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These were identified based on site visits and by using historical sources including local repositories texts images and maps Once the historic resources in the study area were identified the proposed project was assessed for its potential for direct physical impacts and indirect contextual impacts on architectural resources
Brooklyn Bridge Park FEIS, Archaeological resources in developed areas may have been disturbed or destroyed subsequently. by grading excavation and infrastructure installation and improvements However some. resources do survive in an urban environment Deposits may have been protected either by being. paved over or by having a building with a shallow foundation constructed above them In both. scenarios archaeological deposits may have been sealed beneath the surface and thereby. protected from further disturbance, The study area for archaeological resources is the area that would be disturbed for project. construction i e the project area itself The New York City Landmarks Preservation. Commission LPC and OPRHP were contacted for their preliminary evaluation of the project. area s archaeological sensitivity Based on this review a Phase 1A Archaeological Study for the. project area was prepared and reviewed by OPRHP and LPC Its conclusions are summarized. below under Existing Conditions 1,ARCHITECTURAL RESOURCES. The study area for architectural resources is known as the Area of Potential Effect APE of the. proposed project on architectural resources which accounts for both direct physical impacts and. indirect impacts Direct impacts include demolition of a resource and alterations to a resource. that change it such that it appears to be significantly different from its original structure A. resource could also be damaged by construction activities such as blasting pile driving falling. objects subsidence collapse or damage from construction machinery unless proper protection. measures are put in place Construction activity that would occur within 90 feet of an. architectural resource as defined in the New York City Department of Buildings DOB. Technical Policy and Procedure Notice TPPN 10 88 may cause such damage 2. Indirect impacts are contextual or visual impacts that could result from project construction or. operation As described in the CEQR Technical Manual indirect impacts could result from. blocking significant public views of a resource isolating a resource from its setting or. relationship to the streetscape altering the setting of a resource introducing incompatible visual. audible or atmospheric elements to a resource s setting or introducing shadows over a historic. landscape or an architectural resource with sun sensitive features that contribute to that. resource s significance i e a church with stained glass windows Significant adverse direct or. indirect impacts can occur if a project would cause a change in the quality of a property that. qualifies it for listing on the State and National Registers of Historic Places S NR or for. designation as a New York City Landmark NYCL, To account for potential physical and contextual impacts the architectural resources study area. for the Brooklyn Bridge Park project is defined as the project area itself where the Brooklyn. Queens Expressway serves as a physical and visual barrier to areas east Elsewhere the study. area was determined based on the potential visibility of the proposed project This area of. visibility differs from approximately 400 to 800 feet beyond the project area see Figure 7 1 Figure 7 1. Phase 1A Archaeological Assessment Brooklyn Bridge Park Project Brooklyn Kings County New. York prepared by Historical Perspectives Inc Raber Associates in April 2005. TPPN 10 88 was issued by DOB on June 6 1988 to supplement Building Code regulations with regard. to historic structures TPPN 10 88 outlines procedures for the avoidance of damage to historic. structures resulting from adjacent construction defined as construction within a lateral distance of 90. feet from the historic resource,ST HENRY ST,CITY HALL ROW MADISON. YS PAR MADISON ST MONROE,M A N H AT TA N,ER ST MARSHALL ST. BEAV EDISON,S W EMPIRE,FULTON FERRY,PLYMOUTH ST,STATE PARK. FU YORK ST,PROSPECT ST,Pier 2 ERR,OR HIGH ST,PLAZA WEST. Pier 3 NASSAU ST,CADMAN PLAZA EAST,CONCORD ST COMMODORE. JOHN BARRY,DUFFIELD ST,CATHEDRAL PL,BROOKLYN QUEENS. TILLARY ST,T JOHNSON ST,GR REM TBU,Pier 6 MYRTLE AVE. LAWRENCE ST,WILLOUGHBY ST,ST DEKALB AVE,IF IC S HO. Pier 9a T ST RN,Pier 9b IRV T,0 1000 2000,Project Site Known Historic Resources Feet. Study Area 1 Brooklyn Bridge,2 Manhattan Bridge, NOTE See Table 7 2 for reference 3 Fulton Ferry Historic District. 4 D U M B O Historic District,5 Former National Cold Storage Plant. 6 Atlantic Avenue Tunnel,7 Brooklyn Heights Historic District. 8 Brooklyn City Railroad Company Building,Historic Resources. BROOKLYN BRIDGE PARK Figure 7 1,Chapter 7 Historic Resources. CRITERIA AND REGULATIONS, Once the study area was determined an inventory of officially recognized architectural. resources in the APE was compiled Architectural Resources. Criteria for inclusion on the National Register are listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Title 36 Part 63 Districts sites buildings structures and objects are eligible for the National. Register if they possess integrity of location design setting materials workmanship feeling. and association and, A Are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patterns of. B Are associated with significant people, C Embody distinctive characteristics of a type period or method of construction represent the. work of a master possess high artistic value or that represent a significant and. distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction or. D May yield archaeological information important in prehistory or history. Properties that are less than 50 years of age are ordinarily not eligible unless they have achieved. exceptional significance Determinations of eligibility are made by OPRHP. LPC designates historically significant properties or areas in New York City as NYCLs and or. Historic Districts following the criteria provided in the Local Laws of the City of New York. New York City Charter Administrative Code Title 25 Chapter 3 Buildings properties or. objects are eligible for landmark status when they are at least 30 years old Landmarks have a. special character or special historical or aesthetic interest or value as part of the development. heritage or cultural characteristics of the city state or nation There are four types of. landmarks individual landmarks interior landmarks scenic landmarks and historic districts. In addition to identifying officially recognized architectural resources in the study area S NR. listed and eligible properties NYCLs and Historic Districts NYCHD and properties. determined eligible for landmark designation an inventory was compiled of other buildings that. could warrant recognition as architectural resources i e properties that could be eligible for. S NR listing or NYCL designation in compliance with CEQR and SEQRA guidelines. Potential Architectural Resources For this project potential architectural resources were. those that appeared to meet one or more of the National Register criteria described above. These were identified based on site visits and by using historical sources including local. repositories texts images and maps, Once the historic resources in the study area were identified the proposed project was assessed. for its potential for direct physical impacts and indirect contextual impacts on architectural. C HISTORICAL OVERVIEW, The area that became the village of Brooklyn including the project area was purchased from the. local Native Americans by the Dutch West India Company between 1638 and 1640 Land was. then sold to European settlers one of whom opened a ferry service between what is now. Cadman Plaza West and Manhattan in 1642 A village subsequently grew up around the ferry. landing known as het Veer or the Ferry The village became incorporated into the town of. Breuckelen four years later,Brooklyn Bridge Park FEIS. With the English capture of New Netherland in 1664 the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam. became New York and Breukelen was changed to Brookland and eventually Brooklyn During. the late 17th century structures were built along what would later be Fulton Street Cadman. Plaza West then known as Road to the Ferry or the Road to Jamaica Much of the. remainder of the project area was still under the East River By the time of the American. Revolution the area around the ferry landing had been developed as a busy marketplace with. industries such as slaughterhouses breweries and businesses such as shops inns and taverns. During the Revolution George Washington and the Continental Army escaped to Manhattan. after the Battle of Long Island, In 1796 a second ferry service known as both the new ferry and Catherine Street Ferry. named after its docking point in Manhattan was established at the foot of Main Street where. it joins with Water Street The Village of Brooklyn was incorporated in 1816 Two years prior to. that Robert Fulton the steamboat pioneer had established the first steamboat ferry running. from Brooklyn to Manhattan and the Road to the Ferry was renamed in his honor At the time. of Brooklyn s incorporation landfilling had extended as far as the line of newly created. Plymouth Street located a block north of Water Street During the 1820s the waterfront began. to be developed with new docks stores and warehouses in addition to the slaughterhouses. taverns and manufacturing plants that already lined the river Also at that time Brooklyn. Heights began to be developed as a residential district with typically two to three story frame. and brick houses built east of what is now Furman Street In 1834 Brooklyn was granted a. municipal charter and became a city Two years later a permanent water line was established. along the shoreline to accommodate the growing landfilled area s bulkheads particularly east of. the ferry landing, Brooklyn continued to grow through the mid 19th century New railroad service was brought. into the Fulton Ferry landing area by the Brooklyn City Railroad Company By the 1860s many. streets had been laid with municipal water and sewer pipes Development during this time. consisted of mostly warehouses and stores associated with maritime activity south of the ferry. landing with lumber coal and stone yards located north of the ferry landing. Following the Civil War for a period of approximately 15 years there was a surge of warehouse. construction along the waterfront These included the Empire Stores built in stages between. 1870 and 1885 on Plymouth Street and the Martin s Stores built circa 1876 1879 on the west. side of Furman Street between Poplar and Cranberry Streets By 1880 the Furman Street. waterfront was completely covered by brick warehouses that stored a variety of food items such. as coffee tobacco and sugar giving this portion of Brooklyn the name the walled city. The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge in 1883 was a significant engineering feat and served. as the first physical link between the independent cities of Brooklyn and New York which were. consolidated in 1898 However it led to the demise of the ferries which were the lifeblood of. the Fulton Landing area The bridge also bypassed the waterfront with new commercial. development instead occurring farther inland In 1900 the New York Dock Company which. had emerged as one of many Brooklyn marine warehouse firms in the 1850s consolidated. almost all the waterfront property between Fulton Street and the Erie Basin At its peak the New. York Dock Company owned or managed over 40 piers and approximately 150 stores and. warehouses making it the largest private freight terminal in the world During the first decades. of the 20th century the company rebuilt or enlarged nearly all the piers and bulkheads along the. waterfront and expanded local rail lines to service all the waterfront stores In 1917 the. company erected a three story office building at the northwest corner of Furman and Joralemon. Chapter 7 Historic Resources, Streets which is still present It also erected a ten story warehouse known as the Trade. Facilities Building at 360 Furman Street to be leased by manufacturing tenants Also during this. time the Kings County Refrigerating Company leased the former Martin s Stores from the New. York Dock Company and built a cold storage plant at 66 Furman Street which consisted of an. eight story reinforced concrete structure The remaining Martin s Stores were retrofitted for cold. storage use, In 1909 the Manhattan Bridge opened further diverting traffic and commercial development. away from the waterfront In 1924 the Fulton Ferry ceased operations The combination of these. changes along with the construction of subway and automobile tunnels under the East River led. to the eventual economic decline of Brooklyn s waterfront. Numerous changes occurred in the 1950s that changed the character of Brooklyn s waterfront. These include the construction of the Brooklyn Heights Esplanade in 1950 and the construction. of the Brooklyn Queens Expressway three years later The construction of this highway an. approximately 60 foot high elevated structure resulted in the demolition of numerous. residential buildings in Brooklyn Heights most specifically the northwest part of the. neighborhood south of Old Fulton Street It also separated Brooklyn Heights from the waterfront. since the Brooklyn Queens Expressway extends along and east of Furman Street creating both a. physical and visual barrier between areas east and west Also in the 1950s the New York Dock. Company sold its holdings to the Port of New York Authority PONYA now the Port. Authority of New York New Jersey PANYNJ 1 PONYA removed approximately 25 old finger. piers and demolished over 130 storage warehouses once operated by the New York Dock. Company to build its Brooklyn Marine Terminal stretching from Fulton Street to the Atlantic. Basin This terminal consisted of 13 new piers built between 1956 and 1964 and was designed. with wide piers and upland areas to combine break bulk cargo handling and to accommodate. truck traffic Within the project area these include five piers built for the terminal Piers 1 3 5. and 6 Pier 2 was completed in 1958 Piers 1 and 3 in 1959 Pier 6 in 1961 and Pier 5 in 1964. While PONYA viewed the Brooklyn Marine Terminal project as their largest and most. ambitious in the Port of New York it was almost immediately surpassed in size by the. construction of PONYA s Port Newark Port Elizabeth container terminals begun in 1958. Therefore although waterfront activity increased it was only for a short time as the switch to. container shipping which PONYA moved to its New Jersey ports from Brooklyn again. impacted the economic viability of the waterfront and led to the obsolescence of the Brooklyn. Marine Terminal by the late 1970s Though most of the late 19th century storage warehouses. south of Fulton Street had been demolished by PONYA by the 1960s to build the Brooklyn. Marine Terminal the Kings Country Refrigerating Plant which was taken over by the National. Cold Storage Company in 1914 operated until 1991 The structures that make up this plant are. presently standing though vacant since 1992, The information that follows pertaining to the development of the Brooklyn Marine Terminal is courtesy. of Michael S Raber of Raber Associates April 2005,Brooklyn Bridge Park FEIS. D EXISTING CONDITIONS,PROJECT AREA,ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES. The conclusions of the Phase 1A Archaeological Study prepared for the project area are. summarized below The Phase 1A Study focuses first on potential prehistoric Native American. archaeological resources and then on those from the historic period beginning in the 17th. Precontact Resources, Precontact sites are often characterized by their proximity to a water source fresh game and. exploitable natural resources such as plants raw materials for stone tools clay veins etc These. sites are typically placed into three categories primary site campsites or villages secondary. site tool manufacturing food processing and isolated finds a single or very few artifacts. Primary sites are often situated in areas that are easily defended against both weather and. enemies Secondary sites are often found in proximity to locations of exploitable resources such. as shell fish near the water and lithic raw materials Isolated finds generally indicate that. artifacts were probably dropped or discarded through a temporary activity such as someone. passing through the area, No precontact sites have been recorded in the project area nor within a one mile radius of. downtown Brooklyn The only sites that have been recently documented are in such places as. Governors Island and Staten Island which have not experienced substantial subsurface. disturbance The project site has been developed continuously since the 17th century when large. portions of it were originally in the East River Since the natural shoreline of the East River has. been completely altered through historic and modern development including landfilling the. likelihood of encountering intact precontact archaeological sensitivity in the project area is. extremely low, In terms of potential resources under the East River though researchers have recently written. about the possibility that precontact sites once located along ancient river shorelines but now. inundated due to higher water levels may be preserved in areas now under the waters in and. near New York Harbor it is unlikely that any such sites exist in the project area Soil borings. indicate that former ground surfaces have been disturbed likely due to a combination of strong. river currents filling and dredging to deepen waterways. Consequently the project area is not considered sensitive for precontact resources and no. further analysis of such resources in the project area is warranted. Historic Period Resources, The project area has the potential to contain significant archaeological resources related to the. 17th 18th and 19th century development of the Brooklyn waterfront that have not been. disturbed through later development The locations types and depths of these resources are. presented in Table 7 1 below and include landfilling devices building foundations and potential. remains of a Revolutionary War ship which could be present at the foot of Joralemon Street. Chapter 7 Historic Resources, Potential Historic Period Archaeological Resources in the Project Area. Location Type of Resource Potential Depth Below the Surface. Foundations from the former early Expected commencing below the first foot. 20th century Arbuckle Bros sugar beneath the surface. refinery buildings beneath Block 1, Pre and post 1840 landfilling Top of landfilling devices beneath Arbuckle. Block 1 and Pearl Street devices timber bulkheads beneath Bros foundations Bottom of landfilling. Block 1 and Pearl Street devices ca 20 25 feet below the surface. Remains of an early 19th century pier Approximately 5 10 feet below the surface. beneath Block 1 and Pearl Street, Pre and post 1840 landfill retaining Top of landfilling devices beneath existing. Block 7 and Washington, devices timber bulkheads beneath building foundations Bottom of landfilling. Block 7 and Washington Street device ca 20 25 feet below the surface. Pre and post 1840 landfilling Top of landfilling devices ca 5 10 feet below. retaining devices timber bulkheads grade Bottom of landfilling devices ca 20 25. feet below the surface, Pre 1850s and post 1850s Catherine Ferry landing expected at ca 14 feet below. Street Ferry structures the surface, Remains from the Fulton Stores and Expected commencing below the first foot. the Tobacco Warehouses beneath beneath the surface. New Dock Street,Block 25 and New Dock, Street Pre and post 1840 landfilling devices Top of landfilling devices ca 5 10 feet below. timber bulkheads grade Bottom of landfilling devices ca 20 25. feet below the surface, Remains of 19th century piers Approximately 5 10 feet beneath the surface. Resources associated with the Expected commencing below the first foot. Empire Stores beneath the surface, Foundation remains of the Fulton Expected commencing below the first foot. Stores and Tobacco Warehouses beneath the surface,Block 26 north of the existing Tobacco. Warehouses, Pre and post 1840 landfilling devices Top of landfilling devices ca 5 10 feet below. timber bulkheads grade Bottom of landfilling devices ca 20 25. feet below the surface, Pre and post 1840 landfilling devices Top of landfilling devices approximately 5 10. timber bulkheads feet below grade Bottom of landfilling devices. approximately 20 25 feet below the surface, Remains of early 19th century piers Approximately 5 10 feet below the surface. Block 199 Circa 1850 1910 flour mill foundation Depths not known but sensitivity could. remains just south of Old Fulton commence below the first foot beneath the. Street surface, Remains of 19th century storehouse Depths not known but sensitivity could. foundations commence below the first foot beneath the. Block 208 No sensitivity N A,Brooklyn Bridge Park FEIS. Table 7 1 cont d, Potential Historic Period Archaeological Resources in the Project Area. Location Type of Resource Potential Depth Below the Surface. Pre and post 1840 landfilling Top of landfilling devices approximately 5 10. devices timber bulkheads feet below grade Bottom of landfilling devices. approximately 20 25 feet below the surface, Early 19th century piers Approximately 5 10 feet below the surface. Revolutionary War warship Approximately 8 12 feet below the surface. Block 245 remains foot of Joralemon,Street on Lot 15. 19th century warehouse Expected commencing below the first foot. foundations beneath the surface, 19th 20th century South Ferry Expected commencing below the first foot. complex Lot 29 beneath the surface, Pre and post 1840 landfilling Bottom of landfilling devices approximately. devices timber bulkheads 20 25 feet beneath the surface. Figure 7 2,Corresponds to Figures 7 2 through 7 5 Figure 7 3. It is assumed that the first 12 inches beneath the surface has been disturbed by prior development and grading. and does not have the potential to contain significant intact archaeological resources Figure 7 4. The Empire Stores have been subject to a number of archaeological investigations that have yielded information. regarding foundation engineering and uncovered artifacts dating from the 18th 20th centuries The Empire Figure 7 5. Stores Fulton Ferry State Park is listed as an archaeological site with OPRHP. ARCHITECTURAL RESOURCES, The project area contains five architectural resources see Table 7 2 Four of these resources. the Brooklyn Bridge the Manhattan Bridge and portions of the Fulton Ferry and D U M B O. historic districts also extend outside of the project area into the study area The former. National Cold Storage buildings were determined by OPRHP to meet eligibility criteria for. listing on the S NR as part of their review of the proposed project. Brooklyn Bridge NHL S NR NYCL The Brooklyn Bridge spans the East River between. Cadman Plaza Brooklyn and City Hall Park Manhattan The bridge is an instantly recognizable. symbol of New York City and has a strong visual impact on the surrounding neighborhoods. especially the Fulton Ferry Historic District see Figure 7 6 The proposed park would include Figure 7 6. the area underneath the bridge near its Brooklyn tower an area that has largely been already. developed as a public park Construction of the steel suspension bridge was originally. conceived in 1867 by John A Roebling a German immigrant engineer who invented wire cable. and was an accomplished bridge builder When John Roebling died in 1869 from an injury. sustained during construction of the bridge his son Washington took over construction. Although paralyzed by caisson disease in 1872 Washington continued with the help of his. wife Emily to oversee construction of the bridge from the window of a house in Brooklyn. Study Area Section,Block Boundary,Block Number,Lot Boundary. Lot Number,Areas of Potential Archaeological Sensitivity. Commercial Industrial and Landfill Sites Southern Portion. BROOKLYN BRIDGE PARK Figure 7 2,Study Area Section. Block Boundary,Block Number,Lot Boundary,Lot Number. Areas of Potential Archaeological Sensitivity,Timber Bulkheads Southern Portion. BROOKLYN BRIDGE PARK Figure 7 3,Areas of Potential Archaeological Sensitivity. Commercial Industrial and Landfill Sites Northern Portion. BROOKLYN BRIDGE PARK Figure 7 4,Project Area,0 1000 2000. Areas of Potential Archaeological Sensitivity,Timber Bulkheads Northern Portion. BROOKLYN BRIDGE PARK Figure 7 5,Project Area,0 1000 2000. The Brooklyn Bridge view northeast from Old Fulton Street 1a. The Brooklyn Bridge view northwest from Empire Fulton Ferry State Park 1b. Historic Resources Brooklyn Bridge,BROOKLYN BRIDGE PARK Figure 7 6. Chapter 7 Historic Resources, Known Historic Resources in the Project Area and in the Study Area. Ref Pending S NR,No Name Address NYCL SR NR NHL NYCL Eligible. 1 Brooklyn Spans East River X X X X,Bridge between Brooklyn and. 2 Manhattan Spans East River X X,Bridge between Brooklyn and. 3 Fulton Ferry Roughly bounded by the X X X,Historic East River and Doughty. District Water Front and Main,4 D U M B O Roughly bounded by the X X. Historic East River and John,District Street Front and York. Streets Main and,Washington Streets,and Jay and Bridge. 5 Former 66 Furman Street X,Cold Storage,6 Atlantic Runs underground X X. Avenue along Atlantic Avenue,Tunnel between Columbia. Street and Boerum,7 Brooklyn Roughly bounded by X X X X. Heights Cadman Plaza West,Historic Old Fulton Street. District Atlantic Avenue and,Furman Henry Clinton,and Court Streets. 8 Brooklyn City 8 Cadman Plaza West X X X,NYCL New York City Landmark. SR New York State Register of Historic Places,NR National Register of Historic Places. NHL National Historic Landmark, Pending NYCL Site has been considered for a public hearing about its designation as a New York City Landmark or. heard for designation as such, S NR Eligible Site has been found eligible for listing on the New York State and National Registers of Historic. Corresponds to Figure 7 1, LPC has indicated that the entire bridge structure appears to meet criteria for NYCL designation NYCL eligible. The Manhattan Bridge Arch and Colonnade in Manhattan is a NYCL. The Brooklyn City Railroad Company is individually designated as a NYCL It is also included in the Fulton Ferry. Historic District S NR NYCHD, The Brooklyn Bridge was the first physical link between Brooklyn and Manhattan It opened in. 1883 and was the longest suspension bridge at the time of its completion spanning 1 595 5 feet.