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SAP ABAP is a high level language that is primarily used to develop enterprise application for large business and financial institution on SAP platform This tutorial is designed for those who want to learn the basics of SAP ABAP and advance in the field of software development Prerequisites You need to have a basic understanding of Java programming and Database technologies like PL SQL to
About the Tutorial, ABAP Advanced Business Application Programming is a fourth generation programming. language used for development and customization purposes in the SAP software. Currently positioned along with Java as the main language for SAP application server. programming most of the programs are executed under the control of the run time. system This tutorial explains the key concepts of SAP ABAP. SAP ABAP is a high level language that is primarily used to develop enterprise application. for large business and financial institution on SAP platform This tutorial is designed for. those who want to learn the basics of SAP ABAP and advance in the field of software. development,Prerequisites, You need to have a basic understanding of Java programming and Database technologies. like PL SQL to make the most of this tutorial,Disclaimer Copyright. Copyright 2016 by Tutorials Point I Pvt Ltd, All the content and graphics published in this e book are the property of Tutorials Point I. Pvt Ltd The user of this e book is prohibited to reuse retain copy distribute or republish. any contents or a part of contents of this e book in any manner without written consent. of the publisher, We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely as. possible however the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors Tutorials Point I Pvt. Ltd provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy timeliness or completeness of our. website or its contents including this tutorial If you discover any errors on our website or. in this tutorial please notify us at contact tutorialspoint com. Table of Contents,About the Tutorial i,Audience i,Prerequisites i. Disclaimer Copyright i,Table of Contents ii,1 ABAP Overview 1. 2 ABAP Environment 3,Hello ABAP 3,Using the ABAP Editor 3. Starting the Report 4,Viewing the Existing Code 4,3 ABAP Screen Navigation 5. Login Screen 5,Toolbar Icon 6,ABAP Editor 6,Standard Keys and Icons 7. 4 ABAP Basic Syntax 10,Statements 10,Colon Notation 11. Comments 11,Suppressing Blanks 12,Blank Lines 12,Inserting Lines 13. Messages 13,5 ABAP Data Types 15,Elementary Data Types 15. Complex and Reference Types 16,6 ABAP Variables 18. Static Variables 18,Reference Variables 19,System Variables 20. 7 ABAP Constants and Literals 22,Numeric Literals 22. Character Literals 22,CONSTANTS Statement 23,8 ABAP Operators 25. Arithmetic Operators 25,Comparison Operators 26,Bitwise Operators 28. Character String Operators 29,9 ABAP Loop Control 30. 10 ABAP While Loop 32,11 ABAP Do Loop 34,12 ABAP Nested Loops 36. 13 ABAP Continue Statement 38,14 ABAP Check Statement 40. 15 ABAP Exit Statement 41,16 ABAP Decisions 43,17 ABAP If Statement 44. 18 ABAP If Else Statement 46,19 ABAP Nested If Statement 49. 20 ABAP Case Control Statement 51,21 ABAP Strings 54. Creating Strings 54,String Length 54,22 ABAP Date and Time 57. Timestamps 57,Current Data and Time 58,Working with Timestamps 59. 23 ABAP Formatting Data 60,24 ABAP Exception Handling 63. Raising Exceptions 64,Catching Exceptions 64,25 ABAP Dictionary 67. Basic Types in ABAP Dictionary 68,Dictionary Tasks 69. 26 ABAP Domains 70,27 ABAP Data Elements 73,28 ABAP Tables 77. Types of Table Fields 77,Creating Tables in ABAP Dictionary 77. 29 ABAP Structures 81,30 ABAP Views 83,31 ABAP Search Help 86. 32 ABAP Lock Objects 89,Lock Mechanism 89,Creating Lock Objects 90. 33 ABAP Modularization 92,34 ABAP Subroutines 93,35 ABAP Macros 96. 36 Function Modules 98,37 ABAP Include Programs 101. 38 ABAP Open SQL Overview 103,INSERT Statement 103. CLEAR Statement 104,UPDATE Statement 104,MODIFY Statement 104. 39 ABAP Native SQL Overview 106,40 ABAP Internal Tables 109. 41 ABAP Creating Internal Tables 111,42 ABAP Populating Internal Tables 113. INSERT Statement 113,APPEND Statement 114,43 ABAP Copying Internal Tables 116. 44 ABAP Reading Internal Tables 118,45 ABAP Deleting Internal Tables 120. 46 ABAP Object Orientation 122,47 ABAP Objects 124. 48 ABAP Classes 126,Class Definition and Implementation 126. Attributes 127,Methods 127,Accessing Attributes and Methods 127. Static Attributes 128,Constructors 129,ME Operator in Methods 130. 49 ABAP Inheritance 132,Access Control and Inheritance 133. Redefining Methods in Sub Class 134,50 ABAP Polymorphism 136. 51 ABAP Encapsulation 138,Encapsulation by Interface 138. Designing Strategy 139,52 Interfaces 140,53 Object Events 143. 54 ABAP Report Programming 145,55 ABAP Dialog Programming 148. Creating a New Dialog Program 149,Adding a Screen to the Dialog Program 149. Screen Layout and Adding Hello World Text 150,Creating Transaction 151. Executing the Program 152,56 ABAP Smart Forms 153,Creating a Form 153. Creating a Text Node in the Form 155,57 ABAP SAPscripts 158. 58 ABAP Customer Exits 163,59 ABAP User Exits 166,60 ABAP Business Add Ins 170. 61 ABAP Web Dynpro 172,Architecture of Web Dynpro 172. Web Dynpro Component and Window 173,1 ABAP Overview SAP ABAP. ABAP stands for Advanced Business Application Programming a 4GL 4th generation. language Currently it is positioned along with Java as the main language for SAP. application server programming, Let s start with the high level architecture of SAP system The 3 tier Client Server. architecture of a typical SAP system is depicted as follows. The Presentation layer consists of any input device that can be used to control SAP. system This could be a web browser a mobile device and so on All the central processing. takes place in Application server The Application server is not just one system in itself. but it can be multiple instances of the processing system The server communicates with. the Database layer that is usually kept on a separate server mainly for performance. reasons and also for security Communication happens between each layer of the system. from the Presentation layer to the Database and then back up the chain. Note ABAP programs run at the application server level Technical distribution of software. is independent of its physical location It means basically all three levels can be installed. on top of each other on one computer or each level can be installed on a different computer. or a server, ABAP programs reside inside the SAP database They execute under the control of the run. time system that is a part of the SAP kernel The run time system processes all ABAP. statements controlling the flow logic and responding to user events. So unlike C and Java ABAP programs are not stored in separate external files Inside. the database ABAP code exists in two forms, Source code that can be viewed and edited with the ABAP workbench tools. Generated code which is a binary representation If you are familiar with Java. this generated code is somewhat comparable with Java byte code. The run time system can be considered as a virtual machine just similar to Java virtual. machine A key component of the ABAP run time system is the database interface that. turns database independent statements Open SQL into the statements understood by. the underlying database Native SQL SAP can work with a wide variety of databases and. the same ABAP program can run on all of those,2 ABAP Environment SAP ABAP. Reports are a good starting point for familiarizing yourself with general ABAP principles. and tools ABAP reports are used in many areas In this chapter we will see how easy it. is to write a simple ABAP Report,Hello ABAP, Let s get started with the common Hello World example. Each ABAP statement starts with an ABAP keyword and ends with a period Keywords must. be separated by at least one space It does not matter whether or not you use one or. several lines for an ABAP statement, You need to enter your code using the ABAP Editor that is a part of ABAP Tools delivered. with the SAP NetWeaver Application Server ABAP also known as AS ABAP. AS ABAP is an application server with its own database ABAP run time environment and. ABAP development tools such as ABAP Editor The AS ABAP offers a development platform. that is independent of hardware operating system and database. Using the ABAP Editor, Step 1 Start the transaction SE38 to navigate to the ABAP Editor discussed in the next. chapter Let s start creating a report that is one of the many ABAP objects. Step 2 On the initial screen of the editor specify the name of your report in the input. field PROGRAM You may specify the name as ZHELLO1 The preceding Z is important for. the name Z ensures that your report resides in the customer namespace. The customer namespace includes all objects with the prefix Y or Z It is always used when. customers or partners create objects like a report to differentiate these objects from. objects of SAP and to prevent name conflicts with objects. Step 3 You may type the report name in lower case letters but the editor will change it. to upper case So the names of ABAP objects are Not case sensitive. Step 4 After specifying the name of the report click the CREATE button A popup window. ABAP PROGRAM ATTRIBUTES will pop up and you will provide more information about. your report, Step 5 Choose Executable Program as the report type enter the title My First ABAP. Report and then select SAVE to continue The CREATE OBJECT DIRECTORY ENTRY window. will pop up next Select the button LOCAL OBJECT and the popup will close. You can complete your first report by entering the WRITE statement below the REPORT. statement so that the complete report contains just two lines as follows. REPORT ZHELLO1,WRITE Hello World,Starting the Report. We can use the keyboard Ctrl S or the save icon right hand side beside the command. field to save the report ABAP development takes place in AS ABAP. Starting the report is as simple as saving it Click the ACTIVATION button left hand side. next to the start icon and start the report by using the icon DIRECT PROCESSING or the. F8 function key The title My First ABAP Report along with the output Hello World is. displayed as well Here is the output,My First ABAP Report. Hello World, As long as you do not activate a new report or activate a change to an existing report it. is not relevant to their users This is important in a central development environment. where you may work on objects that other developers use in their projects. Viewing the Existing Code, If you look at the field Program and double click on the value ZHELLO1 the ABAP editor. will display the code for your report This is called Forward Navigation Double clicking on. an object s name opens that object in the appropriate tool. 3 ABAP Screen Navigation SAP ABAP, In order to understand SAP ABAP you need to have basic knowledge of screens like Login. ABAP Editor Logout and so on This chapter focuses on screen navigation and the standard. toolbar functionality,Login Screen, After you log on to SAP server SAP login screen will prompt for User ID and Password. You need to provide a valid user ID and Password and press Enter the user id and. password is provided by system administrator Following is the login screen. Toolbar Icon,Following is the SAP screen toolbar, Menu Bar Menu bar is the top line of dialog window. Standard Toolbar Most standard functions such as Top of Page End of Page Page Up. Page Down and Save are available in this toolbar, Title Bar Title Bar displays the name of the application business process you are. currently in, Application Toolbar Application specific menu options are available here. Command Field We can start an application without navigating through the menu. transactions and some logical codes are assigned to business processes Transaction codes. are entered in the command field to directly start the application. ABAP Editor, You may just start the transaction SE38 enter SE38 in Command Field to navigate to the. ABAP Editor,Standard Keys and Icons, Exit keys are used to exit the program module or to log off They are also used to go. back to the last accessed screen, Following are the standard exit keys used in SAP as shown in the image. Following are the options for checking activating and processing the reports. It s always a good practice to Exit from your ABAP Editor or and logoff from the SAP system.