by Philip M Gerhart Ph D P E University of Evansville and Samuel J Korellis P E EPRI ASME Performance Test Codes PTC provide rules and procedures for planning preparing executing and reporting performance tests A performance test is an engineering evaluation its results indicate how well the equipment performs its functions
D E A R ENGINEE RING STUDENT, The articles in this booklet explore different facets of ASME Standards. Certification ASME Standards Certification plays an important role in ensuring. the safety of the public and in the standardization of things as common as. nuts and bolts We have selected the articles to draw your attention to some. important aspects of your professional life and future in the mechanical or. related engineering field, For an overview of ASME Standards Certification see the Codes and. Standards at a Glance section which immediately follows the articles. We hope that you find this collection of articles interesting and informative and. that it provides you with a new window into the field of ASME Standards and. Certification Please let us know what you think at cs asme org. Task Group on ASME Codes and Standards for Mechanical and Other. Engineering Students, Kenneth Balkey P E Consulting Engineer Westinghouse Electric Company. Domenic A Canonico Ph D Canonico Associates,Angel Luis Guzman Project Engineer ASME. Pamela F Nelson Professor UNAM, Mark Webster P E Vice President Engineering Pflow Industries Inc. Steven Weinman Director Standardization and Testing ASME. This brochure is an update of the previous brochure which was issued about. a decade ago The Task Group acknowledges the work of the previous task. group of Gerard G Lowen Chair Guy A Arlotto Stuart Brown. Domenic A Canonico Ryan L Crane John H Fernandez Philip M Gerhart. Halit M Kosar Richard Merz and Sam Zamrik,ABOUT ASME. ASME Mission, To serve our diverse global communities by advancing disseminating. and applying engineering knowledge for improving the quality of life and. communicating the excitement of engineering,ASME Vision. ASME the American Society of Mechanical Engineers will be the essential. resource for mechanical engineers and other technical professionals throughout. the world for solutions that benefit humankind,SME is a not for profit membership. ASME HELPS THE GLOBAL organization that enables collaboration. knowledge sharing career enrichment and, ENGINEERING COMMUNITY skills development across all engineering. disciplines Founded in 1880 by a small,DEVELOP SOLUTIONS TO. group of leading industrialists ASME has, REAL WORLD CHALLENGES grown through the decades to include. more than 120 000 members in over, FACING ALL PEOPLE AND 140 countries around the globe The. membership includes a wide diversity of, OUR PLANET technical disciplines who represent all. facets of the technical communities, ASME s diverse members range from college students and early career. engineers to project managers corporate executives researchers and academic. leaders ASME serves this wide ranging technical community through quality. programs in continuing education training and professional development. standards and certification research conferences and publications government. relations and other forms of outreach, Many engineers join ASME for career enrichment lifelong learning and the. opportunity to network with professionals of like minded interests Others. become active in local sections or in ASME s administrative structure of boards. and committees providing leadership and expertise to the Society and the. profession at large, The governance of the Society is the responsibility of member elected. governors who volunteer their vast knowledge and expertise to the organization. The board of governors and other volunteer leaders of ASME work in. collaboration with a professional staff to shape the Society s programs and. strategies and make them available to engineers throughout the world ASME. administers its programs through offices and institutes in the United States. Belgium China and India and through various committees and groups to ensure. that the myriad technical interests of its members and the global engineering. community are met,More information about ASME can be obtained from. http www asme org about asme,A S T R A T E G I C R OAD MAP GUID E S A SME. ASME strategically aligns its programs and initiatives to focus on three main. organizational priorities energy engineering workforce development and. global impact in an effort to provide relevant knowledge based resources to. the broad spectrum of ASME members and constituents. In energy ASME is serving as an essential energy technology resource and. leading advocate for balanced energy policies In engineering workforce. development ASME fosters a broader competent vibrant and more diverse. engineering workforce with improved retention in both the profession and. ASME over all career stages, And in the area of global impact ASME is committed to delivering locally. relevant engineering resources to advance public safety and quality of life. around the world, Among many examples of the Society s growing outreach in the global arena. is Engineering for Change E4C E4C is a dynamic community of engineers. technologists social scientists NGOs local governments and community. advocates whose mission is to improve people s lives in communities around. the world E4C features an open innovative and user friendly online platform. that facilitates collaboration and knowledge exchange for the development of. appropriate solutions to issues such as sanitation access to clean water energy. transportation food education and housing,More information about E4C can be obtained from. https www engineeringforchange org,ASME S ROLE IN THE GLOBALIZATION. OF CODES AND STANDARDS,by Donald R Frikken P E Becht Engineering Company. Movement to harmonization,of standards requirements has. taken on greater interest as,companies continue to merge or. expand operations across international,boundaries helped by regional trade. agreements such as the North American,Free Trade Agreement NAFTA and. those established by the European Union,EU which have facilitated international mergers. through the lowering of tariffs on imports, The companies involved in these consolidations or expansions are used to selling. to just one market find themselves selling to global markets The standards for. products in these markets are often different which complicates manufacturing. procedures Local laws may require the use of a particular standard yet these. laws are viewed by the World Trade Organization WTO as technical barriers to. trade and WTO member countries are charged with reducing these and other. barriers to free global trade, What is the best way for standards developing organizations like ASME and. for users of standards to find a solution Possible approaches are to adopt a. prevalent standard to perform a comparison of standards requirements to. identify areas of possible convergence or to develop an umbrella standard that. references other regional and national standards On new emerging topics or. technologies a global consensus standard may possibly be developed from. scratch ASME is involved in helping promote whichever approach best serves a. specific industry and the users of the applicable ASME standards. ASME standards have changed over the years to include new construction. materials to address new topics and to incorporate new calculation methods As. these changes continue to be introduced global developments bring even more. change requiring greater flexibility and adaptation from industry. ELEVATORS ESCALATORS AND MOVING WALKWAYS,by Jim Coaker Coaker Company PC. How many times in the past week have you, A NORMAL ridden in an elevator on an escalator or on a. moving walk These actions are so routine in, CONVENIENCE IN everyday life that they happen automatically. EVERYDAY LIFE and are too numerous to recall, FUNCTIONING Behind each mechanism is a web of machinery. power sources control systems and redundant, WITHOUT INCIDENT safeguards in both design and operation that. delivers safe vertical transportation without,ASME elevator and escalator standards A17. series consisting of safety codes for elevators,and escalators including a code that covers. existing installation requirements Inspectors,Manuals and Guidelines covering evacuation. and electrical equipment requirements is one,of the largest areas covered by the Society s. codes and standards program Elevator,ridership in the United States is conservatively. estimated at more than 200 billion passenger,rides per year a figure that makes it easy to. appreciate the critical role that codes and,standards play in public safety. Dynamic change defines the world of technical,applications and ASME s standards are. constantly updated to keep abreast of changes,in technology Starting with basic design. principles relating to public safety these codes,and standards establish guidelines and. requirements for equipment design installation operation inspection and. maintenance, Performance based codes have been developed to provide guidelines and. requirements to allow latest state of the art technology design and materials. in engineering design of new and renovated elevator systems Advancements in. technology and updates to codes and standards that support elevator systems. have led to buildings that are ever taller more efficient and more resistant to. natural forces helping to sustain the infrastructure of many of our great cities. Even if the end result is invisible a normal convenience in everyday life. functioning without incident underlying complexities of system application. present stimulation and challenge to the engineering mind Some professionals. spend their careers in this industry,W H A T AR E P E R FOR MAN CE TE ST C O DES. by Philip M Gerhart Ph D P E University of Evansville. and Samuel J Korellis P E EPRI,ASME Performance Test Codes PTC. PERFORMANCE TEST provide rules and procedures for planning. preparing executing and reporting, CODES PROVIDE A performance tests A performance test is. LEVEL PLAYING FIELD an engineering evaluation its results. indicate how well the equipment performs,FOR BOTH its functions. MANUFACTURERS erformance test codes originated as,Power Test Codes and emphasized. AND USERS OF THE energy conversion equipment The first. EQUIPMENT OR SYSTEMS ASME code was Rules for Conducting. Boiler Tests published in 1884 Today,nearly 45 PTCs are available they cover. individual components e g steam,generators turbines compressors heat. exchangers systems e g flue gas,desulfurization fuel cells and complete. plants cogeneration plants In addition,to equipment codes supplements. on instruments and apparatus cover,measurement systems e g temperature. pressure flow and analytical techniques,uncertainty analysis common to most. For more than a century ASME PTC tests have provided results with the highest. level of accuracy based on current engineering knowledge and practices. and taking into account the costs of the tests and the value of the information. obtained All ASME codes are developed using input from a range of parties. who may be interested in the code and or in the associated equipment or. process Codes have the force of a legal document when cited in contracts as. they frequently are for determining the method by which equipment performs. as guaranteed, PTCs are used by equipment owners equipment suppliers and test engineers. ASME PTCs protect users from poorly performing products and enable suppliers. to compete fairly by offering reliable products Performance test codes provide. a level playing field for both manufacturers and users of the equipment or. systems Purchase specifications are greatly strengthened by citing the results. of PTC tests When buying new equipment purchasers may specify that the. equipment guarantee will be based on the results of a specific ASME PTC test. Design engineers consult PTC documents to ensure that proper instrument. connections will be available Test engineers install the required instrumentation. and use the code s procedures and calculation methods to conduct tests on the. new equipment Representatives of all parties to the test ensure that the test. methods are in compliance with the code Finally the test results are compared. to the performance criteria, Sometimes manufacturers and suppliers want to determine the exact. performance of their equipment to understand the design margins or the effects of. manufacturing tolerances on performance In this case code tests are conducted. outside of any performance guarantees, To ensure that ASME PTCs best serve global industries existing and additional. products and services are always being evaluated As the preeminent provider. of standardized methods for performance testing monitoring and analysis of. energy conversion and industrial processes systems and equipment ASME. continues to develop and add new codes, In recent years PTC committees have started working on emerging technologies. earlier i e prior to full commercialization,Some of these areas are. Fuel Cell Power Systems,Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle. Combustion Turbine Inlet Air Conditioning Equipment. Concentrating Solar Power Plants,Overall Plant Performance with Carbon Capture. By having a reliable repeatable performance test code available earlier we are. helping to facilitate the commercialization of these emerging technologies. A LOOK AT THE AS ME BOILE R AND PRESSU RE,VE S S E L C O D E BP VC. by Domenic Canonico Ph D Canonico Associates,he ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. THE IDEA FOR THE BPVC is a standard that provides rules for. the design fabrication and inspection of,BPVC AROSE IN 1911 boilers and pressure vessels. OUT OF THE NEED pressure component designed and, FOR PUBLIC SAF ETY fabricated in accordance with this standard. will have a long useful service life that,ensures the protection of human life and. property The BPVC is written by volunteers,who are nominated to its committees based. on their technical expertise and on their,ability to contribute to the writing revising. interpreting and administering of the,ollowing the invention of the steam engine. in the late 18th century there were thousands,of boiler explosions in the United States and. Europe which resulted in many deaths and,lasted throughout the 19th century. he first Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,1914 edition was published in 1915 it was. one book 114 pages long Today there are,32 books including thirteen dedicated to. the construction and inspection of nuclear,power plant components and two Code Case. books The 2010 edition of the Boiler and,Pressure Vessel Code is more than 16 000. pages The 32 books are either standards that,provide the rules for fabricating a component. or they are support documents such as,Materials Section II Parts A through D. Nondestructive Examination Section V and,Welding and Brazing Qualifications Section. IX Code Cases provide rules that permit the,use of materials and alternative methods of. construction that are not covered by existing,BPVC rules. The BPVC is the largest ASME standard MORE THAN 100 000. both in size and in the number of, volunteers involved in its development COPIES OF THE BPVC. At any one time there are more than ARE IN USE IN 100. 950 volunteers serving on one or more, committees The fact that the BPVC is a COUNTRIES AROUND. committee organized and administered,by ASME may give the impression THE WORLD WITH. that the volunteers are all mechanical TRANSLATIONS INTO A. engineers This is not the case to write, such a standard requires a breadth of NUMBER OF LANGUAGES. knowledge that is not available in any one,discipline Volunteers on the committees. have expertise in materials metallurgical,and materials engineering structures. civil engineering physics chemistry,chemistry and chemical engineering and. other disciplines in addition to mechanical,engineering. Various sections of the BPVC have been,adopted into law in all Canadian provinces. and all fifty states More than half of the,companies certified by ASME Standards. Certification to manufacture pressure parts,in accordance with various sections. of the BPVC are located outside of North,Internationally the BPVC is recognized. in more than 100 countries The record,of the BPVC is a testament to its success. The safety record of pressure containing,components manufactured in accordance. with the rules of the BPVC is outstanding,The contributions made over the past 100. years by thousands of volunteers who have,participated in the preparation of the BPVC. have made this possible,U S G O V E R N ME N T USE OF AS ME. COD E S A ND STAN D AR DS,by David Terao Nuclear Regulatory Commission. n organization wants to construct and, THE FEDERAL operate a nuclear power plant to supply. the reactor steam supply system to supply, REQUIREMENTS architect engineering services to supply. components e g pressure vessels piping,GOVERNING THE USE. pumps valves or to supply an entire, OF ASME CODES AND nuclear power plant design The U S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC, STANDARDS BENEFIT the federal agency responsible for issuing. construction permits operating licenses,ASME THE NRC AND. or combined construction and operating, MOST IMPORTANTLY licenses for new nuclear power plants. requires conformance with certain ASME,THE PUBLIC codes and standards in its regulations. Therefore to obtain a license to construct,or operate a nuclear power plant a plant. owner and its subcontractors designing,and supplying nuclear components must. meet the requirements of these codes,In the 1980s the federal government s. Office of Management and Budget OMB,first issued OMB Circular A 119 which. required certain government agencies,to use applicable national consensus. standards wherever practical in lieu,of developing their own regulations to. accomplish their missions Also Public,Law 104 113 The National Technology. Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995,requires all federal agencies to use. technical standards that are developed,by voluntary consensus standards bodies. such as ASME as a means to carry out,policy objectives where practical In. complying with these laws the NRC incorporates by reference certain industry. codes and standards including Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel. Code into its regulations Section III provides rules for the materials selection. design fabrication installation examination and testing of nuclear components. It should be emphasized that under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended. the NRC has authority to promulgate regulations governing the design. construction and operation of commercial nuclear power plants Generally the. NRC develops and promulgates its own regulations For its regulation governing. the use of codes and standards the NRC incorporates by reference into its. regulations certain consensus standards such as ASME codes Incorporation. by reference was established by statute and allows the NRC and other federal. agencies to refer to standards already published elsewhere These standards are. then treated like any other properly issued regulation and have the force of law. To address the safe operation of, FROM THE CONSTRUCTION nuclear reactors ASME developed. and publishes Section XI Rules, PHASE TO THE OPERATING for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear. PHASE THE NEED FOR Power Plant Components and,the ASME OM Code Code for. RULES SHIFTS FROM DESIGN Operation and Maintenance of. Nuclear Power Plants to ensure, AND CONSTRUCTION TO that continued safe operation is. INSERVICE INSPECTION AND maintained over the life of the plant. These two codes are also required, TESTING OF COMPONENTS by NRC regulations making the. periodic inspection and testing, of components and meeting acceptance standards a federal requirement for. maintaining a license to continue operation This gives the NRC and the public. a level of confidence that any degradation of the plant during the period of. operation will be detected early adequately corrected and will not reduce safety. below an acceptable level, In recent years the design and manufacturing of major components in nuclear. power plants have become a global venture Reactor vessels steam generators. and reactor coolant pumps are often manufactured in one country and shipped. to another country for installation in a nuclear plant Section III of the ASME. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is an international code that is used in many. foreign countries Although the NRC requires the use of Section III for the design. and construction of nuclear power plant components in the United States. NRC s regulations contain a provision that would allow alternatives to the use. of Section III when such alternatives are first authorized by the NRC In order to. authorize such an alternative a comparison of the code differences would need. to be made to demonstrate an acceptable level of quality and safety between. the two codes ASME working with other international standards development. organizations has completed a comparison of Section III rules with several other. major foreign pressure boundary design codes used in other countries that. provide useful information for such a decision making evaluation. In summary the federal requirements governing the use of ASME codes and. standards benefit ASME the NRC and most importantly the public ASME s. codes and standards gain increased visibility and stature through government. use its volunteers see the fruits of their efforts and public safety is maintained. The NRC benefits because by using ASME codes it can be a more efficient. government agency both in its decision making and during various phases of. the licensing process The better the NRC functions the better the health and. safety of the public are protected,AS M E COD E S AN D S TAN DAR DS. I N E M E R G I NG E CON OM IE S,by Robert R Lettieri ASME. The hope in much of the emerging world is to raise the quality. of life through improved living standards which includes. moving millions from impoverishment into a growing middle. class Institutions and agencies in rapidly industrializing. societies are faced with the task of creating a standards. and regulatory system that can keep pace with economic. development With energy being the largest single, physical ingredient in any modern economy the energy. sector continues to be a key area of focus Speaking. at a conference in Mumbai the Secretary of the,Ministry of Petroleum Natural Gas quoted. Gandhi in expressing India s commitment,to linking energy security with the drive. to end poverty in order to wipe every,tear from every eye energy is required. Related standards are needed and, ASME with over 125 years of standards development experience is often seen as. a valuable resource in pursuing these goals, ASME Standards and Certification S C has been working with Indian standards. development organizations regulatory agencies and state owned enterprises in. the energy and other sectors to help make these goals a reality ASME standards. integrated into a multi agency standards and regulatory regimen have included. the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code nuclear codes and standards pipeline. transportation systems for liquid hydrocarbons and other liquids welding. qualifications standards for valves and fittings standards for screws bolts and. nuts and performance test codes India is making use of ASME B31 8 Gas. Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems and related standards ASME. B31 8S Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines and ASME B31Q Pipeline. Personnel Qualification as they engage in the rapid expansion of their gas. pipeline infrastructure 8500 kilometers of gas transmission pipelines will be. added to the current system impacting numerous cities throughout the country. and providing natural gas for the first time to millions of Indian citizens. The World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement WTO. TBT is designed to prevent the unfair and unnecessary use of a particular set. of standards to protect certain segments of industry at the cost of expanded. commerce across borders The international nature of ASME standards including. a standards development process consistent with WTO TBT criteria facilitates. establishment of standards needed in developing countries and in turn further. facilitates economic development Standards such as ASME standards promote. the aim of prosperity with safety, Over 100 countries accept the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code as a. means of meeting local safety requirements The quality systems of more than. 6 000 manufacturers of pressure,THE SECRETARY OF THE equipment in more than 70. countries are certified by ASME,MINISTRY OF PETROLEUM. ASME standards have recently, NATURAL GAS QUOTED been recognized in regulations or. GANDHI IN EXPRESSING national standards in Colombia. India Kazakhstan Nigeria and South,INDIA S COMMITMENT TO Africa. LINKING ENERGY SECURITY,Increasing interaction with agencies. WITH THE DRIVE TO END in China on development of national. POVERTY nuclear standards is expected to,facilitate wider use of ASME nuclear. codes and standards in the nuclear, renaissance taking place there The completion of the translation into Mandarin. of ASME NCS was marked with a ceremony at The Great Hall of the People in. Beijing and attended by Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan and other dignitaries along. with senior ASME volunteers and staff Through collaboration with The Institute of. Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University INET ASME NCS. related training has been provided to local experts working in the sector State. authorities involved in standards having to do with nuclear power generation. are encouraging local manufacturers to embrace ASME Conformity Assessment. to accommodate the new nuclear build ASME S C has been demonstrating its. commitment to China for more than 20 years, Following interaction with members of the standards and regulatory community. in Central and South America stakeholders and potential stakeholders inquired. about the possibility of making the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. available in Spanish in order to have the Code be more accessible in the region. This led to the creation of the Committee on ASME S C in Spanish which. includes Spanish speaking expert volunteers from throughout the Americas The. rate of participation by technical experts from outside the United States in ASME. standards development has increased significantly in the past several years and. the developing world is well represented, The impact ASME S C seeks to make is consistent with ASME objectives. overall ASME helps the global engineering community develop solutions to. real world challenges ASME codes and standards publications conferences. continuing education and professional development programs provide a. foundation for advancing technical knowledge and a safer world In engaging. partners in emerging economies ASME S C focuses on communicating the. value of participating in ASME standards development greater understanding. and acceptance of ASME standards leading to reference or adoption in local. standards and regulation and the role ASME Conformity Assessment can play in. promoting safety and making ASME standards related training more relevant and. more available, ASME volunteers and staff understand the importance of expanding cooperation. and collaboration with organizations in emerging economies and continue to. enjoy the experience and camaraderie of engineers technicians and managers. coming together to find solutions to create a safer world.