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fractionator bottoms HCGO circulating reflux and product light coker gas oils LCGO naphtha product fractionator tower top reflux lean sponge oil and sour water Vapor Recovery Unit Vapor and liquid streams from the fractionator are further processed in the vapor recovery unit through absorber stripped processes Flowserve pumps
TABLE OF CONTENTS,Crosshead With Free fall Arrestors 38. THE GLOBAL COKING AND DECOKING,Latching Mechanism 39. MARKET OVERVIEW 3,Pulley Blocks Sheaves and Cable 39. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND Control Systems Including Intelligent and. HYDRAULIC DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES Automated Cutting 40. Delayed Coker Units 4 Drum Monitoring Systems 41, DCU System Overview 5 Remote Cutting and Automation 42. Process Description 6 Tool Enclosures 42,Hydraulic Decoking Systems 8. Hydraulic Decoking Explained 9 COMMUNICATING OUR VALUE. Value Proposition Delayed Coker Systems,Pumps Valves Seals and Actuation Products 43. FLOWSERVE OPPORTUNITIES IN DELAYED,COKER UNIT PRODUCTS Product Positioning 44. Key Pump Products 12 Understanding a Customer s Specific Business. Drivers 44,Coker and Heater Charge Pumps 12, Guidelines on Decoking System Selection Criteria 45. Coke Handling and Dewatering 13,General Service Pumps 13 APPENDIX. DCU Process Pumps 14 Sourcing 46, Valves and Actuation Equipment 22 Rotary Cutting Tool View for DCU 47. Actuators for Refinery or Process Systems 23, Actuator Products Overview 24 GLOSSARY OF KEY TERMS ABBREVIATIONS. AND ACRONYMS 48,Mechanical Seals and Systems 28,Piping Plans 32. FLOWSERVE OPPORTUNITIES IN HYDRAULIC,DECOKING SYSTEMS. A Complete Range of Decoking System,Equipment 34,Decoking Hoses 36. Rotary Joint 36,Drill Stems 37,Combination Cutting Tools 37. 2 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. THE GLOBAL COKING AND DECOKING LANDSCAPE,MARKET OVERVIEW. With refinery feed slates becoming more viscous Even with the natural gas production increase the. acidic or sulfur laden global refiners are preparing world is still awash in heavy crude and refiners are. for heavier crudes and bitumen from the Middle East increasingly utilizing delayed coking processes to. Russia Canada Brazil and Venezuela When selling produce clean transportation fuels from bottom of. at sharp discounts to light or sweet intermediates the barrel residues Since the first modern delayed. heavier grades of oil now can account for about coking unit DCU was installed in 1928 Flowserve. one fourth of daily global supplies Refiners must be has pioneered virtually every pumping technology. able to convert this heavier crude into sellable gallons advancement in these essential residue conversion. of gasoline diesel and jet fuel processes Through its Worthington IDP Byron. Jackson and Pacific heritage brands Flowserve,The Energy Information Administration s EIA. has become and remains the refining industry s,International Energy Outlook 2015 shows a. preferred partner for delayed coking process pumps. slowdown in refiners dependence upon heavy,and hydraulic decoking systems with more than. oil feed slates But there is still strong demand in. 200 installations worldwide, certain markets due to national interests as well as. a potential increase in demand with the reduction, requirement of bunker fuels sulfur levels set to be. implemented in 2025, 3 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. Delayed Coker Units, Delayed coker units are the primary selection Hot residual oil is fed to the bottom of a fractionator. worldwide for the upgrading of heavy residues into where it mixes with condensed recycle The. usable liquid products due to their relatively low combined stream is heated in the furnace to initiate. upfront capital investment Despite the advent of coke formation in the coke drums Coke drum. fracking technologies and the production of lighter overhead vapor flows to the fractionator where it is. crude heavy crude still occupies a large portion separated into wet gas unstabilized naphtha light. of the crude market today and will continue to in gas oils heavy gas oils and recycle During the coke. the future The market is strong for keeping current drum steam out and coking period all steam and. delayed cokers running Despite the new lighter hydrocarbon vapors are directed to the blowdown. crude slates available new units are still being system where they are recovered After the coke drum. purchased worldwide due to new environmental cooling cycle is complete the coke is hydraulically cut. regulations and specific country national interests from the drum and dropped into a pit or pads where. water is separated from the coke and recycled,Flowserve can supply many of the pumps in the. delayed coker unit but we do have a specialty, within the unit with the hydraulic decoking system It. is made up of 12 15 different pieces of equipment,supplied by Flowserve depending on the exact end. user system The heart of the system is the decoking. jet pump The remainder of the equipment is a mix,of in house designs and builds as well as buyouts. specified by Flowserve engineering teams Despite,the multiple pieces of equipment mounted in the. delayed coker unit separately it should be treated by. engineering and sales as a complete system, In its simplest terms delayed coking is a semi batch. thermal cracking process using alternating drums, that are switched offline after filling Support facilities. include closed blowdown coke cutting and handling,and a water recovery system. 4 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. DCU System Overview,Coking Section Coker Blowdown, Pumping heavy oil feeds such as vacuum reduced The coke drum blowdown system recovers. crude VRC combined with heavy coker gas oils hydrocarbons and steam vapors generated during. HCGO from the fractionator to the coker heaters is the quenching and steaming of filled coke drums. a difficult service Low NPSHA and NPSHA drop at Pump applications commonly associated with the. startup due to furnace fouling can lead to problem coker blowdown drum and settling drum are tower. causing first stage cavitation reduced TDH and bottoms sour water slop oil and quench and. high axial thrust Flowserve heater charge pumps recycle water services. are proven to overcome these conditions and, provide reliable service in this critical application Steam Generation. Steam is critical to successful DCU operation, Fractionation Section In the coker heater steam helps maintain heater. Coke drum effluent vapors are routed to a coil efficiency while suppressing coke formation. fractionator where they are separated into light in heater tubes Steam is used to purge full coke. gases unstabilized gasoline distillate HCGO and drums and heat empty ones Flowserve is the. a recycle stream Flowserve pumps are required acknowledged leader in the design and application. to handle a wide variety of services including of boiler feed water pumps offering a broad range. fractionator bottoms HCGO circulating reflux and of cost effective solutions. product light coker gas oils LCGO naphtha,product fractionator tower top reflux lean sponge. oil and sour water,Vapor Recovery Unit, Vapor and liquid streams from the fractionator are. further processed in the vapor recovery unit through. absorber stripped processes Flowserve pumps,perform a wide variety of services including lean. and rich amine transfer stripper feed lean oil, debutanizer reflux compressor suction drum splitter. overhead and bottoms sour water condensate and, 5 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. Process Description, Some derisively refer to the DCU as the garbage The coking cycle can be as short as 10 hours. can of the refinery in many cases this is true in a fuel grade coker operation which is built to. Bottoms from atmospheric and vacuum distillation maximize throughput or more than 24 hours for. along with heavy cooler gas oils and recycle oils higher value commercial coke products. are the feed slates for delayed coking Once,A lower coke drum operating pressure and less. cracked however these residues are converted,recycle will result in more liquid and less coke. into valuable products,produced A modern delayed coker that maximizes. Light gas to LPG and refinery fuel gas liquid yields typically has a coke drum top operating. Naphtha to gasoline pool pressure and a recycle to feed ration of 5 or. Gas oil to the refinery distillate blend pool for less Needle coker production however usually. heating oil demands a high pressure and a high recycle. to feed ratio to achieve the desired needle,Coke largely used as fuel for power plants. coke properties,and steel mills and as anodes for the aluminum. industry A vapor stream from the coke drum is routed to. a fractionator 2 where it is separated into light,Heavy oil feeds such as VRC or atmospheric. gases unstabilized gasoline distillate heavy coker. reduced crude are preheated in heat exchanges, gas oil and a recycle stream The coker fractionator. 1 with coker gas oils and then fed to the bottom,off gas is compressed in a wet gas compressor. section of the coker fractionator 2 Fresh feed,which increases the pressure of the gas This. combines with recycle which is net liquid from the. stream then goes to a gas plant 5 along with the, fractionator wash section above the feed inlet and. unstabilized gasoline where it is further separated. is routed to the coker heaters 3 with the coker,into dry gas LPG and stabilized gasoline. charge pumps,The coker gas plant is similar to a fluidized cat. In the coker heater the combined feed is heated to. cracking FCC unit s gas plant and usually consists. 495 C 920 F or more to allow the coking reaction, of an absorber stripper and debutanizer Sour coker. to occur in the coke drums High pressure steam, dry gas from the gas plant is scrubbed with amines. steam condensate or boiler feed water is injected,to remove hydrogen sulfide before it feeds the. into heater coils at various locations to increase the. refinery s fuel gas system The sour coker LPG is, velocity through the tubes therefore minimizing the. treated with amine and caustic to remove hydrogen,amount of coke deposited on the heater tubes. sulfide and mercaptan sulfur to make it suitable as. Effluent from the coker heater accumulates in feedstock in other process units such as alkylation. insulated vessels called coke drums The drums The gasoline distillate and heavy gas oil from the. allow sufficient time i e delayed to thermally crack delayed coker are typically hydrotreated before. the feed into lighter gases naphtha distillates gas further processing in other refinery units. oil and coke, 6 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. Drum Cycle The dominant decoking process technologies are. Coke drums are typically installed in pairs with those licensed by AMEC Foster Wheeler BHTS and. one coker heater for every two coke drums The CLG Technologies The AMEC Foster Wheeler DCU. feed stream switches between these two drums process is summarized here. While one drum is filling with heater effluent the Application Upgrade residues to lighter. other one is stripped with steam quenched with hydrocarbon fractions using the selective yield. water drained decoked and warmed up for the delayed coking SYDEC process. next cycle,Description Charge is fed directly to the. The full coke drum is first purged with steam fractionator 1 where it combines with recycle and. which initially flows to the fractionator and then the is pumped to the coke heater The mixture is heated. blowdown drum to strip hydrocarbons from the to coking temperature causing partial vaporization. coke After the coke drum is steamed out water is and mild cracking The vapor liquid mix enters. gradually introduced into the coke drum to cool the a coke drum 2 or 3 for further cracking Drum. drum and coke overhead enters the fractionator 1 where it will. Steam produced due to vaporizing the quench be separated into gas naphtha and light and heavy. water is sent to the blowdown drum for gas oils Gas and naphtha enter the vapor recovery. condensation and recover water and heavy unit VRU 4 There are at least two coking drums. hydrocarbons The quench water flow rate then one coking while the other is decoked using high. increases until the coke drum is filled with water pressure water jets The coking unit also includes. This water is subsequently drained from the coke a coke handling coke cutting water recovery and. drum and the top and bottom heads of the drum blowdown system Vent gas from the blowdown. are opened system is recovered in the VRU, The coke in the drum is cut and removed with high Operating conditions Typical ranges are. pressure water The empty drum is then closed Heater outlet temperature. purged and pressure tested with steam Vapors Coke drum pressure. from the coke drum in operation are used to heat Recycle ratio equiv fresh feed. the off line empty coke drum Increased coking temperature decreases coke. Hydrocarbons condensed during the drum production increases liquid yield and gas oil end point. heating step are drained to the blowdown drum or Increasing pressure and or recycle ratio increases. fractionator When the drum is heated sufficiently gas and coke make decreases liquid yield and. it is ready to receive effluent from the coker heater gas oil end point. and start the coking cycle, 7 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. Hydraulic Decoking Systems to 1935 Decoking however was still a manual job. accomplished by using cables augers beater balls, About 150 years ago pioneer oilmen in and hydraulically operated mechanical drills. northwestern Pennsylvania discovered that boiling,In 1938 Flowserve Worthington designed and. oil in small iron stills would yield kerosene a very. manufactured equipment for Shell Oil s Wood River,valuable luminescent Thus the whaling industry. Illinois USA refinery the world s first hydraulic,died and the refining industry was born. decoking installation Flowserve supplied decoking, In addition to kerosene however one of several tools swivel joints decoking control valves and. by products was also discovered coke And of high pressure water jet pumps for that system In. course before the stills could be reused they had to 1940 Flowserve Pacific supplied the jet pumps for a. be cleaned i e decoked Thus one of the grimiest hydraulic decoking system at Standard Oil s refinery. nastiest refinery chores which persist to this day in El Dorado Indiana USA. Since then Flowserve has pioneered many, From the 1860s through World War I crude oil significant advancements in hydraulic decoking. was processed in horizontal stills singly and Integrated systems consisting of decoking. later in series to increase output Decoking was equipment jet pump trains and control systems. accomplished by laborers with picks and shovels are matched to achieve guaranteed decoking. The origin of the vertical coke drum coincided performance Flowserve has transformed hydraulic. with Standard Oil s development of the Barton decoking into an increasingly safe efficient and. Process to convert gas oil to gasoline from 1912 automated process. 8 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. Hydraulic Decoking Explained The Decoking Process Summarized. High pressure water cuts the coke out of the drum, Delayed coking is one of the most difficult refinery. The cutting water pump which is a multistage barrel. units to operate and control Page 8 depicts a very. pump takes suction from the decoking water tank,simplified diagram of delayed decoking The unit. and delivers the high pressure water through a hose. takes vacuum residual fresh feed and heats and,to the top of the drill stem. injects it into the main fractionator bottom There. it is mixed with an internal reflux recycle of heavy The discharge pressure of the cutting water pump. cracked material The total fresh and recycled varies according to the size of coke drum and type of. feed is then heated in the coker furnace to a high coke produced For large diameter coke drums the. cracking temperature Hot partially cracked feed discharge pressure can be more than 310 bar 4500. flows from the cooler furnace into coke drums psi An air electric or hydraulic motor driven rotary. where the reaction continues Cracked distillate joint rotates the drill stem and cutting tool. vapor ascends in the coke drum and flows into the,The cutting tool equipped with downward oriented. fractionator for separation,pilot hole and side oriented cutting nozzles is. Coke remains in the drums and is periodically attached to the bottom of the drill stem First a pilot. removed that is the main reason for the coker hole is bored through the coke that has built up. being a difficult unit to operate Twice daily filled in the drum with the downward oriented nozzles. coke drums are switched off for coke removal and The cutting tool is then pulled up to the top and. empty drums are connected to the fill lines The switched to side oriented cutting nozzles The. drum that was just filled then goes through a cycle cutting tool then slowly moves through the length of. of steaming out cooling opening coke removal the coke drum to loosen or cut out the coke. closing steaming and pressure testing heating and,Coke handling Coke and cutting water from the. finally reconnecting to the furnace and fractionator. coke drums fall into an adjacent large concrete,pit or pad Water drained from the pit or pad. Decoking System Components,is collected in a nearby settling basin which. A decoking system typically consists of separates small coke particles i e fines from. Jet pump ISO 13709 API 610 BB5, Coke cutting equipment Water from the settling basin is pumped back to the. decoking water tank for reuse The decoking water,Decoking control valve. tank also serves as storage for water that is used to. Rotary joint drill stem cutting tool assembly quench the hot coke drum Coke in the pit or pad. remains there long enough for the water to drain,Decoking water tank. A crane or front end loader moves the dewatered, Main and local control panels and enclosed coke to a crusher Then a conveyor belt typically. operator cabin transfers the coke to storage railcar ship or some. other transport method In some units the coke is, cut directly into railcars or to a crusher and then. sluiced as a water slurry to dewatering and storage. facilities, 9 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. Jet Pump Horizontal Multistage A Complete Range of Decoking System. Double casing Pumps API BB5 Equipment, Diffuser barrel pumps for high pressure service Whether for new equipment system upgrades or. First stage single or double suction depending on replacement parts Flowserve provides a complete. available NPSH Designed for both general purpose proven decoking system. i e spared and special purpose i e unspared,Jet pump train with lube oil skid listed herein. applications such as decoking i e water cutting, The API 610 material code normally specified There are options in markets in Europe and. The API 610 seal code normally used is QBRW Russia for historical reasons Higher pressure. An auxiliary sealing device comprised of a close pumps have the option of being run at high. clearance floating carbon throttle bushing is also speeds. used API Plan 32 Typical MTBR on the pump with poor. maintenance practices and high fines to,10 years or more at sites with exceptional. maintenance practices,Application typically has a low NPSHA. For more information see the high energy,barrel product positioning guide. 10 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. A CLOSER LOOK AT DELAYED COKER AND HYDRAULIC,DECOKING TECHNOLOGIES. Typical process flow diagram with critical pumps and valves. 11 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. FLOWSERVE OPPORTUNITIES IN DELAYED COKER UNIT PRODUCTS. Key Pump Products Coker and Heater Charge Pumps, The key pumps or heart in a DCU are the coker The Flowserve petroleum process pumps best. heater charge pumps and the coke cutter jet pump suited for these services are the between bearings. A typical DCU uses BB type pumps plus water and radially split designs The API 610 material. general service pumps It should also be mentioned designation for the coker charge pump is normally. that BB3 multistage pumps are found in boiler specified. feedwater and other heavy duty applications,Mechanical seal selection is key to trouble free. Flowserve refinery pumps are fully compliant with operation of these critical pumps However new. ISO 13709 API 610 current edition standards and revamped units are typically supplied with. pressurized dual seal and Plan 32 53 or Plan 32 54. Coking section,These devices improve the efficiencies of these. Pump for heater charge piping plans, Fractionation section For HCGO double suction between bearings. Overhung process for general service radially split BB2 design is recommended. Low flow high head pump is also used in HCGO,Vapor recovery unit and LCGO services. Overhung process,Coker blowdown,Overhung process,Steam generation. Axially split two stage between bearings, 12 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. FLOWSERVE OPPORTUNITIES IN DELAYED COKER UNIT PRODUCTS. Coke Handling and Dewatering,Solids handling Submersible Pumps. Choice of API materials in lineshaft VS4,or cantilever VS5 configurations Non ISO. API designs,Slurry Sump Pumps,Hard metal type in either lineshaft. Sump Pumps,Choice of API materials in lineshaft VS4 or. cantilever VS5 configurations,General Service Pumps. Process water sump anti foam storm water,sump dirty oil sump. Vertical Turbine Pumps API VS6,Multistage with above or below grade discharge. enclosed or semi open impellers open or enclosed,lineshafts single or double casing. Double suction Twin volute Vertical Pumps,Wet pit double suction impeller between bearings. double volute centrifugal pump, 13 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. FLOWSERVE OPPORTUNITIES IN DELAYED COKER UNIT PRODUCTS. DCU Process Pumps, There are many applications within the DCU these are listed below with comments relative to typical. configurations,RICH AMINE FRACTIONATOR COMPRESSOR,QUENCH WATER. TRANSFER RECIRC SUCTION DRUM, Splitter Bottoms LP Condensate Fractionator Reflux Stripper Feed. Splitter Overhead LPG Condenser Recycle LCGO Product Lean Oil. Blowdown Lower Bottoms Vacuum Resid HCGO Product Debutanizer Reflux. Blowdown Slop Oil,API Classification,Sending new table. 14 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU. FLOWSERVE OPPORTUNITIES IN DELAYED COKER UNIT PRODUCTS. Fully compliant with ISO 13709 API 610 OH2 Fully compliant with ISO 13709 API 610 OH2. design criteria the pump is the workhorse of the oil. Broad application flexibility from innovative multi. and gas and hydrocarbon processing industries,channel diffuser technology which supports more. boasting unequaled versatility reliability and safety. than 170 hydraulic configurations and easily, Lower operating costs due to comprehensive accommodates changing operating parameters. hydraulic coverage and numerous specialty,Improved pump efficiency via diffuser tuning. configurations that permit precise selection for,which widens operational flow window and. best operating efficiency,minimizes radial loads at any flow. Longer service life enabled by centerline,Extremely low total cost of ownership thanks to. supported casing that withstands nozzle loads,long MTBF low seal emission long mechanical. beyond ISO 13709 API 610 requirements and,seal life low energy consumption and low NPSH. minimizes shaft misalignment thereby extending,Improved plant and personnel safety enabled. rotor bearing and seal life,by low vibration and noise levels. Stringent emissions containment with ISO 21049, API 682 seal chamber Refer to literature PSS 10 5 2 at flowserve com library. Easier maintenance thanks to back pullout,design enabling service without disturbing motor. or casing connections, Refer to literature PS 10 5 at flowserve com library. 15 Application Solutions Guide Delayed Coker Unit DCU.