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Building Surveys and Reports Edward A Noy FASI ARSH Third Edition revised by James Douglas BSc MRICS

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Building Surveys and Reports,Building Surveys and Reports. Edward A Noy FASI ARSH,Third Edition,revised by,James Douglas BSc MRICS. Edward A Noy 1990 1994 for rst and second editions. Edward A Noy and James Douglas 2005 for third edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd,Editorial of ces, Blackwell Publishing Ltd 9600 Garsington Road Oxford OX4 2DQ UK. Tel 44 0 1865 776868, Blackwell Publishing Inc 350 Main Street Malden MA 02148 5020 USA. Tel 1 781 388 8250, Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd 550 Swanston Street Carlton Victoria 3053 Australia.
Tel 61 0 3 8359 1011, The right of the Author to be identi ed as the Author of this Work has been asserted in. accordance with the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a retrieval. system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic mechanical. photocopying recording or otherwise except as permitted by the UK Copyright. Designs and Patents Act 1988 without the prior permission of the publisher. First edition published 1990 by BSP Professional Books. Second edition published 1995 by Blackwell Science Ltd. Third edition published 2005 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Noy Edward A, Building surveys and reports Edward A Noy 3rd ed revised by James Douglas. Includes bibliographical references and index,ISBN 13 978 1 4051 2147 7 alk paper. ISBN 10 1 4051 2147 5 alk paper, 1 Building inspection 2 Buildings Defects I Douglas James II Title. TH439 N 68 2005,690 21 dc22,2005041028,ISBN 10 1 4051 2147 5.
ISBN 13 978 14051 2147 7, A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 10 12pt Palatino,by SNP Best set Typesetter Ltd Hong Kong. Printed and bound in India,by Gopsons Papers Ltd Noida. The publisher s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable. forestry policy and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid free. and elementary chlorine free practices Furthermore the publisher ensures that the text. paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing visit our website. www thatconstructionsite com,Preface to Second Edition xii. Preface to Third Edition xiv,Acknowledgements xv,1 General Principles and Responsibilities 1.
1 1 What is a building survey 1 1 2 Housing quality. initiatives 3 1 3 The purpose of the survey 6 1 4 Building. condition assessment 9 1 5 Surveyor s responsibilities 9. 1 6 Contracts and fees 14,2 Procedure and Equipment 20. 2 1 Basic survey methodology 20 2 2 Preliminary, operations 27 2 3 Property risks 28 2 4 Equipment for. measured drawing surveys 32 2 5 Equipment for,examining defects 33. 3 Measurement of Existing Buildings 41, 3 1 Preliminaries 41 3 2 Internal measuring 43 3 3 Roof. space 47 3 4 External measuring 47 3 5 Levelling 51. 3 6 Plotting the survey 52,4 Surveys of Historic Buildings 54.
4 1 General considerations 54 4 2 Medieval churches 62. 4 3 Church towers 63 4 4 Church bells and ttings 64. 4 5 Measured drawings 65,5 Foundation Failures 66,5 1 Introductory 66 5 2 Causes of failure 66 5 3. Differential movement 68 5 4 Inadequate foundations 69. 5 5 Overloading 69 5 6 Unequal settlement 69 5 7 Effect of. tree roots 71 5 8 Shallow foundations 72 5 9 Building on. sloping sites 74 5 10 Building on made up ground 76. 5 11 Diagnosis 76,6 Defective Walls and Partitions Above Ground 77. 6 1 Type of failure 77 6 2 Bulging and leaning walls 77. 6 3 Overloading 81 6 4 Thermal and moisture,vi Contents. movement 82 6 5 Failure in arches and lintels 84 6 6. Defective materials and chemical action 85 6 7 Failures in. bonding and defects at junctions 88 6 8 Frost failure 88. 6 9 Cavity walls 89 6 10 Built in iron and steel members 90. 6 11 Tile and slate hanging and weatherboarding 90. 6 12 Partitions 92 6 13 Assessment of cracks 93, 6 14 Natural stone masonry 94 6 15 Sedimentary rocks 95. 6 16 Igneous rocks 96 6 17 Metamorphic rocks 96,6 18 Defects in stonework 96 6 19 Cast stone 99.
6 20 Recording defects 101,7 Reinforced Concrete Cladding Materials and. Structural Steelwork 102,reinforced concrete, 7 1 Description 102 7 2 Corrosion and cracking 102. 7 3 Aggregates 105 7 4 High alumina cement 105 7 5. Thermal expansion 106 7 6 Frost damage 106 7 7, Electrolytic action 106 7 8 Lightweight aggregates 106 7 9. De ection 107 7 10 Diagnosis 107 7 11 Brick wall panels. in RC frames 107 7 12 No nes concrete housing 108 7 13. Autoclaved aerated concrete 109,cladding materials. 7 14 Description 112 7 15 Cladding defects 113 7 16 Joint. problems 114 7 17 Metallic fasteners 116,structural steelwork.
7 18 Description 117 7 19 Diagnosis 117,8 Damp Penetration and Condensation 118. 8 1 Description 118 8 2 Damp courses 118,8 3 Diagnosis 119. rising damp from the ground, 8 4 Solid walls with DPC absent or defective 120 8 5 Stone. walls in older buildings 122 8 6 Basement walls and oors. 122 8 7 Heaped earth or paving against walls and bridging. of rendering 123 8 8 Internal partitions 123 8 9 Rising. damp in ground oors 124 8 10 Rising damp in old timber. framed buildings 126,penetrating damp through walls. 8 11 Locating damp penetration 126 8 12 Parapet walls 128. 8 13 Cavity walls 129,extraneous causes,8 14 Leaks in plumbing systems 131.
condensation, 8 15 Description 131 8 16 Causes 132 8 17 Diagnosis 132. 8 18 Problems with ues 134,Contents vii,9 Timber Decay and Insect Attack 135. 9 1 Introduction 135,9 2 Description 135 9 3 Diagnosis 136. 9 4 Description 138 9 5 Diagnosis 138,beetle attack. 9 6 Description 139 9 7 Diagnosis 140 9 8 Conclusion 142. 10 Roof Structures and Coverings 144,roof structures.
10 1 Introduction 144 10 2 General investigations 150. 10 3 Defects from natural causes 150 10 4 Timber pitched. roofs 150 10 5 Timber at roofs 152 10 6 Steel trusses and. lattice girders 152 10 7 Older type roofs 153 10 8 Services. and other ttings in the roof space 154 10 9 Electrical. installation 157 10 10 Roof insulation 157 10 11 Party. walls in roof space 158,roof coverings, 10 12 Introduction 158 10 13 Types of slate 160 10 14. Ridges hips and valleys 160 10 15 Examination of a slate. roof 160 10 16 Tiled roofs 161 10 17 Bituminous felt and. polymeric sheet roo ng 163 10 18 Asphalt 166 10 19. Copper 168 10 20 Lead 169 10 21 Zinc 171 10 22, Aluminium 172 10 23 Stone slates 173 10 24 Asbestos. cement and translucent roo ng sheets 175 10 25 Asbestos. cement slates 177 10 26 Corrugated iron 177 10 27, Thatch 178 10 28 Wood shingles 180 10 29 Roof lights. 180 10 30 Duckboards 183 10 31 Metal pro le sheeting 184. 11 Fireplaces Flues and Chimney Stacks 187,11 1 Introduction 187 11 2 Domestic replaces and. ue entry 188 11 3 Down draught due to external, conditions 189 11 4 Flue investigation 192 11 5 Flues.
serving gas res 193 11 6 Flues serving oil red, boilers 194 11 7 Hearths 194 11 8 Old replaces 194. 11 9 Rebuilding 195 11 10 Chimney stacks 195,11 11 Industrial chimney shafts 198. 12 Timber Upper Floors Floor Coverings Staircases,and Ladders 200. 12 1 Introduction 200 12 2 Structural timber oor defects 201. oor coverings,12 3 Introduction 205 12 4 Boarded oors 205 12 5. Chipboard ooring 207 12 6 Hardwood strip ooring 207. viii Contents,12 7 Wood block 208 12 8 Floor screeds 208 12 9.
Granolithic paving 208 12 10 Terrazzo 209 12 11 Cork. tiles 209 12 12 Linoleum 209 12 13 Rubber ooring 210. 12 14 Thermoplastic PVC and vinyl asbestos tiles 210. 12 15 Clay oor tiles 210 12 16 Concrete tiles 211, 12 17 Magnesite ooring 211 12 18 Mastic asphalt and pitch. mastic paving 212 12 19 Rubber latex cement ooring 212. 12 20 Metal tiles 213 12 21 Slate 213 12 22 Marble in tile. or slab form 213 12 23 Conclusion 213,staircases and ladders. 12 24 Timber staircases 214 12 25 Metal staircases and. ladders 215 12 26 Reinforced concrete stairs 215, 13 Finishes and Joinery Externally and Internally 216. 13 1 Introduction 216, 13 2 Types of plaster 216 13 3 Plasterboards and wallboards. 217 13 4 Metal lathing 217 13 5 Plaster wall and ceiling. defects 218 13 6 Old plaster ceilings 219,sheet linings.
13 7 Types of board 220 13 8 Common defects 222,wall tiling. 13 9 Types of tiling and xings 222 13 10 Common defects. in nishes 223,lightweight and demountable partitions. 13 11 Types of partition and nish 224, 13 12 Doors and windows 224 13 13 Skirtings architraves. and picture rails 227 13 14 Cupboard tments 227, 13 15 Ironmongery 228 13 16 Examination of defects 228. external rendering and pointing, 13 17 Introduction 230 13 18 Rendering defects 231.
13 19 Pointing 233,painting and decorating, 13 20 Defects due to poor application or unsuitable. backgrounds 234 13 21 Interior nishes 235 13 22 Exterior. paintwork 236 13 23 Metal surfaces 237 13 24 Historic. buildings 237,glazing and leaded lights, 13 25 Introduction 238 13 26 Symptoms and defects 238. 14 Services 240,14 1 Introduction 240,cold water supply. 14 2 Types of pipework 240 14 3 Guide to checking cold. water installations 242 14 4 Old lead pipes 243,Contents ix. hot water and heating installations, 14 5 Direct and indirect systems 243 14 6 Oil red boilers.
245 14 7 Gas red boilers 245 14 8 Wall mounted water. heaters 246 14 9 Gas res 247 14 10 Items to check 247. 14 11 Immersion heaters 248 14 12 Storage heaters 248. 14 13 Boiler ues 248,central heating,14 14 Introduction 249 14 15 Common defects 250. sanitary ttings,14 16 Materials 252 14 17 Wash basins and shower. trays 252 14 18 Baths 252 14 19 Bidets 253 14 20 Sinks. 253 14 21 Taps 253 14 22 Water closets and cisterns 254. 14 23 Urinals 255,waste and soil pipe installations. 14 24 Introduction 255 14 25 Types of soil and waste. disposal systems 256 14 26 Pipes 257 14 27 Common,defects 259. electrical installations, 14 28 Introduction 260 14 29 Wiring systems 261 14 30.
The ring circuits 261 14 31 Testing and inspecting. installations 262 14 32 Regulation of electrical installation. work in dwellings 266,gas installations,14 33 Introduction 267 14 34 Checking defects 267. 14 35 Gas meter location 268,lifts and hoists, 14 36 Introduction 268 14 37 Lift pit 269 14 38 Lift. shaft 269 14 39 Machine room 271 14 40 Prevention of. damage 272 14 41 Small service lifts 272 14 42 Hand. power hoists 273 14 43 Stair lifts 273,ventilation and air conditioning. 14 44 Natural ventilation 274 14 45 Mechanical,ventilation 274 14 46 Air conditioning 275. 15 External Works 276,soil and surface water drainage.
15 1 Introduction 276 15 2 Property erected before 1900 276. 15 3 Property erected after 1900 278, assessment of the condition of existing soil drains. gulleys and inspection chambers, 15 4 Sketch plan of the system 280 15 5 Pipes and ttings 280. visual inspection and testing, 15 6 Drainage defects 282 15 7 Testing 283 15 8 Water. test 283 15 9 Air and smoke test 285 15 10 Adjoining. owners drains 286,x Contents, inspection chambers interceptors covers and frames. 15 11 Inspection chambers 286 15 12 Deep inspection. chambers 287 15 13 Back drop chambers 288, 15 14 Interceptors 289 15 15 Access covers and frames 289.
gulleys and grease traps, 15 16 Gulleys 290 15 17 Inspecting and checking gulley. defects 291,anti ood devices petrol interceptors and drainage. 15 18 Anti ood devices 292 15 19 Petrol interceptors 292. 15 20 Drainage channels and gratings 293,other means of soil and waste disposal. 15 21 Cesspools cesspits 293 15 22 Septic tanks 295 15 23. Pumping stations 296,surface water, 15 24 Disposal systems from roofs 296 15 25 Disposal of. surface water from paved areas 298 15 26 Soakaways 299. repair processes,15 27 Recommendations 300,pavings and carriageways.
15 28 The function of carriageways 300 15 29 Flexible. paving 300 15 30 Concrete paving 301 15 31 Blocks and. slabs 301 15 32 Tiles and setts 301 15 33 Gravel and. hoggin 301 15 34 Examination of pavings 301,boundary walls fences and gates. 15 35 Introduction 303 15 36 Ownership of fences and. walls 303 15 37 Brick and stone boundary walls 306. 15 38 Retaining walls 307 15 39 Timber and metal fencing. 307 15 40 Types of fencing and their defects 308,15 41 Gates 309. outbuildings and other miscellaneous items, 15 42 Introduction 310 15 43 Inspection and checking. defects 310,refuse collection, 15 44 Small domestic dwellings 311 15 45 Large blocks of. ats 312 15 46 Lightning conductors 314 15 47 Trees 314. 16 Fire and Flood Damage 315,16 1 Introduction 315.
effects of re, 16 2 Preliminary investigation 317 16 3 Brickwork 318. 16 4 Concrete structures 319 16 5 Stonework 319 16 6. Steel beams columns and roof trusses 320 16 7 Timber 320. 16 8 Roof structure 320 16 9 Pitched roof coverings 321. 16 10 Flat roof coverings 321 16 11 Floors 321 16 12. Contents xi, Internal and external nishes 322 16 13 Services 323. 16 14 Recording the defects 323,ood damage, 16 15 Causes 323 16 16 Preliminary examination 323. 16 17 General effects of ooding 324 16 18 Foundations 324. 16 19 Ground oors 325 16 20 Suspended ground oors, 325 16 21 Floor nishes 325 16 22 Wall nishes 325 16 23. Metal nishes and fastenings 326 16 24 Drainage systems. 326 16 25 Pavings 326 16 26 Recording defects 326,17 Report Writing 328.
17 1 Introduction 328 17 2 Presentation 328 17 3 Report. writing criteria 329 17 4 Arrangement of information 330. 17 5 Format 331 17 6 Valuations 332,18 Legal Aspects 333. 18 1 Introduction 333 18 2 Negligence de ned 333 18 3. Duty of care 334 18 4 Breach of duty 335 18 5 Damages. 336 18 6 Accuracy of estimates 336 18 7 Brief reports 337. 18 8 Parties in tort 337 18 9 Type of survey required 338. 18 10 Professional negligence relating to surveying buildings. 338 18 11 Recent negligence cases 339 18 12 Disclaimers. and limitation periods 341 18 13 Trespass 342 18 14 Party. structures 343 18 15 Indemnity insurance 343,Appendices. Appendix I De nitions of Inspections and Surveys of Buildings. CIC Explanatory Lea et 345, Appendix II Sample Extracts of Survey Schedules 350. Appendix III Checklist for Property and Site Surveys 352. Appendix IV Checklist for Building Surveys 354, Appendix V Surveying Safely Based on RICS 2004 357. Appendix VI Report on Roof Defects Village Hall 363. Appendix VII Report on Property to be Purchased 368. Appendix VIII Glossary of Building Inspection and Related Terms 380. Bibliography 387,Preface to Second Edition, This book provides a comprehensive guide for surveyors and architects.
on the steps to take when approached by a client asking for a structural. survey It deals with all types of buildings domestic commercial and. industrial Advice is given on how to diagnose faults with many detailed. sketches and photographs to illustrate the text Examples of various types. of reports are given in the appendices, We are living in an era of change Adaptation of buildings for different. uses and extensions to existing buildings are commonplace In each of. these cases measured and structural surveys are necessary Some of the. dif culties which are met with are described in chapters 3 and 4 and. advice is given as to how to avoid mistakes, The book covers both old and new methods of construction The subject. has been treated basically under the elements of construction most of. which are interrelated Much of the information is the result of consider. able practical experience over the past fty years and is written mainly for. the newly quali ed surveyor or architect However it may be that the. book will also prove of interest to the experienced professional surveyor. I have therefore assumed that the reader has some knowledge of build. ing techniques, Flood and re damage has been given a separate chapter since it. involves different structural problems in diagnosing the cause as well as. negotiations with insurance assessors before steps for reinstatement can. be put in hand, During the past forty years there have been many new materials and. construction techniques using new and traditional materials The surveyor. can no longer be dependent on a limited range of materials but must exer. cise his judgment in a widening realm of alternatives The fabric of a build. ing has to satisfy different user needs and occupational factors The. surveyor s duty is to identify what performance is required from the fabric. in terms of durability and weathertightness It is therefore essential that. he must have a sound knowledge of not only building construction but. also the performance of materials in use, I have been encouraged by the fact that the rst edition of my book was.
well received Preparing a second edition has given me the opportunity. to revise and update the text thereby covering the latest procedures and. research New material and additional illustrations have been included. The chapter dealing with legal aspects has been expanded and refers to. recent case law now available,Preface to second edition xiii. Reference has been made to the various publications by the Building. Research Establishment which I duly acknowledge Grateful thanks are. due to Mr C I Berry BArch ARIBA for reading my manuscript and. making valuable suggestions and my wife Audrey for her invaluable. support Finally my thanks are due to the publishers for their help and. advice throughout the production of the book,Edward A Noy.

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