Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Ap Biology Exam Review Biochemistry
AP Biology Exam Review Biochemistry monomers that compose them 5 8 Topic Outline 1 Bonds Ionic Covalent Polar vs Nonpolar Hydrogen know the relative strengths of each bond and where they are used in nature 2 Molecules and atoms from the environment are necessary to build new molecules
6 Macromolecules,Carbohydrates,o CHO 1 2 1 ratio, o Monomers monosaccharides know the basic structure and examples. o Dimers disaccharides know the basic structure how they form and examples. o Polymers polysaccharides know the basic structure how they form and the following. examples cellulose starch chitin and glycogen,o C H O not a 1 2 1 ratio P only in phospholipids. o Basic structure fatty acid chains and a polar region. o Degree of saturation of fatty acid chains of H s linked to carbons which is inversely related to. the number of hydrogen bonds unsaturated fatty acid chains with kinks liquid at room. temperature vs saturated straight fatty acid chains solid at room temperature. o Phospholipids make up cell membranes double layer and are amphipathic hydrophilic and. hydrophobic, o Functions cell membrane phospholipids energy storage fats oils steroid hormones like. testosterone and estrogen variations on a cholesterol 5 ring lipid insulation myelin sheath of. o C H O N may have other elements like S in R group. o Monomers amino acids know the basic structure the 20 different amino acids only differ in. their R groups, o Parts of amino acid carboxyl group COOH on one end amino group on the other end NH2. central carbon and variable R group can be hydrophobic or hydrophilic which determines. chemical properties, o Protein Folding shape determines function primary structure amino acid chain secondary. beta pleated sheet or alpha helix hydrogen bonds between non adjacent carboxyl and amino. groups tertiary globular folds in on itself disulfide bridges hydrogen bonds hydrophobic. interactions ionic bonding between R groups quartenary more than one polypeptide. o Many functions enzymes ex amylase structure ex keratin transport ex hemoglobin. signaling ex oxytocin hormone protein carriers in cell membrane antibodies. Nucleic Acids,o C H O N and P, o Monomers nucleotides know the basic structure made of nitrogenous bases phosphate groups. and deoxyribose sugars,o Polymers DNA and RNA,o Nucleotide made up of sugar phosphate and base. o DNA is double stranded has deoxyribose A G C T,o RNA is single stranded has ribose A G C U. o mRNA copies genetic message rRNA attaches mRNA and makes up ribosomes most. common tRNA carries amino acids DNA carries genetic code. o Function storage and transmission of genetic information. Biological catalysts made of protein that speed up rate of chemical reactions by lowering activation. energy required for reaction to occur, Enzyme has active site exposed R groups where reaction occurs. Enzymes can break down substance catabolic reaction or build up substances anabolic. Enzyme substrate complex is formed,Substrate is what enzyme acts on. Rate is determined by collisions between substrate and enzyme. Ends in ase named after substrate often, Enzyme is specific to substrate the substrate must be complementary to the surface properties shape and. charge of the active site which is made up of R groups with specific chemistry i e hydrophobic. Enzyme rate is affected by,o pH optimal for each enzyme. o temperature optimal for each enzyme but in general increased temp means increased collisions. so rate goes up initially too much heat can denature enzyme enzyme concentration more. enzyme faster rate or vice versa, o substrate concentration more substrate faster rate until the point of enzyme saturation. Know the difference between an endergonic and exergonic reaction and be able to analyze their reaction. curves be able to explain energy coupling and provide examples. Inhibition competitive inhibition something competes for active site can be overcome with more. Non competitive inhibition attaches at allosteric site and changes shape of enzyme so it is not functional. can not be overcome with more substrate, Coenzymes organic NAD and vitamin B etc and cofactors inorganic zinc magnesium etc interact. with enzymes to put them into the right structure to do work. Practice Multiple Choice Questions, 1 Which of the following is not a property of carbon. a Carbon to carbon bonds are limited to single bonds. b Carbon has four valence electrons,c Carbon can form bonds to various other atoms. d Carbon to carbon bonds are strong,2 Carbohydrate molecules. a serve as structural components of human cell walls. b form the regulatory compounds known as enzymes,c are a source of energy. d help protect vital organs from damage, 3 The process illustrated in the figure above is called. a condensation,b protein synthesis,c hydrolysis,d denaturation. 4 The products of the process in the figure above are. a monosaccharides,b molecules of glycerol,c representative of a glycoside linkage. 5 In which of the following reactions must the equivalent of a water molecule be added in order to break a bond. a fatty acids glycerol fat,b glucose fructose sucrose. c glycogen glucose,d alanine glycine dipeptide,6 Which of the following illustrates hydrolysis. a the reaction of two monosaccharides to form a disaccharide. b the reaction of two amino acids to form a dipeptide. c the reaction of a hydrogen atom and a hydroxide ion to form water. d the reaction of a fat to form glycerol and fatty acids. 7 A molecule of a saturated triacylglycerol aka triglyceride contains. a the maximum number of double bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains. b the maximum number of triple bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains. c the maximum number of hydrogen atoms in the fatty acid chains. d alternating single and double bonds between carbons in the fatty acid chains. 8 In the figure below ionic attractions would form between the R groups of which amino acids. d None of the above, 9 Which of the following is responsible for the alpha helical structure of proteins. a hydrophobic interactions,b nonpolar covalent bonds. c ionic interactions,d hydrogen bonds, 10 At which level of protein structure are peptide bonds most important. b secondary,c quaternary,d globular, 11 All of the following types of chemical bonds are responsible for maintaining the tertiary structure of this polypeptide. a ionic bonds,b peptide bonds,c hydrophobic interactions. d disulfide bonds, 12 If the differently shaded portions of this molecule represent different polypeptide chains then this figure is. representative of,a an amino acid,b The primary structure of a protein. c The secondary structure of a protein,d The quaternary structure of a protein. 13 Analysis of a certain complex compound shows that it contains phosphate groups ribose groups and pyrimidines. Based on this information which of the following is the best description of this compound. a It is most likely ribonucleic acid,b It is DNA,c It is an inorganic compound. d It contains thymine, 14 Which monomer is incorrectly matched with the corresponding polymer. a Amino acids are used to build proteins, b Monosaccharides are used to build polysaccharides. c Fatty acids are used to build nucleic acids,d Glucose molecules are used to build starches. 15 Which characteristic of water molecules directly contributes to the remarkable water walking success of the aquatic. insects pictured in the accompanying figure,a hydrogen bonds. b capillary action,c nonpolar covalent bonds,d ionic bonds. 16 A stalk of celery is placed in a solution of blue colored dye After one hour the leaves have blue fluid in their veins. Which property of water is being demonstrated,a adhesion and cohesion. b evaporation and cooling,c lower density as a solid than as a liquid. d high specific heat, 17 Which of the following pairs of functional groups characterizes the structure of an amino acid. 18 A feature of organic compounds NOT found in inorganic compounds is the presence of. a ionizing chemical groups,b electrons,c carbon atoms covalently bonded to each other. 19 The carbon that makes up organic molecules in plants is derived directly from. a combustion of fuels,b carbon fixed in photosynthesis. c carbon dioxide produced in respiration,d carbon in the lithosphere. 20 Which of the following is responsible for the cohesive property of water. a Hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of two adjacent water molecules. b Covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms of two adjacent water molecules. c Hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule. d Covalent bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule. Write the letter or letters that correspond to the picture. that matches with each description,22 Functional protein. 23 Nucleotide,24 Polysaccharide,25 Monosaccharide,26 Polymer. 27 Tertiary protein structure, 28 The figure below shows the calories of heat energy required to convert a gram of water from solid to liquid state and. then again from liquid to a gaseous state Especially distinctive is the large increase in energy required to move water. from liquid to gas form, This graph predicts which of the following properties of. water that would affect plant survival, a Plant leaves doing transpiration are cooled down on hot. b Inside a plant stem cohesion attracts one water molecule. to the water molecule above it allowing a chain of water. molecules to move up the stem, c At a plant s roots adhesion attracts water molecules to. stick to root hairs aiding absorption, d Sugar will dissolve in water leading to a plant fluid called. phloem which typically flows from the leaves down,towards the roots. 29 Air that is dry changes temperature quickly while air that is. moist retains its temperature What property allows for this. regulation of temperature, a The heat of fusion in of the nitrogen in the air due to the free. b The high electric potential of the air which results from the. static charges of the molecules in dry conditions, c The green house effect due to the increase in carbon dioxide. in the atomosphere, d The high specific heat of water which results from the polarity and hydrogen bonding. 30 Which of the following is an example of a hydrogen bond. a The peptide bond between amino acids in a protein. b The bond between an oxygen atom and a hydrogen in the carboxyl group of a fatty acid. c The attraction between a hydrogen of one water molecule and the oxygen of another water molecule. d The bond between carbon and hydrogen in methane, Questions 31 34 Choose an item from the list below that is best associated with the following statements. A Cholesterol,B Triglyceride,C Phospholipid, 31 The major component of the fluid bilayer of a plasma membrane. 32 Carrier molecule in the plasma membrane, 33 Steroid affecting the fluidity of the plasma membrane. 34 ATP synthase synthetase in the inner mitochondrial and chloroplast membrane. 35 Which of the following best characterizes the reaction represented below. A B energy AB,a hydrolysis,b catabolism,c oxidation reduction. d exergonic reaction,e endergonic reaction, 36 Which of the following can be used to determine the rate of enzyme catalyzed reactions. a rate of disappearance of the enzyme,b rate of disappearance of the substrate. c rate of disappearance of the product,d change in volume of the solution. e increase in activation energy, Practice Long Response Questions Make an outline of the information you would include in each of these essays. 1 Water is important for all living organisms The functions of water are directly related to its. physical properties, a Describe how the properties of water contribute to TWO of the following. transpiration,thermoregulation in endotherms,plasma membrane structure. b Water serves as a reactant and a product in the carbon cycle Discuss the role of water in the carbon cycle. c Discuss the impact of one human activity on the water cycle. 2 The physical form of cells and organisms is often influenced by special structural polymers For the polymers below. describe the structure and role of each in a cell or organism. Polymers messenger RNA transfer RNA, 3 Proteins large complex molecules are building blocks of all living organisms Discuss the following in relation to. a the chemical composition and levels of structure of proteins. b the roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis, c the roles of proteins in membrane structure and transport of molecules across the membrane. 4 The effects of pH and temperature were studied for an enzyme catalyzed reaction The following results were obtained. a How do 1 temperature and 2 pH affect the activity of this enzyme In your answer include a discussion of the. relationship between the structure and the function of this enzyme as well as a discussion of how structure and function of. enzymes are affected by temperature and pH, b Describe a controlled experiment that could have produced the data shown for either temperature or pH Be sure to state. the hypothesis that was tested here, 5 The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. a Discuss how the structure of a protein affects,regulation of enzyme activity. cell signaling, b Abnormal hemoglobin is the identifying characteristic of sickle cell anemia Explain the genetic basis of abnormal. hemoglobin Explain why the sickle cell allele is selected for in certain areas of the world. Thinking Practice Questions, 1 If the following molecules were to undergo a dehydration synthesis reaction what molecules would result Circle the. parts of each amino acid that will interact and draw the resulting molecule. 2 Identify which of the six main elements CHNOPS are found in each of the four macromolecules carbohydrates. lipids proteins and nucleic acids, 3 Describe the relationship between substrate concentration and. reaction rate shown in the graph and propose an explanation for. 4 DNA polymerase from T aquaticus Taq is used in PCR. polymerase chain reaction PCR is a technique where millions. of copies of DNA can be made from one original copy In this. method the target DNA molecule is subjected to temperatures. over 95 C to make the double stranded DNA separate The. temperature is then lowered slightly to allow primers to anneal. before the Taq polymerase catalyzes the reactions to incorporate. new nucleotides into the complementary strands The cycle is. then repeated over and over until there are millions of copies of. the target DNA, a Predict why this bacterial polymerase is used instead of a human polymerase. b What would happen if you used a human polymerase in a series of PCR reactions. AP Biology Exam Review Cell Structure Communication and Division. Helpful Videos and Animations Relevant Objectives,9 Explain why cells are so small. 1 Bozeman Biology Cell Membranes 10 Relate surface area to volume ratio to cell size. 2 Bozeman Biology Transport Across 11 Know the organelles of a cell and their functions. Cell Membranes 12 Explain the fluid mosaic model of a cell membrane. 3 Bozeman Biology 13 Explain the difference between passive and active transport. Compartmentalization 14 Define hypertonic hypotonic and isotonic. 4 Bozeman Biology Cellular 15 Make predictions about what will happen to cells in certain. Organelles solutions due to diffusion, 5 Bozeman Biology Cell 16 Explain how cells communicate over long and short distances. Communication 17 Explain how cells receive signals 2 ways. 6 Bozeman Biology Signal 18 Explain the advantages of signal transduction pathways 2. Transduction Pathways 19 Know the phases of the cell cycle. 7 Bozeman Biology Signal 20 Know the phases of mitosis in depth. Transmission and Gene Expression 21 Explain how cells influence each other in the cell cycle. 8 Bozeman Biology Effects of 22 Explain what happens when there is an error in the cell cycle. Changes in Pathways 23 Know approximately how long a cell spends in each phase of the. 9 Bozeman Biology Evolutionary cell cycle and why, Significance of Cell Communication 24 Know the steps of meiosis and what happens in each. 10 Bozeman Biology The Cell Cycle 25 Explain how meiosis reduces the chromosome number by half and. Mitosis and Meiosis why this is essential to sexual reproduction. 26 Explain how meiosis produces genetic variability 3 ways. 99 Explain how water potential effects the movement of water. Topic Outline, 1 Structure of the Cell Membrane understand the fluid mosaic model and identify the structure and function of. molecules found within it phospholipids integral proteins peripheral proteins glycolipids and glycoproteins. 2 Semi Selective Permeability which molecules can move through the phospholipid bilayer and which molecules. must move with the help of a transport protein, 3 Passive Transport vs Active Transport up vs down concentration gradient use of energy. 4 Types of Passive Transport,Simple Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion using channel or carrier proteins what is the difference between these two types. transport proteins, Osmosis hypertonic hypotonic isotonic be able to predict the movement of water across a semi. permeable membrane based on solute OR water concentration Hint you must know how to analyze a. U tube problem and water potential, Associated Vocabulary lysis animal cells flaccid plant cell plasmolyzed plant cell turgid turgo. pressure plant cell,5 Types of Active Transport, Protein pumps know how the sodium Na potassium K pump works. Co transport,Bulk Transport Exocytosis vs Endocytosis. 6 Importance of having a large membrane surface area efficient transport of materials into and out of the cell. Note this is why cells of the small intestine an organ used for absorption have many membrane folds called. microvilli or why the mitochondria has many folds, 7 Be able to perform cell surface area to volume ratio calculations to compare the efficiency of membrane transport. in cells of various shapes and sizes, 8 The Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells organelles present size organization of DNA etc. 9 Structures and Functions of Eukaryotic Organelles make sure you understand how the structure and molecular. composition of each cell part gives it its unique functions. Nucleus with nuclear membrane nuclear pores nucleolus and chromatin. Ribosomes free vs bound what kinds of proteins does each type create. Endoplasmic Reticulum smooth vs rough,Golgi Apparatus. Vacuoles compare plant vs animal vacuoles,Mitochondria. Chloroplasts,Cytoskeleton,Centrosomes Centrioles,Cilia and Flagella. Extracellular Matrix, Intercellular Junctions three types in animal cells tight junctions desmosomes and gap junctions one. type in plant cells plasmodesmata, 10 Identify which organelles are found in plant vs animal cells and identify each in an image. 11 Describe the function of the endomembrane system in protein synthesis and secretion be able to list sequence. all structures and processes involved,12 The Cell Cycle. Reason for division as cells increase in volume the surface area decreases and demand for material. resources increases which limits cell size, Smaller cells have a more favorable surface area to volume ratio for exchange of materials with the. environment diffusion etc High SA V ratio is favorable Ex 6 1 is better than 6 5. Mitosis creation of new body cells somatic cells with 46 chromosomes each diploid cells 2n two. sets of chromosomes, Organization of DNA in eukaryotic cells multiple linear chromosomes vs organization of DNA in. prokaryotic cells single circular chromosome, Interphase normal life of the cell 90 of cell s life growth G1 synthesis of DNA S and. preparation for mitosis G2 G0 is when a cell exits the cell cycle for a period of time can still perform. life processes, Be able to describe the events that take place in the following steps of mitosis prophase prometaphase. metaphase anaphase and telophase cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm by a cleavage furrow in. animals or cell plate in plants, Be able to explain how why eukaryotic cell division is different from binary fission. Vocabulary chromosome sister chromatids centromere nuclear envelope mitotic spindle microtubules. kinetochore centrioles centrosome metaphase plate cleavage furrow cell plate. 13 Meiosis, Cell division to create gametes sex cells with half the number of chromosomes 23 of a somatic cell. haploid cell n one set of chromosomes, Understand the difference between sexual vs asexual reproduction. There are 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes in a body cell what are homologous chromosomes that. divide during meiosis, 22 pairs are autosomes and 1 pair consists of sex chromosomes XX for females and XY for males. Fertilization the fusion of haploid gametes egg sperm to create a diploid zygote. Meiosis includes two rounds of division to produce four daughter cells. Be able to explain how Meiosis I is different from Meiosis II and describe what occurs in each of the. stages of meiosis Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Cytokinesis Prophase II. Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II Cytokinesis, During meiosis homologous chromosomes are paired one from mom and one from dad and line up in. the center of the cell randomly The homologues are pulled apart and separated in meiosis I A second. division occurs in which the duplicated chromosomes are pulled apart. Variation occurs in gametes during crossing over during random fertilization because of separation of. alleles leading to new combinations during fertilization law of segregation because of all the possible. combinations of homologous chromosomes aligning during metaphase I law of independent assortment. 14 Control of the Cell Cycle, There are internal checkpoints that tell the cell to continue dividing or stop dividing. Major checkpoints G1 phase checkpoint after G1 phase G2 phase checkpoint and M phase. checkpoint, If the cell does not receive the go ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint it enters the G0 phase a state of. semi dormancy where no cell division is occurring ex mature nerve cells. Example if cyclin molecules bind to Cdk molecules cyclin dependent kinases they produce MPF. mitosis maturation promoting factor enough MPF can allow the cell to pass the G2 checkpoint and. enter mitosis To bring mitosis to a close MPF switches itself off by starting a process that degrades. If checkpoints are normal cells will show density dependent inhibition stop dividing when they are. crowded and anchorage dependency must be attached to a substrate to divide. If cells divide too frequently they will not show density dependent inhibition or anchorage dependency. tumors know the difference between benign and malignant tumors and be able to define metastasis. 15 There are three main steps in cell signaling, Reception target cell s detection of a signal molecule. Transduction conversion of the signal to a form that can bring about a particular cell response. Response the specific cellular response to the signal molecule. 16 Reception,Ligand signal molecule binds to receptor. A Intracellular receptors for hydrophobic molecules like steroids that can pass through the cell. B Plasma membrane receptors for hydrophilic molecules that cannot pass through the cell. Ex G protein coupled receptor or receptor tyrosine kinase see notes to recall how these work. 17 Transduction, Transduction involves amplifying the signal making it stronger and converting it to a form the cell can. respond to, A Second messengers ex calcium ions Ca2 or cyclic AMP carry the signal from the receptor. and may be used to activate protein kinases or other key molecules in the transduction process. Second messengers amplify the signal because multiple second messengers are created from one. ligand received and these second messengers can activate multiple kinases. B Phosphorylation cascade protein kinases activate molecules by adding a phosphate group these. molecules then activate other molecules and ultimately you activate a molecule that causes the. specific cell response,18 Response, Regulating Synthesis of Proteins Transduction may activate transcription factors that initiate. transcription of particular genes in the nucleus by enabling the binding of RNA polymerase to start. creating mRNA from DNA, Regulating Activity of Proteins ex In the epiphrine pathway in liver cells that initiates breakdown of. glycogen to produce blood glucose to fuel the fight or flight response protein kinases activate the enzyme. phosphorylase which chops apart glycogen,Practice Multiple Choice Questions. 1 Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard Similar stalks left in a 0 15 M. salt solution become limp and soft From this we can deduce that the cells of the celery stalks are. a hypotonic to both fresh water and the salt solution. b hypertonic to both fresh water and the salt solution. c hypertonic to fresh water but hypotonic to the salt solution. d hypotonic to fresh water but hypertonic to the salt solution. e isotonic with fresh water but hypotonic to the salt solution. 2 Mammalian blood contains the equivalent of 0 15 M NaCl Seawater contains the equivalent of 0 45 M NaCl What. will happen if red blood cells are transferred to seawater. a Water will leave the cells causing them to shrivel and collapse. b NaCl will be exported from the red blood cells by facilitated diffusion. c The blood cells will take up water swell and eventually burst. d NaCl will passively diffuse into the red blood cells. e The blood cells will expend ATP for active transport of NaCl into the cytoplasm. The solutions in the arms of a U tube are separated at the bottom of the tube by a selectively permeable membrane The. membrane is permeable to sodium chloride and water but not to glucose Side A is filled with a solution of 0 4 M glucose. and 0 5 M sodium chloride NaCl and side B is filled with a solution containing 0 8 M glucose and 0 4 M sodium. chloride Initially the volume in both arms is the same Refer to the figure to answer the following questions. 3 At the beginning of the experiment,a side A is hypertonic to side B. b side A is hypotonic to side B,c side A is isotonic to side B. d side A is hypertonic to side B with respect to glucose. e side A is hypotonic to side B with respect to sodium chloride. 4 If you examine side A after three days you should find. a a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and glucose and an increase. in the water level, b a decrease in the concentration of NaCl an increase in water level. and no change in the concentration of glucose,c no net change in the system. d a decrease in the concentration of NaCl and a decrease in the water. e no change in the concentration of NaCl and glucose and an increase. in the water level, 5 A patient has had a serious accident and lost a lot of blood In an attempt to replenish body fluids distilled water equal. to the volume of blood lost is transferred directly into one of his veins What will be the most probable result of this. transfusion, a It will have no unfavorable effect as long as the water is free of viruses and bacteria. b The patient s red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid has become hypotonic compared to the cells. c The patient s red blood cells will swell because the blood fluid has become hypotonic compared to the cells. d The patient s red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid has become hypertonic compared to the cells. e The patient s red blood cells will burst because the blood fluid has become hypertonic compared to the cells. 6 Based on the figure to the right which of these experimental. treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell. a decreasing extracellular sucrose concentration,b decreasing extracellular pH. c decreasing cytoplasmic pH, d adding an inhibitor that blocks the regeneration of ATP. e adding a substance that makes the membrane more permeable to. hydrogen ions, Read the following information and refer to the graph below to answer the following question. Five dialysis bags constructed from a semi permeable membrane that is impermeable to sucrose were filled with various. concentrations of sucrose and then placed in separate beakers containing an initial concentration of 0 6 M sucrose. solution At 10 minute intervals the bags were massed weighed and the percent change in mass of each bag was. 7 Which line represents the bag that contained a solution isotonic to the 0 6 molar solution at the beginning of the. experiment, 8 Cells of the pancreas will incorporate radioactively labeled amino acids into proteins This tagging of newly. synthesized proteins enables a researcher to track their location In this case we are tracking an enzyme secreted by. pancreatic cells What is its most likely pathway,a ER Golgi nucleus. b Golgi ER lysosome,c nucleus ER Golgi, d ER Golgi vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane. e ER lysosomes vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane. 9 Which of the following is one of the ways that the membranes of winter wheat are able to remain fluid when it is. extremely cold, a by increasing the percentage of unsaturated phospholipids in the membrane. b by increasing the percentage of cholesterol molecules in the membrane. c by decreasing the number of hydrophobic proteins in the membrane. d by co transport of glucose and hydrogen,e by using active transport. 10 Tay Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very. large complex and undigested lipids Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition. a the endoplasmic reticulum,b the Golgi apparatus,c the lysosome. d mitochondrion,e membrane bound ribosomes, 11 A cell has the following molecules and structures enzymes DNA ribosomes plasma membrane and mitochondria. It could be from,a A bacterium,b An animal but not a plant. c A plant but not an animal,d A plant or an animal. e Any kind of organism,12 In a plant cell DNA may be found. a only in the nucleus,b only in the nucleus and mitochondria. c only in the nucleus and chloroplasts,d in the nucleus mitochondria and chloroplasts. 13 All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except. b a cell wall,c a plasma membrane,d ribosomes,e an endoplasmic reticulum. 14 A gland cell capable of producing large quantities of a protein hormone would have well developed. b Centrioles,c Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum,d Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum. 15 A toxin that destroys adenylyl cyclase the enzyme responsible for creating cyclic AMP a second messenger. molecule in the cell is injected into a cell What will be the final effect on the signaling pathway. a The initial messenger molecule ex epinephrine will be unable to bind to its plasma membrane receptor. b The initial messenger molecule ex epinephrine will bind more easily to the plasma membrane receptor. c The transduction step will be inhibited resulting in a smaller response. d The transduction step will be more efficient resulting in a larger response. 16 If ATP is not present in the cell pictured to the right what would. be the most immediate effect on the receptor tyrosine kinase. a The signal molecules will not be able to bind to the receptor. b The tyrosine molecules will be unable to detach from the receptor. c The tyrosine molecules will not be able to steal phosphate groups. from ATP and use these phosphate groups to activate other proteins. d The two parts to the receptor will not be able to come together as a. 17 The pathway below shows the effect of insulin a hormone released in response to high blood glucose on liver cells. In Type 1 diabetes cells in the pancreas cannot create and secrete insulin How will this affect blood glucose levels. a Blood glucose levels will remain high because glucose will not be removed from the blood by the GLUT channels in. liver cells, b Blood glucose levels will decrease because glucose will be successfully removed from the blood by the GLUT channels. in liver cells, c Blood glucose levels will remain high because the pancreas will never receive the signal to create insulin. d Blood glucose levels will decrease because the receptor will be activated by another hormone. 18 Of the following a receptor protein in a membrane that recognizes a chemical signal is most similar to. a the active site of an enzyme in the cytoplasm that binds to a specific substrate. b RNA specifying the amino acids in a polypeptide, c a particular metabolic pathway operating within a specific organelle. d an enzyme with an optimum pH and temperature for activity. e genes making up a chromosome, 19 At puberty an adolescent female body changes in both structure and function of several organ systems primarily. under the influence of changing concentrations of estrogens and other steroid hormones How can one hormone such as. estrogen mediate so many effects, a Estrogen is produced in very large concentration and therefore diffuses widely. b Estrogen has specific receptors inside several cell types but each cell responds in the same way to its binding. c Estrogen is kept away from the surface of any cells not able to bind it at the surface. d Estrogen binds to specific receptors inside many kinds of cells each of which have different responses to its binding. e Estrogen has different shaped receptors for each of several cell types. 20 How would you expect the length of interphase to differ in a skin cell which has to be continuously replaced vs a. mature nerve cell which is never replaced, a Interphase is longer in the skin cell because a long interphase corresponds to a faster rate of cell division. b Interphase is shorter in the skin cell because a short interphase corresponds to a faster rate of cell division. c Interphase is longer in the skin cell because a long interphase corresponds to a slower rate of cell division. d Interphase is shorter in the skin cell because a short interphase corresponds to a slower rate of cell division. 21 In some organisms such as certain fungi and algae cells undergo mitosis repeatedly without subsequently undergoing. cytokinesis What would result from this,a A rapid rate of sexual reproduction. b A decrease in chromosome number, c Division of the organism into many cells most lacking nuclei. d Large cells containing many nuclei, 22 A cell containing 92 chromatids at metaphase of mitosis would at its completion produce two nuclei each containing.