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2 1 Thrust Configurations 21 2 2 Thrust Equation 23 2 3 Basic Engine Performance Parameters 28 2 4 Propulsion and Aircraft Performance 34 2 5 Propeller Propulsion 38 2 6 MATLAB1 Program 39 2 7 Problems 40 Bibliography 42 3 Basic Analyses of Gas Turbine Engines 43 3 1 Introduction 43 3 2 Gas Turbine Engine as a Power Cycle Brayton Cycle 43
PROPULSION,Aerospace Series List,Aerospace Propulsion Lee October 2013. Aircraft Flight Dynamics and Control Durham August 2013. Civil Avionics Systems Second Edition Moir Seabridge and Jukes August 2013. Modelling and Managing Airport Performance Zografos July 2013. Advanced Aircraft Design Conceptual Design Torenbeek June 2013. Analysis and Optimization of Subsonic Civil, Design and Analysis of Composite Structures Kassapoglou April 2013. With applications to aerospace Structures,Second Edition. Aircraft Systems Integration of Air Launched Rigby April 2013. Design and Development of Aircraft Systems Moir and Seabridge November 2012. Second Edition, Understanding Aerodynamics Arguing from the McLean November 2012. Real Physics, Aircraft Design A Systems Engineering Approach Sadraey October 2012. Introduction to UAV Systems Fourth Edition Fahlstrom and Gleason August 2012. Theory of Lift Introductory Computational McBain August 2012. Aerodynamics with MATLAB and Octave, Sense and Avoid in UAS Research and Angelov April 2012. Applications, Morphing Aerospace Vehicles and Structures Valasek April 2012. Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems MacIsaac and Langton July 2011. Basic Helicopter Aerodynamics Third Edition Seddon and Newman July 2011. Advanced Control of Aircraft Spacecraft and Tewari July 2011. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Tsourdos et al November 2010. Principles of Flight for Pilots Swatton October 2010. Air Travel and Health A Systems Perspective Seabridge et al September 2010. Unmanned Aircraft Systems UAVS Design Austin April 2010. Development and Deployment, Introduction to Antenna Placement Installations Macnamara April 2010. Principles of Flight Simulation Allerton October 2009. Aircraft Fuel Systems Langton et al May 2009,The Global Airline Industry Belobaba April 2009. Computational Modelling and Simulation Diston April 2009. of Aircraft and the Environment Volume 1,Platform Kinematics and Synthetic Environment. Handbook of Space Technology Ley Wittmann Hallmann April 2009. Aircraft Performance Theory and Practice for Pilots Swatton August 2008. Aircraft Systems Third Edition Moir Seabridge March 2008. Introduction to Aircraft Aeroelasticity And Loads Wright Cooper December 2007. Stability and Control of Aircraft Systems Langton September 2006. Military Avionics Systems Moir Seabridge February 2006. Design and Development of Aircraft Systems Moir Seabridge June 2004. Aircraft Loading and Structural Layout Howe May 2004. Aircraft Display Systems Jukes December 2003, Civil Avionics Systems Moir Seabridge December 2002. PROPULSION,Arizona State University USA,This edition first published 2014. 2014 John Wiley Sons Ltd,Registered office, John Wiley Sons Ltd The Atrium Southern Gate Chichester West Sussex PO19 8SQ United Kingdom. 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MATLAB1 software, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Lee T W Tae Woo,Aerospace propulsion TW Lee,1 online resource. Includes bibliographical references and index, Description based on print version record and CIP data provided by. publisher resource not viewed, ISBN 978 1 118 53465 6 Adobe PDF ISBN 978 1 118 53487 8 ePub ISBN. 978 1 118 30798 4 cloth 1 Airplanes Jet propulsion 2 Rocketry I. 629 10 1 dc23,2013027339, A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. ISBN 978 1 118 30798 4, Set in 10 12 pt Times by Thomson Digital Noida India. Series Preface ix,Preface xi,1 Introduction to Propulsion Systems 1. 1 1 Conservation of Momentum 7, 1 2 Conservation of Energy the First Law of Thermodynamics. and Other Thermodynamic Relationships 10,1 3 One Dimensional Gas Dynamics 13. 1 4 Heat Transfer 14,1 5 Standard Atmospheric Air Properties 15. 1 6 Unit Conversion 17,1 7 Problems 20,Bibliography 20. 2 Principle of Thrust 21,2 1 Thrust Configurations 21. 2 2 Thrust Equation 23,2 3 Basic Engine Performance Parameters 28. 2 4 Propulsion and Aircraft Performance 34,2 5 Propeller Propulsion 38. 2 6 MATLAB1 Program 39,2 7 Problems 40,Bibliography 42. 3 Basic Analyses of Gas Turbine Engines 43,3 1 Introduction 43. 3 2 Gas Turbine Engine as a Power Cycle Brayton Cycle 43. 3 3 Ideal Cycle Analysis for Turbofan Engines 49,3 4 Turbojets Afterburners and Ramjets 61. 3 4 1 Turbojet 61,3 4 2 Turbojets with Afterburners 64. 3 4 3 Turbofan Engines with Afterburning Mixed Stream 68. 3 4 4 Ramjets 70,vi Contents,3 5 Further Uses of Basic Engine Analysis 73. 3 6 MATLAB1 Program 76,3 7 Problems 77,Bibliography 79. 4 Gas Turbine Components Inlets and Nozzles 81,4 1 Gas Turbine Inlets 81. 4 2 Subsonic Diffuser Operation 82,4 3 Supersonic Inlet Operation 91. 4 4 Gas Turbine Nozzles 95,4 5 Problems 98,Bibliography 99. 5 Compressors and Turbines 101,5 1 Introduction 101. 5 2 Basic Compressor Aero Thermodynamics 103,5 2 1 Compressor Stage Performance 107. 5 2 2 Pressure Coefficient and Boundary Layer Separation 109. 5 2 3 de Haller Number and the Diffusion Factor 110. 5 2 4 Mach Number Effect 111,5 2 5 Degree of Reaction 112. 5 3 Radial Variations in Compressors 115, 5 3 1 Stage Work and Degree of Reaction for Free Vortex Swirl. Distribution 118,5 4 Preliminary Compressor Analysis Design 119. 5 5 Centrifugal Compressors 120,5 6 Turbine 123, 5 6 1 Estimation of the Blade Stagnation Temperature 126. 5 6 2 Turbine Blade and Disk Stresses 128,5 7 MATLAB1 Programs 129. 5 8 Problems 131,Bibliography 133,6 Combustors and Afterburners 135. 6 1 Combustion Chambers 135,6 2 Jet Fuels and Heating Values 137. 6 3 Fluid Mixing in the Combustor 141,6 4 Afterburners 149. 6 5 Combustor Heat Transfer 152,6 6 Stagnation Pressure Loss in Combustors 153. 6 7 Problems 155,Bibliography 157,7 Gas Turbine Analysis with Efficiency Terms 159. 7 1 Introduction 159, 7 2 Turbofan Engine Analysis with Efficiency Terms 160. Contents vii,7 2 1 Polytropic Factor 162,7 2 2 Diffuser 164. 7 2 3 Compressor and Fan 164,7 2 4 Combustor 165,7 2 5 Turbine Power Balance 165. 7 2 6 Nozzle Exit Pressure 165,7 2 7 Output Parameters 166. 7 3 MATLAB1 Program 172,7 4 Problems 174,Bibliography 175. 8 Basics of Rocket Propulsion 177,8 1 Introduction 177. 8 2 Basic Rocketry 182,8 2 1 Specific Impulse 182,8 2 2 Vehicle Acceleration 183. 8 2 3 Staging 184,8 2 4 Propulsion and Overall Efficiencies 188. 8 3 MATLAB1 Programs 189,8 4 Problems 190,Bibliography 191. 9 Rocket Propulsion and Mission Analysis 193,9 1 Introduction 193. 9 2 Trajectory Calculations 195,9 3 Rocket Maneuvers 203. 9 3 1 Coplanar Orbit Change 205,9 3 2 Hohmann Transfer 206. 9 3 3 Plane Change 207,9 3 4 Attitude Adjustments 208. 9 4 Missile Pursuit Algorithms and Thrust Requirements 209. 9 4 1 Velocity Pursuit 210,9 4 2 Proportional Navigation 211. 9 4 3 Command to Line of Sight CLOS 212,9 5 Problems 213. Bibliography 215,10 Chemical Rockets 217,10 1 Rocket Thrust 217. 10 1 1 Ideal Rocket Thrust 217, 10 1 2 Thrust Coefficient and Characteristic Velocity 218. 10 2 Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines 220,10 2 1 Liquid Propellants and Their Chemistry 222. 10 2 2 Chemical Equilibrium 225,10 2 3 Liquid Propellants Combustion Chambers 232. 10 3 Solid Propellant Combustion 244,viii Contents. 10 3 1 Burning Rate Analysis 247,10 4 Rocket Nozzles 252. 10 4 1 Thrust Vector Control 254, 10 4 2 Nozzle and Combustion Chamber Heat Transfer 254. 10 5 MATLAB1 Program 256,10 6 Problems 256,Bibliography 258. 11 Non Chemical Rockets 259,11 1 Electrothermal Devices 261. 11 2 Ion Thrusters 265,11 2 1 Ion Generation 266,11 2 2 Acceleration of Ions 271. 11 2 3 Electromagnetic Thrusters 275,11 3 Problems 280. Bibliography 282,Appendices 283, Appendix A Standard Atmospheric Air Properties 283. Appendix B Specific Heats for Air as a Function of Temperature 286. Appendix C Normal Shock Properties 287,Appendix D Oblique Shock Angle Chart 291. Appendix E Polynomial Coefficients for Specific Heat of Selected Gases 292. Appendix F Standard state Gibbs free energy T 298 15K P 1 atm. gof T kj kmol 293,Series Preface, There are books in the Aerospace Series that deal with propulsion systems for aircraft They. generally treat the engine and its control system as an integral part of the aircraft as an. installed system The interactions between the propulsion system and the aircraft systems are. The power plant of an airborne vehicle is critical to its performance and its safe operation. so it is vital for engineers working in this field to understand the fundamentals of the. propulsion system This book provides a different viewpoint to that of the systems books it is. very much an analytical view of the power plant itself and it should be read as a complement. to the other propulsion books The author introduces the reader to the principles of thrust and. the gas turbine engine before providing a comprehensive mathematical treatment of the major. components of the propulsion mechanism and the complex aerodynamic and thermodynamic. processes within various engine types both air breathing and rocket This is to provide a. basis for developing an understanding of propulsion systems and the modeling tools that can. be used to provide a comprehensive and practical knowledge for use in research and industry. MATLAB1 models are provided to reinforce the explanations and exercises are also set for. the diligent student to pursue, The book covers gas turbine aeronautical systems and rocket propulsion astronautic. systems and is hence of interest to engineers working in the fields of aircraft missiles and. space vehicles Some novel propulsion systems are also described that may be pertinent to. emerging fields of aerospace transportation systems setting out to meet environmental. objectives, This is a book for those engineers who wish to understand the fundamental principles of. aerospace propulsion systems, Peter Belobaba Jonathan Cooper and Allan Seabridge. Aerospace propulsion devices embody some of the most advanced technologies ranging from. materials fluid control and heat transfer and combustion In order to maximize performance. sophisticated testing and computer simulation tools are developed and used In undergraduate. or introductory graduate courses in aerospace propulsion we only cover the basic elements of. fluid mechanics thermodynamics heat transfer and combustion science so that either in. industry or in research labs the students engineers can address some of the modern design and. development aspects, Compressor aerodynamics for example is a dynamic process involving rotating blades that. see different flows at different radial and axial locations Cascade and transonic flow behavior. can make the analyses more complex and interesting In turbine flows the gas temperature is. high and thus various material and heat transfer issues become quite important Owing to the. rotating nature of turbine and compressor fluids intricate flow control between the axis and. the blade section needs to be used while allowing for cooling flow passage from the. compressor to the turbine blades Combustor flow is even more complex since liquid phase. fuel needs to be sprayed atomized evaporated and burned in a compact volume High heat. release and requirements for downstream dilution and cooling again make the flow design. quite difficult and challenging All of these processes spray atomization phase change. combustion heat transfer convection and radiation and mixing occur in turbulent flows. and no computational tools can accurately reproduce real flows without lengthy modeling and. calibration Any one of the issues mentioned above such as spray atomization turbulent flow. or combustion is an unsolved problem in science and engineering and this is the reason for. industry and research labs developing expensive testing and computational analysis methods. This aspect makes aerospace propulsion an important part of engineering curricula as it. provides an interdisciplinary and tough training ground for aerospace engineers. As noted above owing to the multiple engineering topics involved we only go into basic. elements of aerospace propulsion After some of the basics are covered we try to expose the. students to projects involving computational fluid dynamic CFD software since this is. frequently used in industry and in research labs There are commercial CFD packages that can. be readily made available to the students using educational licenses With online documen. tation and examples students can learn to operate these codes individually or in group. projects In addition the gas turbine lab at ASU allows the students to use actual testing data. for performance analyses These elements cannot be included in this book without stretching. xii Preface, the physical and mental limits but they are essential components in an aerospace propulsion. course to link the underlying science and engineering to practical applications. I have included discussions of both gas turbine and rocket propulsion for combined or. separate aerospace propulsion courses There are some good interrelations between aeronau. tical gas turbine and astronautical rocket propulsion based on the same knowledge set In. addition many students opt to take both aeronautical and astronautical propulsion unless a. combined course is offered since their final career choices are made many years downstream. Thank you for reading up to this point and potentially beyond. Introduction to Propulsion Systems, Propulsion systems include some of the most advanced technologies The high performance. requirements at low system weight necessitate advanced thermal fluid design materials. and system integration The thrust generated through a simple looking principle of. conservation of momentum or Newton s second law enables many human capabilities. such as high speed civil transport approximately 12 hours for trans Pacific flights. affordable personal aircraft advanced military aircrafts e g F 22 Raptor Sukhoi Earth. orbital operations Space Shuttle and numerous satellites planetary probes and possible. missions The propulsion technology can also lead to potentially destructive uses as in. cruise missiles intercontinental ballistic missiles and many other weapons propelled at. high speeds, A typical gas engine shown in Figure 1 1 achieves the high exit momentum through a. sequence of devices that include compressor combustor turbine and nozzle The ambient air. is ingested in gas turbine engines The compressor consists of a series of rotating blades. which aerodynamically is a set of airfoils using rotary motion to generate a pressure. differential as the air traverses the blade elements The air pressure is increased in the. compressor and sent into the combustor where the fuel is injected mixed with the air and. burned The air energy enthalpy increase is now used in the turbines to convert some of the. thermal energy enthalpy into shaft power This shaft power is used to power the compressor. by simply having a common axis between the turbine and the compressor in turbojet engines. However in turbofan engines the turbine power is used to run both the compressor and the. fan The fan adds enthalpy to the air stream in the fan section The energy available at the end. of the turbine section is converted to air kinetic energy in the nozzle The high kinetic energy. of the exhaust stream also has high momentum which is useful in generating thrust Ramjets. are a much simpler form of turbojet engines where ram compression of incoming stream at. supersonic speeds is sufficient to elevate the pressure of the air Fuel then needs to be injected. into this high pressure air stream and the resulting flame stabilized in the ramjet combustor. for sustained thrust, Advances in practically all aspect of engineering including propulsion technology can. be found in the Lockheed Martin F 22 Raptor Figure 1 2 that entered service in 2005. New materials such as advanced alloys and composite materials are used in the Raptor. Aerospace Propulsion First Edition T W Lee, 2014 John Wiley Sons Ltd Published 2014 by John Wiley Sons Ltd.