mainland Jim nez. Ovis Pudu sic Gmelin 1788 200 Not Ovis Linnaeus in litt. Ovis Pudu Shaw 1800 MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION, Aries pudu Fischer 1814 Hershkovitz 1982 describes the southern pudu as. Antelope de Blainville 1816 76 Not Antilope Pallas having short and thick legs low slung body and rump. 1766 little or not raised above withers Fig 1 Ears are rounded. Mazama Rafinesque 1817b 437 Part not Mazama and comparatively small tail length is less than 8 of. Rafinesque 1817a head and body length and is hidden by rump hairs The. Antilocapra pudu Lesson 1842 neck is broad and short rostrum and muzzle are short. Cervus pudu Gay and Gervais 1846 Type locality through the reduction of premaxilar and nasal bones. Chile Delupi and Bianchini 1992 Spike like antlers are present. Cervus humilis Bennett a synonym Gay 1847 Type only in males usually measuring less than 10 cm in length. locality Chile from Cauquenes to Chiloe Indian name in a male caught in Chilo the antlers measured 9 8 cm. pudu or puudu Jim nez 1995 and directed backwards Hershkovitz. Coassus Pudu Pudu Gray 1850 Type Locality 1982 Pudus weight less than 15 kg and the height at. Chile Concepci n Chilo the shoulders is 30 40 cm Eldridge et al 1987 Neumann. Pudu pudu Sclater 1870 Type Locality Chile Valdivia 1992 Females are about 1 kg lighter i e smaller than. Pudu puda Flower 1929 Type None in existence males Neumann 1992 The few data available on weights. name based on native accounts of the animal Hershkovitz indicates that individuals from Chilo are larger than those. 1982 from the mainland Jim nez in litt Osgood 1943 Table. Mazama pudu Vanoli 1967 Type locality Chile 1 perhaps representing divergent phylogenetic lines This. Osorno Llanquihue possibility deserves closer examination. M azama Pudu pudu Haltenorth 1963 Type,locality Southern provinces of Chile Hershkovitz. COMMON NAMES,Spanish pud pud del sur venado venadito ciervo. enano corzuela Hershkovitz 1982 Neumann 1992,English pudu deer southern pudu dwarf deer pygmy. deer Chilean pudu Hershkovitz 1982 Sch rer and Sliwa. German Pudu Hirsch Zwerghirsch Hick 1969a,Krieg 1925. Indigenous Mapuche pudu ruco pu du puy,Krieg 1925 Neumann 1992. SUBSPECIES, No subspecies have been recognized nor are there Figure 1 Adult wild male pudus in Chilo Full photo. any known molecular genetic studies on the species The taken in Lliuco January 2005 and insert taken in. distinctiveness of mainland populations versus those of Tepuhueico April 2003 J E Jim nez. JIM NEZ J E 141, Dorsal fur is coarse and the basal portions of hairs reported on the female chromosomes Later Petit and de. are pithy and brittle Hairs are generally long and Meurichy 1989 studied the female kariotype with. characteristically hollow which provides good insulation banding techniques More recently Schreiber and Dmoch. and buoyancy when in the water Jim nez in litt In the 1994 studied the kariotype of 1 female and 3 males. wild where pudus are present the long hairs are readily The four studies concur that the pudu s 2n chromosome. found attached to the velcro like seeds of Uncinia tenuis number is 70 and FN is 74 Thirty three pairs of. Jim nez 1995 autosomes are acrocentric and 1 pair is medium size. Frontal glands are not evident in females Preorbital metacentric The X chromosome is the largest and the Y. glands which are literally absent in P mephistofiles are the smallest both are submetacentric Fig 3. large with a wide opening and a deep lachrymal fossa Chromosomes are identical as in other Odocoiline. that open when the animal is frightened Interdigital glands Koulischer et al 1972 Spotorno and Fern ndez Donoso. forming a pocket and are considered the most primitive 1975 and the largest acrocentric pair of autosomes has. type of hoof glands in the Cervidae Pocock 1923 Tarsal conspicuous satellite appendages Schreiber and Dmoch. and metatarsal glands are not evident in skins Hershkovitz 1994. Coloration changes from rufescent and cinnamon, rufous during the warm season to dark brown in winter. Fr drich 1975 Jim nez in litt Osgood 1943 Redford, and Eisenberg 1992 describe the color as rich reddish. brown agouti with darker head Rump is darker Gay, 1847 sides legs and feet are paler nearly clear cinnamon. rufous hazel Osgood 1943 Three complete albino, individuals are known all coming from Chilo Island. Jim nez in litt Neumann 1992 Fawns are darker than. the adults and have three rows of white Hick 1969a or. yellowish spots on each side running from the shoulders. to the base of the tail These disappear by the third month. of age Fr drich 1975 Hick 1969b Reyes et al 1988,Vanoli 1967 Fig 2. Figure 3 Pudu male chromosomes after Spotorno and,Fern ndez Donoso 1975. DISTRIBUTION, During the first half of the past century Osgood 1943. described the pudu as being fairly common in the provinces. from Arauco to Llanquihue and to be numerous at Lake. Todos Los Santos where currently it is seldom seen. Jim nez in litt Osgood 1943 also described pudus, as shy and uncommon in Chilo which is opposite to the. current situation up to 8 animals can be observed in one. day and tracks are found in many areas of the island but. they still remain shy given the risks they face Thus it. appears that the fragmentation of the landscape as on. Chilo may have favored the pudu as a species that forages. Figure 2 Half grown pudu fawn in Chilo Lliuco along edges and openings close to the forest Jim nez. January 2005 J E Jim nez 1995 rather than exploiting continuous tracts of pristine. forests as is commonly and repeatedly believed but never. As a curiosity the southern pudu is listed in the book been documented as of yet. of Guiness records as the world s smallest true deer and The pudu is restricted to the southern temperate. although it is claimed by several authors to be the smallest rainforests of Chile and adjacent Argentina Fig 4. deer MacNamara 1983 Miller et al 1983 Osgood 1943 According to Gay 1847 it ranged from Cauquenes. Spotorno and Fern ndez Donoso 1975 the northern province south to Chilo in Chile Osgood 1943. pudu is smaller in size Hershkovitz 1982 Several studies described it up to Isla Riesco 50 S almost to the Strait. on the anatomy of pudus were conducted at Universidad of Magellan in the south Hershkovitz 1982 based on. Austral de Chile secondary references claims its distribution is from Maule. to the vicinity of the Strait of Magellan in Chile and from. CYTOGENETIC DESCRIPTION southwestern Neuqu n to southwestern Chubut in. A male kariotype was first described by Koulischer et Argentina see also Ramilo 1992 and Meier and Merino. al 1972 Spotorno and Fern ndez Donoso 1975 2007 The southern distribution in Chile is not. 142 SOUTHERN PUDU Pudu puda, substantiated with records and seems to be unlikely The Chilo National Parks Jim nez et al 1991 Jim nez 1995. most current and accurate distribution seems to be that Rau and Jim nez 2002a see also Rau et al 1992 Rau. reported by Glade 1985 as being found in Chile between and Jim nez 2002b Wetterberg 1972 Additionally. 35 10 R o Mataquito and Lontu and 46 45 S Lake reliable information from rangers and local residents report. Buenos Aires Peninsula Esmeralda and Laguna San Rafael the pudu as occurring in the National Reserves Altos de. Fig 4 However recent observations confirm its Lircay and Los Huemules de Niblinto and the National. presence near the town of Tortel Jim nez in litt It is Parks Tolhuaca Conguill o Puyehue and Queulat along. abundant on Chilo Island Glade 1985 Jim nez 1995 the Andes In Argentina it is found in the National Parks. Miller et al 1983 and although Reiche 1903 in Osgood Lan n Nahuel Huapi Lago Puelo and Los Alerces. 1943 considered it extirpated from Mocha Island Ramilo 1992 Meier and Merino 2007 Based on. MacNamara and Eldridge 1987 claim that it still occurs interviews of local residents and signs found in the field. there but there is no recent evidence There is evidence Bello 2003 compiled fresh evidence of pudus still living. that pudu may have ranged north up to Santiago Saavedra in several patches of native but disturbed forests in the. and Simonetti 1991 see also Hershkovitz 1982 in the lowland areas close to Valdivia. recent past Pudus are found at elevations from sea level Although I have seen a few pudus directly in the wild. up to 1 700 m in the Andes Miller et al 1973 Due to on the mainland in several areas of Chilo Island it is still. human destruction of ca 90 of the temperate rainforests frequent to observe them and up to 8 individuals can be. MacNamara 1983 and persecution the pudu range has seen daily in certain rural areas Jim nez in litt as well. been reduced but it is still found along the Andean and as in different settings with varying disturbance levels and. coastal mountain ranges mainly on the southern part landscape types Jim nez 1995 It appears that aside from. Wetterberg 1972 The valley populations are scattered being apparently more numerous and larger on Chilo. and isolated in the few forest patches left which are highly pudus are also tamer and easier to observe compared. vulnerable to human related pressures Bello 2003 with those on the mainland The best evidence of their. Jim nez in litt presence are their tracks on soft ground their feces which. are distinctive from domestic animals their hairs left on. KNOWN POPULATIONS seeds of carda Uncinia their remains in puma or fox. Pudus are often cited as the largest native herbivore feces and more uncommon carcasses in the field and. found in most national parks in southern Chile but there individuals run over on country roads. are no systematic records of pudu presence absence from. these areas Recent records for the species in their EX SITU POPULATION. northern distribution are scarce and anecdotic Pudus run Pudus are not kept easily under captive conditions. over by cars and remains in the feces of pumas and foxes C Saucedo in litt see also Sch rer and Sliwa 2003. are found in Nahuelbuta Vicente P rez Rosales and However it is often seen that local people in southern. Figure 4 Current Pudu puda distribution,JIM NEZ J E 143. Chile keep pudus as pets and that individual animals are Sliwa 2003 recommend the use of a combination of. traded illegally There are many reports of animals under medetomidine ketamine that can be reversed with. captive conditions some of them attempting to atipamezol. reproduce the species in captivity with the aim of. augmenting the wild populations Bruzone 1984 Reyes HABITAT. et al 1992 A pudu was exhibited for the first time in According to several authors the pudu lives in. the Berlin zoo in 1896 Fr drich 1975 The first record temperate rainforest with thick understory Greer 1965. of captive pudus in South America comes from Housse Hershkovitz 1982 Krieg 1925 Meier and Merino 2007. 1953 that reports their presence in a facility in the Miller et al 1973 Neumann 1992 Ramilo 1992 Vanoli. province of Neuqu n Argentina which no longer exists 1967 Wetterberg 1972 However the species is also. Bruzone 1984 indicates that this facility was located in common in disturbed and secondary forest when it is not. San Mart n de Los Andes and that in 1946 it provided a chased by people and their dogs Bello 2003 Eldridge et. pair of pudus to the breeding facility where pudus were al 1987 Jim nez 1995 Miller et al 1983 Fig 5 Pudus. kept at Isla Victoria in Nahuel Huapi MacNamara 1983 favor especially habitats with dense bamboo Chusquea. MacNamara and Eldridge 1987 Ramilo 1992 In Chile spp that are used as cover rather than for feeding Under. more recent facilities that receive pudus to rehabilitate thick bamboos pudus make runways through which they. them or to breed them in captivity are at Universidad can move at almost full speed when escaping from threats. de Concepci n in Chill n Reyes et al 2004 Eldridge et al 1987 Jim nez in litt Pudus use the. Universidad Austral and Forestal Valdivia in Valdivia E entangled forest understory mainly for cover They move. Silva and C Verdugo in litt Fauna Andina in Villarrica to forest edges or more open shrublands for feeding Figs. F Vidal in litt and Ensenada Jim nez in litt 1 and 5 given that there is a higher availability and. Breeding success and survival rates in these facilities are diversity of soft growing plant tissue Eldridge et al 1987. mixed Jim nez 1995 Some authors indicate that the proximity. Several zoos hold pudus in captivity According to of a river or other water bodies is usually an important. Hershkovitz 1982 in 1976 12 pudus existed in component of habitat both as a continuous source of. captivity whereas MacNamara 1981 pointed out that drinking water as well as an escape route from terrestrial. in 1981 there were 34 captive pudus The first reliable predators Jim nez 1995 Junge 1966 Neumann 1992. systematic records of captive pudus come from the Vanoli 1967 On Chilo pudus are observed in different. International Studbook which reports that 44 males m habitats and under contrasting disturbance and landscape. and 45 females f were held captive in 1987 in 11 conditions ranging from heavily disturbed shrubland on. localities mostly in Europe Sch rer 1988 Later the shoulder of the main highway in forest patches. Sch rer and Sliwa 2003 report that in 2002 there were scattered in an agricultural landscape with dairy cows. 65 m and 71 f in 34 zoos of these 46 m and 52 f were and loose unrestrained dogs to coastal and mountain. in Europe More updated information from the AZA populations under pristine conditions not always close. cervid taxon advisory group indicates that in 2004 there to water Jim nez in litt A field study indicated that. were 67 m and 67 f in 31 zoos worldwide mainly in the relationship between relative abundance of pudus. Europe 46 m and 45 f and in North America 18 m and human disturbance level with little dog impact was. and 20 f Fisher 2005 Similar figures for 2005 were negative reflecting perhaps that a more fragmented. 63 m 74 f in 34 zoos 43 m 53 f and 18 m 20 f for environment favors pudu by providing more growing. Europe and North America respectively and 2 m in plant tissue along edge habitats Jim nez 1995 Forest. South Africa and 1 in Asia no studbook records from gaps were perceived as high quality patches for pudus. South America were available It is encouraging that In the same study pudus were found to be more. 15 of the 18 births in 2005 occurred in European zoos abundant on the lower areas that were also more. Fisher 2005 Thus the captive stock in zoos and the fragmented. number of facilities appeared stable during the last years. In South America outside of Chile the only known zoo. that has 2 or 3 pudus is the Tamaik n zoo of Buenos. Aires In Chile according to a report from the, Agriculture and Livestock Bureau SAG in litt there. are 295 pudus held in captivity in 18 locations with. various purposes captive breeding exhibits and or, rehabilitation Although there are several places were. pudus are held in Chile their success as breeding centers. is questioned as most captive centers appear to augment. their stocks from wild caught animals rather than from. in situ reproduction Jim nez in litt, Veterinary protocols for use of anesthetics such as. ketamine medetomidine and butorfanol were evaluated. in captive pudus Fabry et al in litt Likewise the use of Figure 5 Yearling female pudu in Chilo in typical. blowpipes to deliver ketamine xylacine and hialuronid disturbed environment El Quilar January 1995 J E. drugs to pudus were tested Wrege 1993 Sch rer and Jim nez. 144 SOUTHERN PUDU Pudu puda, SPATIAL USE AND HOME RANGE hookerianum Pernettya pumila Azara sp Gunnera. As many other aspects of the species ecology the tinctoria Chusquea quila C coleu and Aristotelia. spatial use of the environment by pudu has been little chilensis Pudus also eat the leaves of trees such as Luma. studied Only two studies have documented the apiculata Amomyr tus luma Blepharocalyx. movement and habitat use of pudus in the wild mainly cruckshanksii Nothofagus dombeyi Embothrium. with captive released animals in heavily disturbed coccineum and Lomatia ferruginea Neumann 1992. habitats restricted under island type landscapes and in Detailed observations of feeding pudus and browsed. sympatry with dense populations of exotic deer Seven plants in Rupanco Lake indicate that many plants are fed. pudus were studied at a 1 200 ha Peninsula on Rupanco upon but few are preferred among them several exotics. Lake Chile Four of them 3 of which were introduced such as Rubus sp Eldridge et al 1987 The same study. into the peninsula had minimum convex polygon home showed that pudus feed more on scrublands than in forest. ranges of 16 to 26 ha in size Eldridge et al 1987 or bamboo habitat types From the higher vegetation. Although individuals differed in their behavior on average stratum pudu fed chiefly on ferns e g Blechnum tree. they used forest and shrubland habitats more than leaves and shrubs e g Rhaphitamnus being the later. expected by chance Habitat quality ranged from the most preferred Some individuals also fed on vines. relatively undisturbed forest to totally altered habitats Hydrangea and Luzuriaga and herbs They ate 60. which indicated that pudus did not depend on mature 80 of all the plant species available and specific individuals. forest for all their needs Some home ranges were used used 25 79 of them. by other non tracked individuals as tracks indicated that In the lowest vegetation strata animals fed more on. they were following each other Pudus were territorial herbs vines and ferns whereas mosses and grasses were. and at least one male tracked across seasons was least preferred Eldridge et al 1987 In open habitats. sedentary all year round During this study it was also pudus foraged on Plantago Lotus and Dactylus Reeds. noted that a puma that raised 3 cubs in the peninsula and sedges were avoided. may have removed at least 30 pudus Courtin et al Fleshy fruits of avellanas Gevuina avellana and of. 1980 mirtacea trees are eaten by pudus Greer 1965 Jim nez. The other telemetry study followed 10 of a total of 20 1995 Neumann 1992 Wetterberg 1972 In captivity. released pudus on Isla Victoria a 3 710 ha island with pudus feed on blackberries roses apples fruits and. no predators in Argentina Ramilo 1992 Four leaves strawberries chestnuts hazel nuts acorns. individuals had home ranges that varied between 2 and topinambur potatoes carrots celery red and white clover. 200 ha At Victoria island unlike the exotic deer pudus plantain pine fungi and the southern beech fungi Cittaria. used the densest parts of the forest and thick shrublands sp Junge 1966 Neumann 1992 Vanoli 1967 In Chilo. of Berberis sp to feed and for cover The captive bred locals report that wild pudus like to raid their gardens. animals stayed close to the release point whereas the 2 and eat the leaves of apple trees rose plants potato shoots. wild caught individuals moved extensively one of them and peas Jim nez 1995. up to 20 km My direct behavioral observations of wild Systematic direct observations of wild pudus feeding. pudus in Chilo and data obtained with camera traps and on browsed vegetation detected on a few sites in Chilo. scented stations concur with previous reports that pudus with different impact levels indicate that they feed intensely. use the edges more than the forest interior and they use and primarily on exotic forbs i e Taraxacum officinale. a well known network of trails in thick shrubland Jim nez Lotus uliginosus and Plantago lanceolata some ferns. 1995 buds and growing tissues of saplings of most native tree. species avellana fruits and flowers of Taraxacum sp and. FEEDING ECOLOGY Lotus sp Jim nez 1995 Pudu ate seedlings and saplings. The pudu is a browser whose nutrition generally comes of Amomyr tus luma Caldcluvia panniculata. from high growing plants as opposed to a grazer that Embothrium coccineum Eucr yphia cordifolia. feeds heavily on grasses Pudus feed on a great diversity Myrceugenia planipes Nothofagus nitida Pseudopanax. of forest associated species eating the most nutritious and laetevirens and Weinmannia trichosperma The following. less lignified parts of plants made up of young leaves and vines and epiphytes were taken Asteranthera ovata. sprouts of trees shrubs and forbs fruits and flowers As Boquila trifoliata Griselina racemosa Luzuriaga. understory plants such as saplings and forbs are abundant radicans Mitraria coccinea and Sarmienta repens. along edges and in forest openings it seems that edges Shrubs buds and new leaves fed upon by pudus were. and fragmented environments are preferred feeding areas Baccharis racemosa Baccharis sp Chusquea quila. of pudus rather than forest interior habitat where there Escallonia sp Fuchsia magellanica Gaultheria. is little nutritious vegetation Jim nez 1995 pillyearifolia Gunnera tinctoria Rubus ulmifolius. Different researchers have generically described the Senecio otites and Ugni molinae Ferns and reeds included. diet of pudu as composed of herbs foliage and shoots in the diet were Blechnum chilensis Blechnum. Hershkovitz 1982 Miller et al 1973 Wetterberg 1972 pennamarina Juncus sp flowers and Lophosoria. Specifically Krieg 1925 indicated that pudus feed on quadripinnata Pudus fed throughout the day but more. Fuchsia magellanica and Chusquea sp and Vanoli 1967 often late in the afternoon early at night at night they. and Neumann 1992 report that they feed on several can be spotted with headlights due to the yellow glow of. shrubs species such as F magellanica Ugni molinae their eyes and early in the mornings When feeding the. Berberis buxifolia B dar winii Crinodendron animal moves slowly through the vegetation quickly. JIM NEZ J E 145, taking bits here and there of many different plant species Reyes et al 1988 In zoos the minimum age of. Jim nez 1995 conception was a female of 4 5 months of age and the. Microhistological analysis of feces remains also showed maximum recorded was in a female of 6 5 years with a. as predicted for a herbivore of this small size that the peak during 12 18 months n 144 Sch rer and Sliwa. pudu is a highly selective species Jim nez in litt This 2003 The youngest recorded male mated at an age of. study indicates that in undisturbed sites pudus fed more 4 7 months and the oldest did it for the first time at 9 5. on trees and shrubs rather than on forbs The opposite years However most males mate between 2 and 2 5. was true in areas that are more fragmented and where years n 104 Sch rer and Sliwa 2003. forest gaps and edges were more abundant Interestingly Mean and maximum life expectancy of captive females. the exotic and widespread blackberry Rubus ulmifolius is 4 35 and 17 4 years respectively n 194 whereas. emerged as a highly preferred species on disturbed sites for males is 4 44 and 15 8 years respectively n 190. and the vine Asteranthera ovata as preferred at undisturbed Sch rer and Sliwa 2003 Mortality pooled sexes during. sites the first 30 days of life is 26 The average life time. The rectangular crown morphology of the incisors achievement of 121 females was 3 88 fawns One female. Traub 1984 and the small size of the arcade Jim nez produced 14 fawns throughout her 15 years of life and a. in litt indicate that pudus can finely select specific plant male sired 28 fawns Sch rer and Sliwa 2003. structures from what is available and can thus have a In bucks the size of testicles and spermatogenesis show. very selective diet Jim nez 1995 Neumann 1992 Pudus 2 peaks in spring and in the fall Reyes et al 1988. dot not take large quantities of a single species of plant Similarly Bubenik et al 1996 found that males have 2. but little bits of everything Jim nez 1995 Vanoli 1967 high peaks of testosterone March and October and LH. Compared to the highly frugivorous Mazama americana February March and July September along the year. Cephalophus dorsalis and C maxwellii the digestion as it occurs in the roe deer Capreolus capreolus and one. efficiency of the pudu was similar to them Conklin peak of cortisol in March Reyes et al 1997 These were. Brittain and Dierenfeld 1996 This same study estimated associated withs the rut with the mineralization of the. that mean transit time of forage was 29 9 hr antlers and with social dominance Bubenik et al 1999. 2002 The rut was also documented by Bruzone 1984, REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY as occurring during April and May and MacNamara and. Mating occurs in March and April intercourse is quick Eldridge 1987 included June Young males have their. 2 to 3 sec and is repeated frequently during a 48 h first antlers at 9 months of age according to Vanoli 1967. receptive period of the doe Reyes et al 1988 Gestation and at 12 months according to Reyes et al 1988 Antlers. in captivity takes 207 and 223 days according to Vanoli are shed in July Vanoli 1967 Hick 1969a MacNamara. 1967 202 days according to Hick cited in Sch rer 1983 MacNamara and Eldridge 1987 and are controlled. 1988 and 197 to 210 days n 6 Reyes et al 1988 by variations of androgens Bubenik et al 2002 Fabry. Blanvillain et al 1997 examined the birth records of et al 2004 obtained sperm with electroeyaculation with. the studbook and reproductive hormones in the feces of high variability in numbers and quality of sperms among. captive pudus They found that in the southern captive males Samples are stored in a sperm bank in the. hemisphere fawns are born between October and Santiago zoo. February peaking in November and December n 36, births and determined that the females are polyestrous BEHAVIOR. breeders with cycles every 11 days Records of 13 births The pudu conforms well to the syndrome of the small. by Bruzone 1984 in Argentina showed similar peaks in solitary forest ruminants by sharing many adaptations to. November and December MacNamara and Eldridge forest life with other ruminants and rodents Eisenberg. 1987 Neumann 1992 and Sch rer 1988 also found and McKay 1974 These include being small with little. similar timing for birthing and Reyes et al 1988 added sexual dimorphism territorial solitary and dispersed. the month of October Usually 1 fawn is born having spotted fawns avoiding predation by freezing and. Hershkovitz 1982 but Neumann 1992 reported 3 been a cryptic and inconspicuous forest dweller that. cases of twins Sch rer and Sliwa 2003 documented a communicates with scents and that is highly selective for. sex ratio at birth of 372 males to 389 females and four nutritious foods Jim nez manuscript. cases of twin births whereas Fr drich 1975 documented First descriptions that pudus form herds Gay 1847. a sex ratio 1 1 in 22 fawns born Reyes et al 1988 see also Wetterberg 1972 are not correct as they are. described parturition in captivity and Hick 1969a b the essentially solitary when not in rut MacNamara and. behavior of a fawn during its first 2 months of life Eldridge 1987 Ramilo 1992 Reyes et al 1988 Vanoli. Fawns weight 850 1000 g are 19 5 to 20 cm high 1967 see also Courtin et al 1980 During spring and. and at 2 months reach the size of the adults Neumann summer females are seen with their fawns until they. 1992 whereas Reyes et al 1988 describes newborns become independent just before eight months of age. weighting 700 1110 g and having a height of 17 5 to 23 Hershkovitz 1982 Jim nez in litt Males and females. cm According to Sch rer and Sliwa 2003 at birth female are territorial and do not accept another individual of the. fawns weight 896 g n 28 and males 884 g n 27 same sex in their territories defending it with their antlers. Fawns loose their spots before three months of age Young and hoofs to the point of killing intruders with their antlers. become reproductive at 6 moths of age Vanoli 1967 Eldridge et al 1987 Individuals mark their territories. and at 15 to 18 months as determined histologically by with urine feces antler rubs preorbital glands and by. 146 SOUTHERN PUDU Pudu puda, scratching the ground with their frontal hooves Feer 73 upon juvenile pudus Rau et al 1991 Rau and. 1984 Jim nez 1995 MacNamara and Eldridge 1987 Jim nez 2002a comparing the diet of coastal and. Neumann 1992 The use of latrines is a specialized Andean puma populations in the Lake Region found that. defecation behavior important in communication among pudu made up 5 9 of coastal puma prey and 22 6 of. pudus MacNamara and Eldridge 1987 Observations the diet of the Andean population. of a dominance hierarchy as described in captive animals Regarding other predators of pudus only Darwin s. by Barto et al 1998 Bruzone 1984 Cort s et al foxes Pseudalopex fulvipes have been studied Medel et. 1988 Feer 1984 and Neumann 1992 may be al 1990 found that 2 of the prey of foxes in Nahuelbuta. misleading given the crowded and artificial conditions of National Park were pudus and a longer study reported. captivity Pudus are also sedentary Eldridge et al 1987 only 0 2 of pudus as prey of foxes in the same park and. Miller et al 1973 Ramilo 1992 and early descriptions 3 9 on Chilo Island Jim nez et al 1991 On Chilo. of Molina cited in Hershkovitz 1982 that they descend National Park the pudu made 5 2 of Darwin s fox prey. from the mountains during winter may not be accurate Rau and Jim nez 2002b in Piruquina 2 8 to 6 9 of. The pudu social behavior has not been quantified under prey were pudu Jim nez 2000 and in Ahuenco also on. natural conditions Cort s et al 1988 described 7 Chilo Island the pudu composed 2 7 of its prey and. different types of behavior in captive pudus Four of them was found in 6 1 of the fox feces Jim nez 2007 Aside. were agonistic behaviors i e crouching displaying the from the above no other carnivore or raptor was. shoulder standing and scratching the ground and 3 were confirmed as a pudu predator. of general type i e alert sniffing and calling the fawn. Neumann 1992 described 19 different types of behavior PARASITOLOGY. observed in captive animals In a more detailed study The parasitic fauna of the pudu is relatively well known. MacNamara and Eldridge 1987 compared the behavior Most of the studies conducted are based on autopsies of. of pudus and Mazama americana indicating that their animals killed or caught in the wild or from captive. behaviors resembled those of most cervids but each of individuals Sievers 1992 reviewed the parasitology of. these 2 species had unique patterns These authors pudus and describes that eggs of Strongylida sp are found. described a rich repertoire of 40 different types of behavior in fecal samples and that 55 to 100 of the feces had. in captive pudus grouped in 3 non mutually exclusive eggs of the pulmonary nematode Muellerius sp also. categories of maintenance object oriented contact found in sheep and goats which is the most important. patterns and scent marking In descending order the parasite for the species along with Capillaria sp and. most common types of behavior in both genders were Eimeria sp Intestinal parasites of pudus shared with. defecating withdrawing urinating sniffing smelling domestic livestock were Oster tagia oster tagi. chasing and following As described by other researchers Spiculopteragia asymetrica D az et al 1977. the sense of smell plays a crucial role in the life of pudus Oesophagostomum Nematodirus Trichostrongylus and. MacNamara and Eldridge 1987 Cooperia Sievers 1992 The pudu is one of the hosts of. Although variability in daily and seasonal activity Cysticercus tenuicollis the larval form of the cestod Taenia. patterns exist among wild pudus on average they were hydatigena D az et al 1977 Gonz lez Acu a 2002. active about half of the time and most of their activity Sievers 1992 see also Fr drich 1975 and Neumann. was nocturnal especially during late afternoon and 1992 Linguatula serrata were found in pudu lungs and. evening and early mornings Eldridge et al 1987 livers Fern ndez 1986 in Gonz lez Acu a et al 2004. Individuals were less active during calm and sunny days Dictyocaulus sp produced a case of bronchopneumonia. than on windy and sunny days These activity patterns and Sarcocystis sp was found in skeletal and heart muscle. agreed with observations of several wild pudus in Chilo D az et al 1977 Neumann 1992 reported that 5. Jim nez in litt However unlike Junge s 1966 claim captive individuals died from foot and mouth disease. that pudus are intolerant of heat a buck was observed Junge et al 2000 describe a poxvirus infection in captive. for more than 30 minutes feeding during midday under animals and Ortega et al in litt the first isolation of. direct sunshine in a calm and hot summer day before bovine pestesvirus from a dead wild pudu. retreating into the forest Jim nez 1995 Pudu has several external parasites Gonz lez Acu a. et al 2004 reported the Phthiraptera lice Bovicola caprae. INTER SPECIFIC RELATIONS common in goats and the Anoplura Solenopotes. Anecdotal reports consider pumas Puma concolor binipilosus common in other wild cervids from 7 pudus. foxes Pseudalopex spp kod kods Oncifelis guigna and described the acaridae Ixodes stilesi and I taglei in. and owls Bubo magellanicus as pudu predators Glade pudu Gonz lez Acu a and Guglielmone 2005 In. 1985 Hershkovitz 1982 Neumann 1992 Vanoli 1967 necropsies of pudus Sievers 1992 has found pudu ticks. Quantitative studies indicate that in some areas pudus Ixodes taglei see also Kohls 1969 Hippoboscidae biting. made an important part of the puma diet Courtin et al flies Lipoptena pudui chewing lice of the family. 1980 estimated that in less than a year at Rupanco Lake Bovicolidae and biting lice Linognatus sp All these external. one puma killed 30 to 40 pudus whereas Rau et al 1992 parasites are unique from pudu. working in southern Chile estimated that in one year a. puma would kill 15 pudus an amount that made up 11 CONSERVATION STATUS. to 49 of the puma diet biomass and that European hares The pudu is considered as Vulnerable both in Chile. acted as alternative prey Puma appeared to prey mainly from the VIIth to the Xth Region and Insufficiently Known. JIM NEZ J E 147, in the XIth Region Glade 1993 and in Argentina Ramilo Pudus are also killed as a source of protein by local. 1992 It is listed in Appendix I of CITES and is residents Bello 2003 Hershkovitz 1982 Jim nez in litt. considered as Vulnerable by the IUCN VU A2cd 3cd Junge 1966 Miller et al 1973 Rural people would kill a. Jimenez and Ramilo 2008 pudu when they have a chance On the Pacific shore of. The pudu is generally perceived as a species that is Chilo fishermen often report that they supplement their. declining mainly due to habitat fragmentation loss and diet with pudu meat Jim nez in litt as is also the case. conversion into open lands and exotic tree plantations with farmers on the mainland Bello 2003. competition with livestock been killed directly by people Other important causes of the decline are diseases. or by their vehicles on roads and more than anything transmitted from livestock and potential competition by. else by the many feral or unleashed dogs in the countryside introduced deer Eldridge et al 1987 Glade 1985. that specialize in hunting pudus Bello 2003 Eldridge et MacNamara 1981 1983 Circumstantial evidence. al 1987 Glade 1985 Hershkovitz 1982 Jim nez 1995 supports the last two claims Eldridge et al 1987 361. Junge 1966 Krieg 1925 MacNamara 1981 Miller et al reports that pudus avoid areas occupied by exotic deer. 1973 1983 Ramilo 1992 Wetterberg 1972 Nonetheless and D az et al 1977 reported at least 5 different. the above and the general agreement that populations endoparasite species in wild pudus 2 of which are shared. are being affected there is no study that examines any of with domestic livestock as well as with free ranging exotic. these threats to pudus in a systematic way In several ruminants see bellow. places dogs are unleashed not well fed by their owners Perhaps one of the main limitations for science based. and go out in the forest at any time to hunt pudus Dogs conservation actions on pudus is the lack of information. return to their homes engorged and defecate abundant available from wild populations The pudu is an extremely. pudu remains Camera traps have also confirmed that difficult species to study in the wild mainly because of. these dogs used the same trails as pudus Jim nez 1995 the type of environment where it lives remote thick. It seems that dogs learn quickly how to hunt pudus and moist etc their low densities and secretive and elusive. specialized in finding and killing them Neumann 1992 habits As a result the literature on the species is almost. Dogs are often seen chasing panting pudus for long entirely anecdotal MacNamara and Eldridge 1987 Miller. distances in Chilo Jim nez in litt as well as on the et al 1983 To my knowledge there is no information. mainland Bello 2003 Further in some localities pudu on attempts to quantify pudu populations in the field. skeletons are often found in the wild most likely killed by The best population estimation is that there are less than. dogs Pudus are not enduring runners and become 10 000 individuals left in the wild Fisher 2005. exhausted quickly Junge 1966 if a body of water where Hershkovitz 1982 MacNamara and Eldridge 1987. they can jump into is not readily available the chances of During 1995 research was conducted to test three. a pudu to escape from dogs are slim To escape from independent methods for estimating pudu relative. predators pudus use the tactic of running fast in the abundances camera traps hair collectors and scented. thicket for a few meters emitting a characteristic noise in stations on Chilo Island attempt to capture individuals. ca 5 to 20 panting bursts that is heard as a loud agitated with snares and traps made up of fishing nets and describe. breathing and then freeze in the understory In this way information on the natural history of the species evidence. they avoid being found by remaining cryptic and left in the wild feeding behavior and detailed observations. motionless This behavior might work for native predators of 6 individuals Jim nez 1995 Aside from this study. but dogs follow the scent and quickly find them Glade there is no other account on quantitative information of. 1985 Jim nez in litt A feral dog management plan free ranging wild pudus. Dellafiore and Maceira 1998 and education campaigns. for the responsible tenure of domestic dogs within pudu ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. range is highly desirable to help conservation of the species I appreciate the invitation by the editors to write this. Because populations coexist in areas with cattle and sheep chapter and their patience for receiving the manuscript. contrary to what is often claimed competition with past the deadline Thanks to Mauricio Fabry Bharath. livestock does not appear to be a threat to pudus Jim nez Ganesh Babu Daniel Gonz lez Eduardo Ramilo. 1995 Meier and Merino 2007 Cristi n Saucedo Roberto Schlatter and Eduardo Silva. Pudu populations are still declining and the range of for providing copies of the literature and unpublished. the species has diminished considerably and become more manuscripts Comments of Susana Gonzalez J Mauricio. fragmented due to temperate rainforest fragmentation Barbanti Duarte and Mariano Gim nez Dixon improved. loss and conversion into pastures or exotic tree plantation the quality of this paper Part of my research was funded. Eldridge et al 1987 Hershkovitz 1982 MacNamara by the Lincoln Park Zoo Neotropic Fund and a Darwin. 1981 Miller et al 1973 Sch rer 1988 It is generally Initiative from DEFRA of the UK to S M Funk and J. accepted that over 90 of former pudu habitat in Chile E Jim nez. has been lost MacNamara 1983 Other causes of the, decline are poaching for zoos and private collections LITERATURE CITED. Bruzone 1984 There is compelling evidence that during BARTO L E REYES D SCHAMS G BUBENIK AND. recent decades pudus were heavily poached for the pet A LOBOS 1998 Rank dependent seasonal levels of IGF. trade Only on Chilo Island more than 600 pudus were 1 cortisol and reproductive hormones in male pudu Pudu. taken alive from 1983 to 1985 T Daube in litt Jim nez puda Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A. 120 373 378,148 SOUTHERN PUDU Pudu puda, BELLO M A 2003 Ecolog a del pud Pudu pudu Molina ELDRIDGE W D M M MACNAMARA AND N V. 1782 y su valor como especie focal en la Provincia de PACHECO 1987 Activity patterns and habitat utilization. Valdivia Ecorregi n Valdiviana DVM thesis Universidad of pudus Pudu puda in south central Chile Pp 352. Cat lica de Temuco Temuco Chile 370 in Biology and management of the Cervidae C M. Wemmer ed Smithsonian Institution Press Washington. BLANVILLAIN C J L BERTHIER M C BOMSEL,DEMONTOY A J SEMP R G OLBRIGHT AND F. 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