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Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners I Page i Foreword The legacy of apartheid is pervasive poverty especially in the former homeland areas of South
The legacy of apartheid is pervasive poverty especially in the former homeland areas of South. Africa To address this negative legacy the Department of Social Development has embarked. on a number of programmes These include the comprehensive and integrated social security. welfare provisions and the development of appropriate interventions to address poverty in the. country This is in line with our mission to ensure the provision of comprehensive integrated. sustainable and high quality social development services against vulnerability and poverty and to. create an enabling environment for sustainable development in partnership with those committed. to building a caring society, The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach SLA has been adopted as a framework for promoting self reliance and developing. the potential of the poor and marginalized people in the country. The toolkit for Community Development Practitioners in South Africa has been crafted by the department for use by any. practitioner involved in facilitating community development as a means through which SLA can be operationalised and. thereby ensure coherent community development process facilitation. This toolkit is aimed at capacitating Community Development Practitioners with practical tools to facilitate community. development It also enables communities to understand their vision strengths and livelihood opportunities It is generic and. flexible enough to incorporate future policy and programmatic developments in community development. The toolkit is a step by step manual for Community Development Practitioners to enable communities to engage effectively. in managing their own development It will assist Community Development Practitioners to facilitate discussions at. community level on livelihood issues assist communities plan and implement appropriate activities to enhance and maintain. their livelihoods identify projects and or interventions to improve their livelihoods undertake participatory monitoring and. evaluation reflect critically on their development situation learn from it and share their experiences It will also facilitate the. integration and coordination of the interventions of the Department of Social Development and other service providers at. community level, The valuable contribution by individuals from government and a wide range of non government actors at various stages. in the development of this toolkit is highly appreciated Our collective response and commitment to better facilitation of. community development will add value to the fight against poverty and underdevelopment. Mrs BEE Molewa,Minister of Social Development, Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners I Page i. Acknowledgements, This toolkit was developed following a participatory process by a number of people in a series of workshops This process. was initiated by Ms Sadi Luka Chief Director of Community Development who led the process of embedding sustainable. livelihood approaches in the Department of Social Development The people who were involved in the writing of the toolkit. are the following,National Department of Social Development. Alfa Mahlako Director Sustainable Livelihoods, Mbulaheni Mulaudzi Director Community Development Policy and Service Standards. Collin Mhlongo Deputy Director Sustainable Livelihoods. Mondli Mbhele Deputy Director Sustainable Livelihoods. Klaas Baloyi Assistant Director Non Profit Organisation. Ephraim Kgosana Assistant Director Youth Development. Mosidi Sekokope Assistant Director Community Development Policy and Service Standards. Patricia Mokwala Assistant Director Sustainable Livelihoods. Mlalelwa Mabona Assistant Director Sustainable Livelihoods. Martina Bopape Project Administrator Sustainable Livelihoods. Morwesi Mashilo Project Administrator Sustainable Livelihoods. Provincial departments of social development, Concern Khomola CDP Manager Sustainable Livelihoods Limpopo. Portia Ramasodi Deputy Manager Sustainable Livelihoods Limpopo. Rolly Lerutla Assistant Director Sustainable Livelihoods Limpopo. Dorothy Matsuyane Senior Admin Officer Sustainable Livelihoods Limpopo. Kgabo Magoro CDP Sustainable Livelihoods Limpopo, Keitumetse Motinyane Senior Admin Officer Sustainable Livelihoods Free State. Lindiwe Mahlangu Deputy Director Sustainable Livelihoods Free State. Edwina McMaster Programme Manager Sustainable Livelihoods Gauteng. Mbali Ngwane Assistant Director Sustainable Livelihoods Gauteng. Fannie Appelcryn Deputy Director Sustainable Livelihoods Gauteng. Peter Nonyane Deputy Director Sustainable Livelihoods Mpumalanga. Seshoka Nakampe Assistant Manager Sustainable Livelihoods Mpumalanga. Sibongile Nkosi Deputy Director Sustainable Livelihoods KwaZulu Natal. Msindisi Mbalo Director Sustainable Livelihoods KwaZulu Natal. Itumeleng Kwenane Programme Manager Sustainable Livelihoods Northern Cape. Marcia Kalebe Deputy Director Sustainable Livelihoods Northern Cape. Uthant Siyo Assistant Director Sustainable Livelihoods Eastern Cape. Lubabalo Mbekeni Programme Manager Sustainable Livelihoods Western Cape. Godfrey Mathe Programme Manager Sustainable Livelihoods North West. Khanya AICDD,Ian Goldman,Vincent Hungwe,Patricia Masanganise. Sam Chimbuya,Maserame Moeketsi, Page ii I Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners. Table of contents,Foreword i,Acknowledgements ii,List of tools processes examples vi. Section 1 1,Introduction 1,1 1 Context of the toolkit 1. 1 2 Purpose of the toolkit 2,1 3 Principles underlying the toolkit 2. 1 4 Aim of the toolkit 2,1 5 Structure of the toolkit 3. Section 2 4, Setting the scene Community development and sustainable livelihoods 4. 2 1 The Department of Social Development mandate and vision for community development 4. 2 1 1 Mandate for Community Development 4,2 1 2 Vision for community development 4. 2 2 Indicators for developed communities 4,2 3 Principles underlying community development 5. 2 4 Understanding sustainable livelihoods 6,2 4 1 What is a livelihood 6. 2 4 2 What makes a livelihood sustainable 6, 2 4 3 What is the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach 6. 2 4 3 1 Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and its uses 7. 2 4 3 2 Sustainable livelihood principles 8, 2 4 3 3 Governance issues for promoting sustainable livelihoods 9. Section 3 10, Overview of the work of community development practitioners 10. 3 1 Role of a CDP 10,3 2 Competencies required by a CDP 11. 3 2 1 Essential basic skills and capabilities 11, 3 2 2 Desirable skills and experience for a CDP may be developed on the job 11. 3 2 3 Personal qualities of a CDP 11,3 2 4 CDPs as facilitators 11. 3 3 Training mentoring and coaching of CDPs 12,3 4 Support and supervision of CDPs 12. 3 4 1 Induction programme 12, 3 4 2 Provision of technical and administrative support 13. 3 4 3 Regular reviews 13,Section 4 15, Managing interactions with communities and key stakeholders 15. 4 1 Entering the community 15,4 2 Stakeholder linkages 16. 4 3 Building stakeholder commitment 18, Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners I Page iii. Section 5 20,Understanding the community 20, 5 1 Participatory Learning for Action methods and tools 20. 5 2 Situation analysis 21,5 2 1 Community profiling 21. 5 2 2 Household profiling 23,Section 6 24, Planning for change Identification and formulation of sustainable livelihood interventions 24. 6 1 Identification and formulation of livelihoods intervention through community based planning 24. 6 1 1 What is community based planning 24,6 1 2 The CBP process 24. 6 1 3 Identifying and formulating livelihood interventions 26. 6 2 Project planning 30,Section 7 33, Mobilisation of resources for community development 33. 7 1 Resource mobilisation process 33,7 2 Discretionary funding 35. 7 3 Community based resource mobilisation 37,Section 8 38. Facilitating the implementation of livelihood interventions 38. 8 1 Support for the implementation of livelihood interventions 38. 8 1 1 Project management committee or project steering committee 38. 8 1 2 Financial management 39,8 1 3 Community mobilisation 40. 8 2 Conflict management 40,8 2 1 Handling conflict in meetings 40. 8 2 2 Unpacking conflict 41,Section 9 43,Monitoring evaluation and learning 43. 9 1 Monitoring 43,9 2 Evaluation 44,9 3 Learning and sharing 45. Annexure 1 Detailed version of Sustainable Livelihoods Framework 48. Annexure 2 Use of cards in facilitation 49,Annexure 3 Checklist for community profiling 50. Annexure 4 Community profiling tool 51,Annexure 5 Checklist for household profiling 58. Annexure 6 Household Profiling Tool 59,Annexure 7 Pre planning community meeting 74. Annexure 8 Well being ranking 76,Annexure 9 Community planning launch meeting 77. Annexure 10 Interviews with key resource people in the community 79. Annexure 11 Timeline 80,Annexure 12 Transect walk 82. Page iv I Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners. Annexure 13 Mapping spatial geographical issues 83. Annexure 14 Analysing seasonality 85, Annexure 15 Analysing services and service providers 87. Annexure 16 Analysing people s livelihoods livelihood analysis 90. Annexure 17 SWOT analysis of social groups in the community 94. Annexure 18 Consolidating SWOT into outcomes 95, Annexures 19 Verification and prioritisation of outcomes 97. Annexure 20 Reconciliation of prioritised outcomes 99. Annexure 21 Visioning 100,Annexure 22 Developing objectives 101. Annexure 23 Developing strategies 102, Annexure 24 Developing livelihood interventions projects and activities 103. Annexure 25 Developing proposals for submission to IDP 105. Annexure 26 Developing IDP project sheets 106, Annexure 27 Developing a discretionary funds budget 107. Annexure 28 Developing a ward action plan 109,Annexure 29 Approval of plan by ward 111. Annexure 30 Documentation of the ward plan 112, Annexure 31 Feedback to community before implementation 113. Annexure 32 Monitoring and evaluation process 114, Annexure 33 Briefs for conflict resolution role play 117. List of tools processes examples,Tool 1 Progress review form 14. Tool 2 Tips on managing interactions with key community stakeholders 17. Tool 3 PLA tools that can be used for community profiling 22. Tool 4 Applying sustainable livelihood principles when identifying interventions 28. Tool 5 Project concept sheet 31, Tool 6 Terms of reference for a project steering committee 39. Tool 7 Terms of reference for a project management committee 39. Tool 8 Checklist for dealing with conflict in meetings 41. Tool 9 Roleplay as a way of helping participants reflect on conflict 41. Tool 10 Questions for reflecting on a conflict situation 42. Tool 11 Some activities that can promote learning and sharing 46. Tool 12 Cards as a facilitation tool 49, Tool 13 Suggested schedule for the planning process 75. Tool 14 The River Code Story 78, Tool 15 Checklist for key resource people interviews 79. Process 1 Review procedure 13,Process 2 Entering the community 15. Process 3 Researching the stakeholders working in the community 17. Process 4 Inception meeting or workshop to build stakeholder commitment 18. Process 5 Community profiling process 22,Process 6 The CBP process 25. Process 7 Identification of suitable livelihood interventions 26. Process 8 Project planning process 30,Process 9 Project budgeting 32. Process 10 Resource mobilisation process 35, Process 11 Project targeting for discretionary funding 36. Process 12 Community organisation and capacity building for CBOs 40. Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners I Page v. Process 13 Some elements of monitoring 44, Process 14 Activities to undertake as part of evaluation 45. Process 15 Critical reflection on a project 47,Process 16 Exchange visits 47. Process 17 Mobilisation of key stakeholders in community for the planning process 74. Process 18 Wellbeing ranking 76,Process 19 Launching planning week 77. Process 20 Generating information from key resource people in the community 79. Example 1 Promoting empowered communities 9, Example 2 Strenghtened local governments and other service organisations 9. Example 3 Experiences from the Gauteng Provincial Stakeholder Relations Unit 19. Example 4 Example of participatory project planning The Nkandla food security project in KwaZulu Natal 29. Example 5 Summary of submissions to IDP from Ward 2 Mangaung Local Municipality 34. Example 6 Example of a budget for discretionary funding from Ward 2 Mangaung Local Municipality 36. Example 7 Possible community funding mechanisms Models of 37. Example 8 Example of wellbeing ranking 76,Figure 1 The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework 7. Figure 2 The community development process 10, Figure 3 Mind map of possible livelihoods interventions Source Department of Social Development. Northern Cape Strategic Plan 27,Acronyms and abbreviations. ABET Adult basic education and training, AICDD African Institute for Community driven Development. CBO Community based organisation,CBP Community based planning. CDP Community Development Practitioner,CSO Civil society organisation. ECD Early childhood development,FBO Faith based organisation. GCIS Government Communication and Information System. HCBC Home community based care,IDP Integrated Development Plan. ISRDP Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Programme. LED Local Economic Development,NGO Non governmental organisation. NPO Non profit organisation,PLA Participatory Learning for Action. PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal, SWOT Strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats. URP Urban Renewal Programme, Page vi I Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners. Introduction,1 1 Context of the toolkit, In 2001 the Government of South Africa launched the Integrated Sustainable Rural Development Programme ISRDP. and Urban Renewal Programme URP to improve coordination of development in priority areas of deprivation In 2006. the national Department of Social Development commissioned studies to evaluate the livelihoods of poor and vulnerable. people in urban and rural nodes as well as the performance of the department s services and projects in the nodes After this. evaluation it was recommended that the department rethink and enhance its identity beyond social welfare and protection. and become the champion of a broader and longer term community development process anchored in a sustainable. livelihoods approach, The intention was to improve livelihoods by urging communities to express their voices and choices promoting responsive. service delivery including enhancing the involvement of communities in service delivery and facilitating effective stakeholder. coordination in programme and project planning and implementation For this to happen people concerned with community. development needs to understand the sustainable livelihoods approach It is also important to develop a culture of critical. reflection learning and sharing among Department of Social Development staff both at national and provincial levels The. toolkit is intended to enable this by providing practical guidance for community development practitioners CDPs to. effectively facilitate community development processes using the sustainable livelihoods approach. A number of people were involved in compiling this toolkit and the full list of contributors is acknowledged on page ii. Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners I Page 1. 1 2 Purpose of the toolkit, The purpose of this toolkit is to enable CDPs in South Africa to enable communities to engage effectively in managing their. own development In particular the toolkit will assist CDPs to. Facilitate discussions at community level on livelihood issues. Help communities plan and implement appropriate activities to enhance and maintain their livelihoods. Help communities identify projects and or interventions to improve their livelihoods. Help communities undertake participatory monitoring and evaluation. Help communities to reflect critically on their development situation learn from it and share their experiences and. Assist the integration and coordination of the Department of Social Development and other service providers at. community level,1 3 Principles underlying the toolkit. The set of principles below was developed to structure and inform the content and utilisation of the toolkit for CDPs. Principles underlying the toolkit,The toolkit for CDPs should. Promote professional work in terms of process and content. Promote flexibility and innovation and should not be viewed as a blueprint for community development. Promote cost effective and responsive services by providers. Be practical user friendly and accessible at community level. Be empowering to both staff and clients, Complement and integrate with relevant existing systems inside and outside of the organisation using it. Be supplemented with training and learning by doing for people to be able to use the toolkit effectively and. Be translated into different South African languages including Braille. 1 4 Aim of the toolkit, The toolkit is to be used by CDPs in South Africa to help communities understand their visions strengths and livelihood. opportunities However the toolkit is also generic and flexible enough to incorporate any proposals emerging from policy. developments in community development for example the development of a new community development policy. framework and the development of norms and standards for CDPs The toolkit is straightforward informative and has. enough practical guidelines to be used as a resource across sectors and in other countries in the region. Page 2 I Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners. 1 5 Structure of the toolkit,The toolkit is structured as follows. Section 1 is the introduction to the toolkit and outlines the context purpose target group and principles that inform. its structure content operation and use, Section 2 articulates the mandate vision and approach of the Department of Social Development to community. development It also provides an overview of the sustainable livelihoods approach and the governance issues that CDPs. need to understand in facilitating community development. Section 3 defines what CDPs are defines their core role and outlines the training requirements and support they need. on an ongoing basis so that they can effectively fulfil their role in community development. Section 4 outlines ways to access the community and the integration and coordination with other stakeholders needed. to promote effective development in communities, Section 5 outlines activities related to understanding the community including household and community profiling. and community based planning CBP explaining the steps on gathering data and information to guide the planning of. livelihoods interventions, Section 6 carries on the planning with guidance on how to identify and develop sustainable livelihood interventions. Section 7 gives direction on the mobilisation of resources to support implementation of community development. projects and programmes, Section 8 is concerned with the ongoing facilitation and implementation of development including implementation of. a ward plan if necessary, Section 9 outlines the participatory monitoring evaluation and learning and sharing processes needed for ongoing. active learning and effective community development. Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners I Page 3. Setting the scene Community development and sustainable livelihoods. 2 1 The Department of Social Development mandate and vision for community. development, Community development focuses on building active and sustainable communities based on social justice and mutual respect. It seeks to change power structures in order to remove the barriers that prevent poor people and vulnerable individuals. such as women and children from participating in issues that affect their lives and development. 2 1 1 Mandate for Community Development, The constitutional mandate of the Department of Social Development is to provide sector wide national leadership in. coordinating and facilitating community development as a key component of the social development agenda The Department. develops and implements programmes for social protection and investment in order to eradicate poverty and realise social. development targeting the poor vulnerable and marginalised. The mandate of the Department regarding community development was institutionalised through the White Paper on. Welfare Services of 1997 This led to the formulation of the National Development Social Welfare Strategy The vision of the. strategy is to promote a welfare system that facilitates the development of human capacity and self reliance within a caring. and enabling socio economic environment Community development was identified as one of the key drivers in achieving. the objectives of the strategy This would be realised by addressing the basic material physical and psycho social needs of. the target groups Community development would also inform the re orientation of social welfare programmes towards. comprehensive integrated and developmental strategies. 2 1 2 Vision for community development, The vision of the Department of Social Development regarding community development is a caring and integrated system. of social development services that facilitates human development and improves the quality of life This vision is informed. by an understanding that the clients of the Department are the poor vulnerable and marginalised individuals households and. communities Traditionally the Department of Social Development responded to challenges faced by the poor mainly from. an income perspective through social grants However it has since been established that social grants have limited impact. in eradicating poverty They merely mitigate its impact One of the key issues that emerged from the ISRDP URP research. commissioned by the Department of Social Development in 2006 was the need to rethink its vision The new vision of the. Department is informed by the sustainable livelihoods approach as the basis for anchoring its programmes and interventions. in the context of community development,2 2 Indicators for developed communities. A developed community would show improved livelihoods of its members The community members would be empowered. to manage their own development This section explains the meaning of livelihoods in more detail The six governance issues. indicate the institutional arrangement and responsibilities of different levels of governance needed in a country to support. community development The following elements should exist at a community level. People in communities need to have a shared understanding of the issues that affect their development and plan for. joint action, People should be enabled to access adequate and affordable goods and services. Page 4 I Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners. People should be confident and skilled when presenting their needs to authorities. People must be capable of finding enduring solutions to their problems. People need to be able to mobilise the commitment of others and resources to achieve common goals and solve. The community needs to be able to identify attract and manage the resources and capacities they require to meet. most local needs, The community has to play a major role in protecting their environment and respond creatively to changing. circumstances, Community leaders and representatives must be properly selected and held accountable. Public agencies and departments the private sector and civil society must be aware of and integrate each others work. within local communities, Development partners must have insight into how communities work and have several channels for dialogue among. themselves and with communities,2 3 Principles underlying community development. There is a world view or set of principles that affects the way community development is undertaken how CDPs work and. the impacts they are likely to have The particular values that underpin community development are shown below. World view or values regarding community development. Community development should, Promote social justice and empowerment Development should empower communities to claim their rights and. meet their needs have greater control over the decision making processes that affect their lives as well as to. exercise their responsibilities as citizens, Ensure access and choice for all groups and individuals in households and communities. Reverse inequality and imbalances of power relationships in households and communities thus promoting social. Promote change that is long term and sustainable Interventions must respond to priorities identified by communities. and seek to generate substantive and timely benefits tangible and intangible that can be sustained. Be community owned For development to be sustainable initiatives must be fully owned by the community. Assist communities to be more self reliant and access external resources which they are entitled to and. Influence policies and programmes from the perspective of communities. This can be achieved through, Participation Facilitating the democratic involvement of people in issues and decisions that affect their lives based on. full citizenship autonomy and shared power skills knowledge and experience. Prioritising the issues of concern for people experiencing poverty and exclusion. Equality Challenging the attitudes of individuals and the practices of institutions and society that discriminate against. and marginalise certain groups of people, Building on strengths Recognising the skills knowledge and expertise that people contribute and develop by taking. action to tackle social economic political and environmental problems. Promoting co operation and collective action Working together to identify and implement actions based on mutual. respect for diverse cultures and contributions, Effective partnerships Development can only happen through effective and mutually beneficial networks and. partnerships between communities and other development stakeholders including government the private sector. and civil society organisations CSOs that build on their respective competences. Altruism Selfless concern for the welfare of others is a traditional virtue in many cultures. Inclusiveness All citizens should be given equal opportunities to be involved in development processes. There must be mutual accountability between communities and external stakeholders as well as within communities. There is need to challenge discrimination and oppressive practices within organisations institutions and communities. Development practice and policy must protect the environment and the resource base for future generations. Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners I Page 5. 2 4 Understanding sustainable livelihoods, It is important for CDPs to have a clear understanding of sustainable livelihhods if they are to be able to effectively facilitate. community development,2 4 1 What is a livelihood, A livelihood is the means that a household or community uses to achieve the wellbeing of its members and to sustain it It. also comprises the different elements that contribute to or affect their ability to ensure a living. 2 4 2 What makes a livelihood sustainable, A livelihood is considered sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks A stress is a long term. chronic event that affects people such as the impact of HIV and AIDS on family members A shock is an acute unexpected. event that negatively impacts people s livelihoods such as crime drought war or death A household or community livelihood. is sustainable when it is able to maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future At the same time. the livelihood must not undermine the natural resource base of the area It must also have the ability to provide livelihood. opportunities for future generations and contribute net benefits to other livelihood activities in the area in the short and. The widely accepted understanding of a sustainable livelihood is shown below. Understanding of a sustainable livelihood, A livelihood comprises the capabilities assets both material and social resources and activities required for a means of. living A household or community livelihood is sustainable when it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks and. maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets both now and in the future while not undermining the natural resource base. In summary the concept of a sustainable livelihood has the following components. The assets that the household owns or is able to gain access to human natural social financial and physical. The capability to recognise and use the assets to satisafy its basic household needs. The activities that allow the household to use those assets to satisfy basic needs and. The vulnerability context shocks and stresses the different factors that a household may have limited or no control. over such as natural disasters or economic trends that affect its livelihood. Sustainable livelihoods should therefore be the overriding development goal for improving people s lives and must be. measured using people s own standards, 2 4 3 What is the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach. The sustainable livelihoods approach is an approach to development used to guide CDPs on how to plan interventions for. enhancing livelihoods in communities It also addresses how to change the way development systems work so that they are. more responsive to development challenges, The approach focuses on people and their capacities assets and strengths rather than on their needs weaknesses and. constraints It identifies people s strengths and uses these to enhance their capabilities and assets in order to sustain their. livelihood strategies and activities A sustainable livelihoods approach can be used as a primary planning tool to identify. livelihood interventions, The following elements are important in understanding and applying the sustainable livelihoods approach. The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework,Sustainable livelihood principles. The six governance issues that outline the micro meso macro linkages and. The tools needed to practically implement the sustainable approach. Page 6 I Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners. 2 4 3 1 Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and its uses. The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework is a way of understanding livelihoods at household community municipality district or. provincial levels The framework provides an understanding of the relationship between households their assets capabilities. and activities and the factors in the local and external environment that either improve or undermine their livelihoods over. time see Figure 1,Khanya s adaption of DFID s Livelihoods Framework. Formal informal Environment,Policies Macro,Institutions Meso. Capital assets of HH Comm,Vulnerability to Natural. stresses and Opportunities,Social Human,Physical Financial. Influence Influence,Impact on Livelihood,vulnerability outcomes desired. Increasing,Livelihood opportunities,Impact on strategies chosen. livelihoods,Implementation,Figure 1 The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework. The framework includes the concepts of,People s assets or resources see adjoining box. Natural assets include water access to land forests. People s vulnerabilities to stresses and shocks such. wildlife etc,as to climate change conflict or crime These can. Human assets include skills level of nutrition security. be seen as the threats or risks people face,level of disease etc. The policies institutions and processes that affect. Physical assets include personal infrastructure housing. people such as services policies and grants, equipment such as oxen ploughs and sewing machines. which include different levels from community to, equal access to education and health facilities etc. Financial assets include sources for raising income. The outcomes that people want to realise in their,employment business remittances grants access to. lives such as to ensure a good education for their. children improved health or security in their old,Social assets include social networks and support. including the family clubs and societies traditional. The opportunities that people can exploit in their. structures culture political access etc,environment to realise their outcomes. People adopt livelihood strategies to explore available opportunities and manage their vulnerability context in order to realise. their desired outcomes Examples of livelihood strategies include getting a job migrating self employment and farming. The framework is also used to guide livelihoods analysis At a local micro level participatory tools are used to collect. information on understanding household and community livelihoods The detailed version of the Sustainable Livelihoods. Framework is shown in Annexure 1, Toolkit for Community Development Practitioners I Page 7.