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Rajasthan Rajasthan Orissa West Bengal Bihar Madhya Pradesh Fauna of Conservation Areas 8 Total area sq km 800 1945 2840 1618 3568 1985 928 777 825 800 2750 2585 840 758 Core area sq km 571 940 470 448 1200 1808 213 501 392 498 845 1330 335 293 The Zoological Survey of India was entrusted with the job of making a faunal inventory
FAUNA OF CONSERVATION AREAS 8,FAUNA OF TIGER RESERVE. SUNDERBANS MANAS PAIAMAU SIMLIPAL,The Director Zoological Survey of India. ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA,Copyright Government 0 India 1995. Published July 1995,Compiled by,V C Agrawal R K Ghose. ZSI Calcutta,PrIce Inland Rs 260 00,Foreign 15 20, Printed at Calcutta Laser Graphics Pvt Ltd 71 Hari Ghosh Street Calcutta 700 006. and Published by the Director Zoological Surv y of India Calcutta. A recent assessment of Project Tiger in India on the Completion of first 20 years. clearly indicates that the ar a under conservation for Project Tiger provided an unique. habitat for a series of faunal elements down the food chain Of these most significant being. the recqrds of other threatened or endangered species which could find niches within Tiger. Re eAle areas besides a host of other invertebrates The profiles of faunal resources of four. of the prime Tiger Reserve areas of India presented in this volume would once again. provide evidences of species diversity in each of these conservation area. I would like to thank Dr V C Agrawal and Dr R K Gho e. for help in the compilation, of this volume My thanks also go to the officers and staff of the Publication Production. Division for bringing out the book in record time,Dr A K Ghosh. Calcutta Director,July 1995 Zoological Survey of India. FAUNA OF CONSERVATION AREAS 8,FAUNA OF TIGER RESERVE. SUNDERBANS MANAS PALAMAU SIMLIPAL,Fauna of Sunderbans Tiger Reserve. Fauna of Manas Tiger Reserve 47,Fauna of Palamau Tiger Reserve 83. Fauna of SimlipaI Tiger Reserve 105,Zoo I Surv India. Fauna of Conservation Areas No 8 Fauna of Sunderbans Tiger Reserve 1 46 1995. FAUNA OF SUNDERBANS TIGER RESERVE,INTRODUCTION, Project Tiger was concieved in the seventies out of concern for India s dwindling wildlife. The tiger not only stood for India s wilderness but is also at the apex of a large and complex food. chain Hence it was thought that the well being of the tiger will in turn reflect the health of the. Indian wilderness, The objective of the Project Tiger was enunciated as to ensure maintenance of a viable. population of tiger in India for scientific economic aesthetic cultural and ecological values and. to preserve for all times areas o f biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit. education and enjoyment of the people, The tiger is a multi habitat species hence widely distributed in India It is at home from. high altitude forests of the Himalayas to coastal mangroves scrub lands of Rajasthan to lush. evergreens of the south and northeast Hence it was decided that the project Tiger must confonn. to an ecosystem approach, The general scheme of the Project therefore involved in setting up of several tiger reserves. at least one in each biogeographical zone and would include a core area free from human. disturbance and a buffer area in which conservation oriented land use was to be al1owed The. other consideration was the amenability of the specific area to concerted conservation action. The Tiger Reserves were established in phases 9 in 1973 74 2 in 1979 4 in 1983 and one. each in 1987 1988 1990 and 1992 covering 13 Political States and an area of 29716 sq km of. which the core segment is 12636 sq km,The details of the Reserves are as follows. Name of Reserve State Total area Core area,sq km sq km. Bandipur Karnataka 866 523,Buxa West Bengal 759 315. Corbett Uttar Pradesh 521 338,Dudwa Uttar Pradesh 811 648. Indravati Madhya Pradesh 2799 1258,2 Fauna of Conservation Areas 8. Name of Reserve State Total area Core area,sq km sq km. Agasthyamalai Tamil Nadu 800 571,Kalakkad Mundantharai. Kanha Madhya Pradesh 1945 940,Manas Assam 2840 470. Melghat Maharashtra 1618 448,Nagarjunasagar Andhra Pradesh 3568 1200. Namdapha Arunachal Pradesh 1985 1808,Palamau Bihar 928 213. Periyar Kerala 777 501,Ranthambhore Rajasthan 825 392. Sariska Rajasthan 800 498,Simlipal Orissa 2750 845. Sunderbans West Bengal 2585 1330,Valmiki Bihar 840 335. Pench Madhya Pradesh 758 293, The Zoological Survey of India was entrusted with the job of making a faunal inventory. of the tiger reserves of the country in July 1982 by the Steering Committee of the Project Tiger. Since then practically all but two of the Reserves were surveyed by the department and inventories. are under preparation The highlights of the fauna of these Reserves have been dealt with in the. following pages,SUNDARBANS TIGER RESERVE, The Sunderbans Tiger Reserve Fig I has an approximate area of 2585 sq km with a. core area of 1330 sq km The forests within the reserve experience high and low tides twice a. day Sometimes in monsoon particularly during full moon the water level may ascend up to 9. m The plant associates in the tiger reserve may be observed as under. I In area where average soil salinity is highest Excoecaria aqallocha Cereops decalldra. association is most common, 2 In relatively less saline tract towards south Rhizophora mucrollata Briquiera gynlllorhiza. Fauna of Sunderbans Tiger Reserve 3,Heritiera nlinor association in common. 3 Exclusively Phoenix paludosa forests are found on relatively high lands. 4 On newly formed landmass having low average salinity Avicellflia nlarina Avicennia alba. and A vicennia officinalis are common, 5 A vicennia sp and Exacaccaria sp association is common in land area of northern side. TOPOGRAPHY,i Physical features, Sundarbans is characterised by a group of islands facing the sea and supports the largest. mangrove belt of the world It starts from the mouth of the river Hooghly on the west and extends. upto the river Meghna in the east covering 4 districts North and South 24 Parganas in India and. Khulna and Bakhergunge in Bangladesh The total forest cover is about 9000 sq km of which. 4264 sq km is within the Indian territory Rest of the area has mostly been reclaimed for either. agriculture or human settlement, The major rivers in the area are Saptmukhi Thakuran Matla Gausaba and Raimangal. These rivers form a unique complex with a network of tributaries jointly known as Hooghly. Matla estuary The interaction between the sea and freshwater as well as silt brought down by the. rivers Ganga and Brahmaputra and their tributaries from the Himalayas play an important role in. the formation of this delta, The Sundarbans deltaic alluvium is formed out of the silt brought down from the Himalayas. The soil is mainly of fine silty clay in the northernmost part peaty deposits in the middle and. swampy areas and sandy clay towards the sea face The new alluvium can be subdivided into the. area which is annualy renewed by the rivers and that devoid of inundation The loamy soil is the. common adhesive black soil of the area The salinity of the soil depends upon the freshwater flow. The torrential rain particularly during monsoon period diminishes the salinity of the soil surface. and play a major role in making the soil free of salt. ii Climate, In spite of close proximity to the Tropic of Cancer the extreme climate does not prevail. here because of its location nearer to the sea as well as due to tidal flushing of innumerable rivers. and creeks inside, The monsoon is active during July October with occasional rain throughout the year. brought about by the southwest wind The postmonsoon period is characterised by cold weather. from November to February The premonsoon period March June is predominantly dry l d. accompanied with occasional thunderstorms The mean minimum temperature is 20 C in Dcccmher. January and maximum 29 C during June July The average rainfall is about 180 Clll. 4 Fauna of Conservation Areas 8,iii Vegetation, The mangrove forests are salinity resistant and are known as halophytes The extensive. lateral root system which get submerged under water often throws pneumatophores to draw oxygen. and moisture from the air and the stems develop stilt roots specially in areas with high water. current The leaves become leathery dark and thick with embedded stomata and aqueous tissue. As many as 26 species of mangrove plants are found in the Sundarbans. The dominating plant species along the banks of the river mouth are Avicennia marina. Aegialitis rotundifolia Bruguiera cylindrica B parvifolia Ceriops raga I Avicennia alba and. Lumnitzera racemosa Appendix I Middle zone of the rivers is dominated by Rhizophora apiculata. Ceriops decandra Kandelia candel Xylocarpus granatunl Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Aegiceras. corniculatum Inland tidal flats with elevated land and having more freshwater influx and low. tidal action favour Heritiera fomes and Nypa fruticans In the swampy areas with occasional. inundation Exocoecaria aqallocha combines with Phoenix paludosa A remarkable species of the. area is Sonneratia apetala found along the large river banks. FAUNAL ANALYSIS, Being a very specialised environment mangrove ecosystem supports a wide assemblage of. animal communities It is the bode of many groups of animals which live entirely within the. mangrove several others visit this area either to feed or breed but live elsewhere still others use. the mangrove for shelter and or roosting, Terrestrial brackishwater and marine fauna constitute the major faunal components of this. Tiger Reserve In total 35 species of mammals are reported from this area comprising chiropterans. 9 spp insectivores 1 sp primates 1 sp carnivores 12 spp rodents 7 spp artiodactyls. 2 spp and cetaceans 3 spp Some of the important species are Rhesus Macaque Leopard Cat. fishing Cat Tiger Chital monogooses 2 spp Common and Smooth coated otters Gangetic and. Irrawady dolphins Little Porpoise etc Out of 35 species of mammals 6 species are enlisted in. Schedule I and 8 in Schedule II of the Wild Life Protection Act. The avifauna of the Reserve is quite rich About 260 species of birds are reported from the. Reserve Many species enjoy roo sting in colonies on tall tress some use tree trunk of mangroves. as observation post many species occur on flowering and fruiting trees some are ground dwellers. others found hopping on mud flats and still others are aquatic 17 species namely the Large. Whistling Teal hawks belonging to the family Accipitridae Red headed Merlin and Perigrine. Falcon are rare and are enlisted in Schedule I of the Wild Life Protection Act. The reptilian fauna is characterised by 7 species of turtles and tortoises both freshwater and. marine 5 species of lizards 5 species of snakes and a species of crocodile Of these 5 species. of turtles 2 species of Varanus 1 species of snake and the Estuarine Crocodile are rare and. enlisted in Schedule I of the Wild Life protection Act. The amphibian fauna is represented by 4 species of Rana and a species each of Bufo. Fauna of Sunderbans Tiger Reserve 5, Microhyla and Rhacophorus Being economically important the species of Rana are protected in. Schedule IV of the Wild Life Protection Act, Most of the fishes found in this estuarine complex are from sea The gobiids and clupeids. are known to breed and complete their life cycle in the estuary Hi sa POllia PolYlle111US etc are. all marine but travel through estuaries upstream for breeding Some of the freshwater fishes like. Anguilla and Pangasius are catadromous and they enter the estuary for breeding Several species. of marine sharks and rays envade the estuary, The lone representative of the hemichordate namely Saccoglossus sp has been recorded. from Gosaba and Raidighi, The potentiality of fisheries inside the mangrove zone is quite evident by the presence of. a large number of cat fishes The fisheries of this area can not be completed if the huge amount. of shrimps and prawns are not taken into account along with the edible crabs Some of the. common species of prawns and shrimps are Penaeus monodon and Pellaeus indicus Macrobrachilll11. rosenbergi Metapenaeus monoceros etc Most common edible crabs are Scylla serrata and VarUlla. litterata The quantum of S serrata at Budhakhali landing centre was 142 7 and 149 7 tonnes. during 1984 and 1985 respectively Nandi Pramanik 1986 Genera like Sesarnla Uca and. Metaprograpsus are also predominant, Out of 125 species of molluscs recorded from Hugly Malta estuary 67 species were collected. from this Reserve Some of these are arboreal some dwell in crevices of dykes jetties brickwork. and wooden pillars and others are substratum dwellers The gastropod species in order of relative. abundance in their habitats are Assinlinea brevicola Cerithidea cillgulata Assinlinea beddol11ealla. Stenothera deltae Littorina scraba Hanlinea crocata Telescopium telescopiunl The maximum. population density amongst molluscs is of a bivalve species namely Meretrix 111eretrix 2320. 2800 m 2 The shells of species Telescopiunl telescopium Cerithida cillgu ata etc are used for. the extraction of lime and also as poultry feed The flesh of Crassostrea gryplzoides is edible. Among insects several species have been recorded from the Reserve for example. Collembola 3 spp Thysanura 3 spp Orthoptera 10 spp Dictyoptera 2 spp Isoplera 2. spp Hemiptera 11 spp Thysanoptera 2 spp Lepidoptera 8 spp Coleoptera 29 spp etc. The abundance of mosquitoes make the Reserve prone to malaria and mosquito borne diseases. Flowers of some species of mangals attract honey bees and offer opportunity for the production. of honey The Rock Bee Apis dorsata is an important species of commercial importance The. amount of production of honey per year is about 500 quintals and of bee wax about 300 kg from. the Tiger Reserve, The echiurids and sipunculids are represented by two and one species respectively. The sea anemones are represented by four genera They are found adhering to the 111ud or. any other substrata in Namkhana Pathar Pratima and lharkhali Sea anemones are found to. Nandi and Pramanik 1986 J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res 4 2 151 153. 6 Fauna of Con rvation Areas 8,dominate the lower littoral mud flats. As regards parasites isopod parasites have been recorded from fishes protozoan parasites. from mammals haematozoans from estuarine fishes coccidian and myxosporedian parasites from. the mud skippers helminth parasites from the tiger and Inonogenea from fishes. List of SOllle inlportallt plants occurring in Sundarbans Tiger Reserve. Scientific Nanle Conlnlon Name Relnarks,Family TAMARICACEA. Tanlarix gal ica Linn Nona Jhao Bush or small trees. Family MALVACEAE,Thespesia populnea Corr Parash Small trees. Family STERCULIACEAE,Heritiera fOlnes Buch Sundari Tree more com nlon. outside mangroves,Heritiera littoralis Dryand Tree. Family TILIACEAE, Browlllo1 via tersa L Benth Sundrilata Shrub or small tree. Syn Broenlowia lanceolara,Bruguiera gynlnorhiza Lamk Kankra Large tree. B parviflora W A Shrub or small tree,Ceriops tagal Arn Goran Small shrub or small. Syn Ceriops candolleana tree,C decandra Grift Arn Goran Shrub or small tree. Syn C roxburghiana,Kalldelia candel L W A Goria Small evergreen tree. Syn Kandelia rheed,Family RHIZOPHORACEAE, Rhizophora Inucronata Lamk Garjan Large shrub or tree. Family MELIACEAE,Amoora cucullata Roxb Amur Tree more comnlon. outside mangrove,Fauna of Sunderbans Tiger Reserve 7. Scientific Name Conlmol1 Nal1le Remarks,Xylocarpus granatum Koenig Dhulldal Tree. Syn Carapa obovata Bl,Xylocarpus moluccensis Lamk Passur Tree. Syn C moluccensis Lamk,Family LEGUMINOSAE,Cynometra ralnif ora Linn Singra Tree. Dalbergia spinosa Roxb Scrambling shrub,Derris heptaphylla Benth Kali Iata Climber. Cyn Derris uliginosa,Family COMBRETACEAE,Lumnitzera racemosa Willd Kirpa Small tree. Family LYTHRACEAE,Sonneratia acida Linn Keora Small tree. Acidic fruits eaten,by man monkeys,deer in Sundarban. S apetala ham Keora Tree,Family MYRSINACEAE, Aegiceras corniculatunl Gaertn Khalshi Shrub or small tree. nlajor source for,Family APOCYNACEAE, Cerbera odolluanl Gaertn Dakor Shrub or small tree. Family ACANTHACEAE,Acanthus ilicifolius Linn Hargoza Shruh. Family VERBENACEAE,Clerodelldroll inerme Gaestn,Family A VICENACEAE. Avicennia officinalis Linn Baen Tree,A marina Baen Small tree. 8 Fauna of Conservation Areas 8,Family EUPHORBIACEAE. Exacaecaria agallocha Linn Gengwa Small tree,Family PALMEAE. Nipa fruticans Warneb Golpatta Creeper shrub,Phoenix paludosa Roxb Hantal Tree. Family GRAMINEAE,Oryza coarctata Roxb Dhani Ghash Tall grass. Family PLUMBAGINACEAE,Aegialitis rotulldifolia Roxb Sata i gach Shrub. Family POL YPODIACEAE,Acrostichul11 aUreUl11 Linn, List of fauna occurring in Sunderbans Tiger Reserve. Scientific nal1le COnlmOll llanle Status,Class MAMMALIA. Order INSECTIVORA,Family SORICIDAE,SUIlCUS 111ur nus Linnaeus House Shrew. Order PRIMATES,Family CERCOPITHECIDAE,Macaca mulatta Zimmermann Rhesus Macaque Sch II. Order CHIROPTERA,Family PTEROPODIDAE, Pteropus giganteus Brunnich Indian Flying Fox Sch V. Cynopterus sphinx Vahl Short nosed Fruit Bat Sch V. Family EMBALLONURIDAE, Taphozous longinlanus Hardwicke Long Winged Tomb Bat. Family MEGATERMATIDAE,Megaderma lyra Geoffroy Indian False Vampire. Fauna of Sunderbans Tiger R erve 9,Scientific nante Comlnon nanle Status. Family RHINOPOMATIDAE,Rhinoponla hardwickei Gray Lesser Rat tailed Bat. Family RHINOLOPHIDAE,Rhinolophus lepidus Blyth Blyth s Horseshoe Bat. Family HIPPOSIDERIDAE, Hipposideros bic r Temminck Bicoloured Leaf nosed Bat. Family VESPERTILIONIDAE, Scotophilus tenllllillcki Horsefield Lesse Yellow Bat. Pipistrellus minlus Wroughton Indian Pigmy Pipistrelle. Order RODENTIA,Family SCIURIDAE, Funambulus pennanti Wroughton Five Striped Squirrel Sch IV. Family HYSTRICIDAE, Hystrix indica Kerr Indian Crested Porcupi ne Sc h IV. Family MURIDAE,Rattus raltus Linnaeus House Rat Sch V. Mus 111usculus Linnaeus House Mouse Sch V,Mus boodllga Gray Little Indian Field Mouse. Bandicota indica Bechstein Large Bandicoot Rat, Balldicota bellga ellsis Gray Lesser Bandicoot Rat. Order CARNIVORA,Family CANIDAE,Canis aureus Linnaeus Asiatic Jackal Sch n. Vu pes bengalensis Shaw Bengal Fox Sch II,Family FELIDAE. Felis viverrina Bennett Fishing Cat Sch I,Felis Chaus Gouldenstaedt Jungle Cat Sch II. 10 Fauna of Conservation Areas 8,Scientific name Common name Status. Felis bengalensis Kerr Leopard Cat Sch I,Panthera tigris Linnaeus Tiget Sch I. Fami1y VIVERRIDAE, Viverricula indica Desmarest Small Indian Civet Sch II. Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Gray Common Palm Civet Sch II. Family MUSTELIDAE,Lutra lutra Linnaeus Common Otter Sch II. Lutra perspicillata I Geoffroy Smooth coated Otter Sch II. Family HERPESTIDAE,Herpestes palustris Ghose Marsh Mongoose Sch IV. H erpestes auropunctatus Hodgson Small Indian Mongoose Sch IV. Order ARTIODACTYLA,Family CERVIDAE,Axis axis Erxleben Chital Sch III. Family SmDAE,Sus scrofa Linnaeus WiJd Boar Sch III. Order CETACEA,Family PLATANISTIDAE, Platanista gange tica Roxburgh Gangetic Dolphin Sch I. Family DELPHINIDAE, Neophocaena phocaenoides Cuvier Black Finless Porpoise Sch I. qrcaella brevirostris Owen Irrawady Dolphin Sch I,Class AVES. Order PODICIPEDIFORMES,Family PODICIPEDIDAE, Podiceps ruficollis Pallas Little Grebe L M lObs Sch IV. Order PELECANIFORMES,Family P HALACROCORACIDAE, Phalacrocorax niger Vieillot Little Cormorant R lObs Sch IV. R Resident and breeding birds M Migratory L M Local Migratory RIL M Resident though subject to local move. ment Obs Observed Coil Collected E R Extension of Range N R New Report from Sundarban Collection made. after decade Sch Schedule of the wild Life Protection Act.